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Adam Doupé, Marco Cova and Giovanni Vigna
          University of California, Santa Barbara
                             DIMVA 2010 - 7/8/10
   Introduction to black box web vulnerability
    scanners
   Design of custom vulnerable website –
    WackoPicko
   Results
   Analysis
   Describe the design of a testing web
    application

   Identify a number of challenges that scanners
    need to overcome when testing modern web
    applications

   Test the performance of eleven real-world
    scanners and identify areas that need further
    work
Server




Crawler      Attack   Analysis
   Authentication
   Upload Pictures
   Comment on Pictures
   “Purchase” Pictures
   Tag Search
   Guestbook
   Admin Area
   XSS
    ◦ Reflected, Stored, and Reflected behind JavaScript
   Session ID
   Weak Password
   Reflected SQL Injection
   Command Line Injection
   File Inclusion
   File Exposure
   Parameter Manipulation
   Reflected XSS behind Flash
   Stored SQL Injection
   Directory Traversal
   Multi-step Stored XSS
   Forceful Browsing
   Logic Flaw
   HTML Parsing
   Multi-Step Process / State
   Infinite Website
   Authentication
   Client-side Code
    ◦ Web Input Vector Extractor Teaser (WIVET)
Name           Price
Acunetix       $4,995 - $6,350
AppScan        $12,550 - $32,500
Burp           £125 ($190.82)
Grendel-Scan   Open source
Hailstorm      $10,000
Milescan       $495 - $1,495
N-Stalker      $899 - $6,299
NTOSpider      $10,000
Paros          Open source
w3af           Open source
Webinspect     $6,000 - $30,000
   Each scanner run four times:
    ◦ WackoPicko
      Initial – No configuration (point and click)
      Config – Given valid Username/Password
      Manual – Used proxy to thoroughly browse site.

    ◦ WIVET – Testing JavaScript capabilities

   Limitations
Name         Reflected   Stored     SQL         Command     File        File        XSS via      XSS via
             XSS         XSS        Injection   line        Inclusion   Exposure    JavaScript   Flash
                                                Injection

 Acunetix      Initial    Initial     Initial                 Initial     Initial     Initial

 AppScan       Initial    Initial     Initial                 Initial     Initial

  Burp         Initial   Manual       Initial     Initial                 Initial                Manual

 Grendel-
              Manual                 Config
   Scan

Hailstorm      Initial   Config      Config                                                      Manual

 Milescan      Initial   Manual      Config

N-Stalker      Initial   Manual      Manual                               Initial     Initial    Manual

NTOSpider      Initial    Initial     Initial

  Paros        Initial    Initial    Config                                                      Manual

  w3af         Initial   Manual       Initial                 Initial                            Manual

Webinspect     Initial    Initial     Initial                 Initial                 Initial    Manual
Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners
   Missed by all scanners
    ◦   Session ID
    ◦   Weak Password
    ◦   Parameter Manipulation
    ◦   Forceful Browsing
    ◦   Logic Flaw
   Will discuss later
    ◦ Stored SQL Injection
    ◦ Directory Traversal
    ◦ Stored XSS Behind Login
   Ranged from 0 to 200+
    ◦ Average was ~25
   Why?
    ◦ Server Path Disclosure
   “Actual” False Positives
    ◦ Hailstorm
      XSS, 2 Code Injection
    ◦ NTOSpider
      3 XSS
    ◦ w3af
      PHP eval() Injection
   Strictly Dominates
More
Dominant




Less
Dominant
   Default values
   XSS attacks
   Command-line Injection
   SQL Injection
   File Exposure
   Remote Code Execution
   Number of Accesses
    ◦ Range from ~50 per page to ~3,000 per page
    ◦ Hailstorm accessed vulnerable pages that required an
      account on INITIAL scan!

   HTML
    ◦ Burp and N-Stalker
      <TEXTAREA>
    ◦ Milescan and Grendel-Scan
      POST
    ◦ Hailstorm
      No-Injection
    ◦ w3af
      No Default
   Uploading a Picture
    ◦ 2 Scanners uploaded without help

    ◦ 3 Scanners unable to upload one!
   WIVET
    ◦ 3 Scanners couldn’t complete
      Paros and Burp - <base>
      N-Stalker – Frame?
    ◦ Dynamic JavaScript
      Webinspect, Acunetix, NTOSpider, Hailstorm
    ◦ JavaScript library
    ◦ No Flash
   Created an account successfully
    ◦ 4 Scanners
        Hailstorm
        N-Stalker
        NTOSpider
        WebInspect
   Incorporate lots of logging in the application
   Two versions of the site
    ◦ No vulnerabilities
    ◦ All vulnerabilities
   Script running the tests
   Include:
    ◦ File upload forms
    ◦ AJAX
    ◦ Several JavaScript UI Libraries
   Ability to crawl as important as detection

