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World War I 
“The Great War” 
--the war to end all wars-- 
1914-1918 
Ch. 14.3 & 16.1-3 
Unit 4 
#19
Unit 4 - Study Guide & Important Dates 
+25 points added on to Unit 4 Test 
Honors Classes --- +20pts on Test 
Unit 4 Quiz – Wed, Nov. 26th 
Major Unit Homework – regular & honors 
WWI Posters – Tues, Nov. 25th 
‘All Quiet’ – Mon, Dec. 1st 
Unit 4 WWI Test – Dec. 3 & 4
All Quiet on the Western Front 
-US History Honors- 
Erich Maria Remarque – Author 
(Remark) Motion Pictures 1930/1977/NOW 
Book – 1929 
Banned & Burned in NAZI Germany 
Chapters -- 11 – Remember your #
War Is HELL !!
German Soldier at Verdun
WW I – More people died in one battle 
than in our entire Civil War
Four Main Causes of WW I 
1) Nationalism – Strong feelings people have for 
their own country 
Americans feeling when watching Olympics: 
Michael Phelps wins Gold 
“Extreme Pride for your own country” 
Europe was a small place 
with many Developed 
& Competing Countries
Aggressive Nationalism
2) Imperialism – The struggle or competition 
for colonies around the world
3) International Rivalries 
The nations of Europe wanted to weaken their rivals 
and strengthen alliances 
• Many countries in a small location 
• Build Armies for Defense & Strength 
• This leads to a great “Arms Race” 
Example 
1) Germany’s new navy challenged 
Britain's long standing naval supremacy 
2) Germany’s disciplined army scared its 
neighbors France & Russia
The Dreadnought Battleship 
-the most powerful war machine on earth 
• Br. Started building & Gr. 
quickly followed 
• Started the “Arms Race”
Militarism & Arms Race 
Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., 
A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] 
in millions 
1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 
94 130 154 268 289 398 
1910-1914 Increase in Defense 
Expenditures 
France 10% 
Britain 13% 
Russia 39% 
Germany 73%
World war i 1
4) System of Alliances 
• Attempt by each country to gain security through 
alliances 
tried to find – “Balance of Power” 
• Many Alliances were done in secrecy 
- other countries didn’t know what side you were on 
“entangling alliances” 
Two Main Alliances 
1) Triple Entente – GB,FR,Russia (Allies) 
2) Central Powers – GR, Aust.-Hun. 
Ottoman Empire
The Major Players: 1914-17 
Allied Powers: 
Nicholas II 
[Rus] 
George V [Br] 
Pres. Poincare [Fr] 
Central Powers: 
Wilhelm II [Ger] 
Franz Josef [A-H] 
Enver Pasha 
[O.E/Turkey] 
Victor Emmanuel 
II [It]
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 
The 
“Powder Keg” 
of Europe 
Russia 
A-H 
Ottomans 
All wanted 
control
World war i 1
The “Spark” 
That Starts the 
Great War
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His 
Family – Heir to throne in A-H
The Assassination/ Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip 
Serbian Nationalist 
Wanted to free the 
Slavic people in A-H 
-Liberate the Balkans
Who’s To Blame?
Chain of Events Take Place 
Canvas-overview of the war 
• A-H declares war on Serbia/ July 28, 1914 
• Russia comes to the aid of Serbia 
• Germany declares war on Russia & Fr. 
• Britain stays neutral until Gr. Attacks Belgium/Fr. 
• Italy is drawn in by Allies – land from A-H 
The USA – Neutral 
until 1917
European Countries Mobilize 
for War 
German Women Factory Workers
French Women Factory Workers
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
France Germany Russia Britain 
Millions 
Soldiers Mobilized
New French Recruits
The Schlieffen Plan 
GR. Attacks Fr. Through Belgium 
August 4, 1914
Two Front War Develops 
in Europe 
1) Eastern Front 
Gr. & A-H push deep into Russia - then slows 
2)Western Front 
Gr. Attacks France through Belgium 
1st Battle of the Marne 
- Allies stop the Gr. Offensive just outside of 
Paris as the attack bogs down 
Trench War – Stalemate (attack-retreat)
No Man’s Land / “Going Over the Top”
German trenches
Major Trench Battles in WWI 
1) Battle of Verdun (Feb-July 1916) 
A sacred place for the French 
“Battle of Attrition” 
1 million men – killed/wounded/missing 
2) Battle of the Somme (July-Nov 1916) 
started to take pressure off of Verdun 
60,000 Br. Casualties in one day 
1 million killed
Somme Battlefield Map 
Verdun is slightly south
The Somme – July, 1916 
e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. 
e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
Trench Warfare 
“No Man’s Land”
Europe in 1914
Trench with French soldiers
German 
remains at 
Verdun 
Dead French 
soldiers in the 
Argonne
The Western Front by 1916
The Central Powers end up Fighting a Two Front War
Fighting Took place in the 
Colonies too - Africa 
British Sikh 
Mountain Gunners 
Black Soldiers in the 
German Schutztruppen 
[German E. Africa]
T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia) 
& the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
Sacrifices of Soldiers in War
Development of Pilates 
• Joseph Pilates – Born in Germany 
• Wanted to help injured soldiers regain 
confidence & control of their lives after 
suffering debilitating injuries on the Front 
• This became the core strengthening workout 
used today
The Shell-Shattered Area of Chateau Wood, Flanders
Scene in the trenches
Looking out from the entrance of a A A A 
Captured Pill-Box on the Shell 
Ravaged Battlefield
Weapons of War 
The Great War saw destruction on the 
field of battle like never before 
1) Old-Fashioned Strategies 
2) New Technologies 
(On the next slides note many new technologies of the War)
German U-Boats
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
Poison Gas Attacks
The three main types of 
Poison Gas – don’t write down 
Chlorine - a greenish, yellow heavier than air gas which in its 
pure form is an oxidizing agent. This means that it will react in the 
presence of water to cause a chemical burning effect on organic 
matter. 
Phosgene - a colorless, odorless, heavier than air gas formed 
by heating carbon tetrachloride. It is highly poisonous in that it 
will preferentially replace oxygen in the cells and quickly causes 
an oxygen debt within the body, unconsciousness and death. 
Mustard gas - gas with a distinctive mustard smell, it causes 
blistering and huge sores on any exposed tissue, internal or 
external.
Effects of Mustard Gas
Gas attack seen from an airplane
Gas masks 
for man 
and horse 
demonstrated by 
American soldier 
America never used 
poison gas on our 
enemies
Russians fighting while under gas attack
Machine Guns 
shoot thousands of bullets per minute
German machine gun trench
Barbed Wire
Flamethrowers
Phosphorus Grenade Exploding
Periscope Rifle
Krupp 420mm howitzer
Krupp railroad gun “Big Bertha” 
-named after his wife / hard to locate on rail / could shoot 
over 60 miles from behind German Lines
British Mark I tank
French Renault Tank
The Zeppelin
The Airplane 
“Squadron Over the Brenta” 
Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Curtis-Martin 
U. S. Aircraft Plant
The Flying Aces of World War I 
Eddie 
Rickenbacher, 
US 
Francesco 
Barraco, It. 
Rene Pauk 
Fonck, Fr. 
Manfred von 
Richtoffen, Ger. 
[The {Red 
Baron}”] 
Willy Coppens 
de 
Holthust, Belg. 
Eddie “Mick” 
Mannoch, Br.
Looking for the “Red Baron”
'Who are they? What are they?' asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo. 'I 
don't know,' said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. 'But I have seen them too. In the 
pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep under 
the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many 
faces proud and fair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.' 
Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. 'I know not who they are…' 
"Yes, yes,' said Gollum. 'All dead, all rotten…There was a great battle long 
ago....‘ 
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
The Cause of the First World War 
& Map - Homework 
• Answer the 10 Questions 
• Include the 6 Questions from the WWI Map
WW I – Film 
Identify the following from the film : 
1. Otto Dix 
2. “The Furnace”- The Battle of Verdun 
3. Pals 
4. The Battle of the Somme 
5. Motion Picture – The Battle of the Somme
Otto Dix / German Soldier 
turned artist

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World war i 1

  • 1. World War I “The Great War” --the war to end all wars-- 1914-1918 Ch. 14.3 & 16.1-3 Unit 4 #19
  • 2. Unit 4 - Study Guide & Important Dates +25 points added on to Unit 4 Test Honors Classes --- +20pts on Test Unit 4 Quiz – Wed, Nov. 26th Major Unit Homework – regular & honors WWI Posters – Tues, Nov. 25th ‘All Quiet’ – Mon, Dec. 1st Unit 4 WWI Test – Dec. 3 & 4
  • 3. All Quiet on the Western Front -US History Honors- Erich Maria Remarque – Author (Remark) Motion Pictures 1930/1977/NOW Book – 1929 Banned & Burned in NAZI Germany Chapters -- 11 – Remember your #
  • 6. WW I – More people died in one battle than in our entire Civil War
  • 7. Four Main Causes of WW I 1) Nationalism – Strong feelings people have for their own country Americans feeling when watching Olympics: Michael Phelps wins Gold “Extreme Pride for your own country” Europe was a small place with many Developed & Competing Countries
  • 9. 2) Imperialism – The struggle or competition for colonies around the world
  • 10. 3) International Rivalries The nations of Europe wanted to weaken their rivals and strengthen alliances • Many countries in a small location • Build Armies for Defense & Strength • This leads to a great “Arms Race” Example 1) Germany’s new navy challenged Britain's long standing naval supremacy 2) Germany’s disciplined army scared its neighbors France & Russia
  • 11. The Dreadnought Battleship -the most powerful war machine on earth • Br. Started building & Gr. quickly followed • Started the “Arms Race”
  • 12. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%