   Many vulnerabilities cannot be detected

   Cost not directly proportional to functionality
Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners
Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners

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Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-box Web Vulnerability Scanners

  • 1. Adam Doupé, Marco Cova and Giovanni Vigna University of California, Santa Barbara DIMVA 2010 - 7/8/10
  • 2. Introduction to black box web vulnerability scanners  Design of custom vulnerable website – WackoPicko  Results  Analysis
  • 3. Describe the design of a testing web application  Identify a number of challenges that scanners need to overcome when testing modern web applications  Test the performance of eleven real-world scanners and identify areas that need further work
  • 4. Server Crawler Attack Analysis
  • 5. Authentication  Upload Pictures  Comment on Pictures  “Purchase” Pictures  Tag Search  Guestbook  Admin Area
  • 6. XSS ◦ Reflected, Stored, and Reflected behind JavaScript  Session ID  Weak Password  Reflected SQL Injection  Command Line Injection  File Inclusion  File Exposure  Parameter Manipulation
  • 7. Reflected XSS behind Flash  Stored SQL Injection  Directory Traversal  Multi-step Stored XSS  Forceful Browsing  Logic Flaw
  • 8. HTML Parsing  Multi-Step Process / State  Infinite Website  Authentication  Client-side Code ◦ Web Input Vector Extractor Teaser (WIVET)
  • 9. Name Price Acunetix $4,995 - $6,350 AppScan $12,550 - $32,500 Burp £125 ($190.82) Grendel-Scan Open source Hailstorm $10,000 Milescan $495 - $1,495 N-Stalker $899 - $6,299 NTOSpider $10,000 Paros Open source w3af Open source Webinspect $6,000 - $30,000
  • 10. Each scanner run four times: ◦ WackoPicko  Initial – No configuration (point and click)  Config – Given valid Username/Password  Manual – Used proxy to thoroughly browse site. ◦ WIVET – Testing JavaScript capabilities  Limitations
  • 11. Name Reflected Stored SQL Command File File XSS via XSS via XSS XSS Injection line Inclusion Exposure JavaScript Flash Injection Acunetix Initial Initial Initial Initial Initial Initial AppScan Initial Initial Initial Initial Initial Burp Initial Manual Initial Initial Initial Manual Grendel- Manual Config Scan Hailstorm Initial Config Config Manual Milescan Initial Manual Config N-Stalker Initial Manual Manual Initial Initial Manual NTOSpider Initial Initial Initial Paros Initial Initial Config Manual w3af Initial Manual Initial Initial Manual Webinspect Initial Initial Initial Initial Initial Manual
  • 13. Missed by all scanners ◦ Session ID ◦ Weak Password ◦ Parameter Manipulation ◦ Forceful Browsing ◦ Logic Flaw  Will discuss later ◦ Stored SQL Injection ◦ Directory Traversal ◦ Stored XSS Behind Login
  • 14. Ranged from 0 to 200+ ◦ Average was ~25  Why? ◦ Server Path Disclosure  “Actual” False Positives ◦ Hailstorm  XSS, 2 Code Injection ◦ NTOSpider  3 XSS ◦ w3af  PHP eval() Injection
  • 15. Strictly Dominates
  • 17. Default values  XSS attacks  Command-line Injection  SQL Injection  File Exposure  Remote Code Execution
  • 18. Number of Accesses ◦ Range from ~50 per page to ~3,000 per page ◦ Hailstorm accessed vulnerable pages that required an account on INITIAL scan!  HTML ◦ Burp and N-Stalker  <TEXTAREA> ◦ Milescan and Grendel-Scan  POST ◦ Hailstorm  No-Injection ◦ w3af  No Default
  • 19. Uploading a Picture ◦ 2 Scanners uploaded without help ◦ 3 Scanners unable to upload one!
  • 20. WIVET ◦ 3 Scanners couldn’t complete  Paros and Burp - <base>  N-Stalker – Frame? ◦ Dynamic JavaScript  Webinspect, Acunetix, NTOSpider, Hailstorm ◦ JavaScript library ◦ No Flash
  • 21. Created an account successfully ◦ 4 Scanners  Hailstorm  N-Stalker  NTOSpider  WebInspect
  • 22. Incorporate lots of logging in the application  Two versions of the site ◦ No vulnerabilities ◦ All vulnerabilities  Script running the tests  Include: ◦ File upload forms ◦ AJAX ◦ Several JavaScript UI Libraries
  • 23. Ability to crawl as important as detection  Many vulnerabilities cannot be detected  Cost not directly proportional to functionality