  • 14. 4) System of Alliances • Attempt by each country to gain security through alliances tried to find – “Balance of Power” • Many Alliances were done in secrecy - other countries didn’t know what side you were on “entangling alliances” Two Main Alliances 1) Triple Entente – GB,FR,Russia (Allies) 2) Central Powers – GR, Aust.-Hun. Ottoman Empire
  • 15. The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Central Powers: Wilhelm II [Ger] Franz Josef [A-H] Enver Pasha [O.E/Turkey] Victor Emmanuel II [It]
  • 16. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe Russia A-H Ottomans All wanted control
  • 18. The “Spark” That Starts the Great War
  • 19. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family – Heir to throne in A-H
  • 21. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Serbian Nationalist Wanted to free the Slavic people in A-H -Liberate the Balkans
  • 23. Chain of Events Take Place Canvas-overview of the war • A-H declares war on Serbia/ July 28, 1914 • Russia comes to the aid of Serbia • Germany declares war on Russia & Fr. • Britain stays neutral until Gr. Attacks Belgium/Fr. • Italy is drawn in by Allies – land from A-H The USA – Neutral until 1917
  • 24. European Countries Mobilize for War German Women Factory Workers
  • 26. 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 France Germany Russia Britain Millions Soldiers Mobilized
  • 28. The Schlieffen Plan GR. Attacks Fr. Through Belgium August 4, 1914
  • 29. Two Front War Develops in Europe 1) Eastern Front Gr. & A-H push deep into Russia - then slows 2)Western Front Gr. Attacks France through Belgium 1st Battle of the Marne - Allies stop the Gr. Offensive just outside of Paris as the attack bogs down Trench War – Stalemate (attack-retreat)
  • 30. No Man’s Land / “Going Over the Top”
  • 32. Major Trench Battles in WWI 1) Battle of Verdun (Feb-July 1916) A sacred place for the French “Battle of Attrition” 1 million men – killed/wounded/missing 2) Battle of the Somme (July-Nov 1916) started to take pressure off of Verdun 60,000 Br. Casualties in one day 1 million killed
  • 33. Somme Battlefield Map Verdun is slightly south
  • 34. The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
  • 35. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
  • 37. Trench with French soldiers
  • 38. German remains at Verdun Dead French soldiers in the Argonne
  • 39. The Western Front by 1916
  • 40. The Central Powers end up Fighting a Two Front War
  • 41. Fighting Took place in the Colonies too - Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  • 42. T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia) & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  • 44. Development of Pilates • Joseph Pilates – Born in Germany • Wanted to help injured soldiers regain confidence & control of their lives after suffering debilitating injuries on the Front • This became the core strengthening workout used today
  • 45. The Shell-Shattered Area of Chateau Wood, Flanders
  • 46. Scene in the trenches
  • 47. Looking out from the entrance of a A A A Captured Pill-Box on the Shell Ravaged Battlefield
  • 48. Weapons of War The Great War saw destruction on the field of battle like never before 1) Old-Fashioned Strategies 2) New Technologies (On the next slides note many new technologies of the War)
  • 50. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  • 52. The three main types of Poison Gas – don’t write down Chlorine - a greenish, yellow heavier than air gas which in its pure form is an oxidizing agent. This means that it will react in the presence of water to cause a chemical burning effect on organic matter. Phosgene - a colorless, odorless, heavier than air gas formed by heating carbon tetrachloride. It is highly poisonous in that it will preferentially replace oxygen in the cells and quickly causes an oxygen debt within the body, unconsciousness and death. Mustard gas - gas with a distinctive mustard smell, it causes blistering and huge sores on any exposed tissue, internal or external.
  • 54. Gas attack seen from an airplane
  • 55. Gas masks for man and horse demonstrated by American soldier America never used poison gas on our enemies
  • 56. Russians fighting while under gas attack
  • 57. Machine Guns shoot thousands of bullets per minute
  • 64. Krupp railroad gun “Big Bertha” -named after his wife / hard to locate on rail / could shoot over 60 miles from behind German Lines
  • 68. The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  • 69. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
  • 70. The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The {Red Baron}”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
  • 71. Looking for the “Red Baron”
  • 72. 'Who are they? What are they?' asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo. 'I don't know,' said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. 'But I have seen them too. In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.' Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. 'I know not who they are…' "Yes, yes,' said Gollum. 'All dead, all rotten…There was a great battle long ago....‘ - J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
  • 73. The Cause of the First World War & Map - Homework • Answer the 10 Questions • Include the 6 Questions from the WWI Map
  • 74. WW I – Film Identify the following from the film : 1. Otto Dix 2. “The Furnace”- The Battle of Verdun 3. Pals 4. The Battle of the Somme 5. Motion Picture – The Battle of the Somme
  • 75. Otto Dix / German Soldier turned artist