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IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21
This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission
IEP AND CURRICULUM ADAPTATIONS
Summary:
1. Defining the concept of the IEP p. 02
2. Curriculum adaptations p. 03
3. Collecting some ways of working in this area p. 05
4. Bibliography p. 10
Abstract
The inclusive school should promote opportunities and attend to diversity. To do that,
organisational and pedagogical changes are necessary.
The aim of this study is to review the concept of the IEP and its importance, as well as
to clarify the idea of “curriculum adaptations”.
1. Defining the concept of IEP
An IEP is a written plan developed for a pupil who has been identified as having a
problem (physical, sensory, intellectual, emotional, social, or any combination of these
problems) which affects the learning and which leads to the need of a special or
modified curriculum or conditions of learning specially adapted. This means a working
document is the main tool for collaborative planning between the school team, the
parents and the pupil.
• IEP development
In order to know if a pupil needs an IEP, a multidisciplinary team of professionals
evaluates him based on their observations, the pupil’s performances on standardised
tests and daily work.
Afterwards, when the pupil has been identified as having special needs, another team
should be formed. The members of this team should be chosen on their ability to
provide information or support the pupil’s programme.
The participants usually include: a regular teacher, a specialised teacher, other
professionals (a psychologist, different therapists), parents and, sometimes, the pupil.
Parents should be encouraged to be actively involved in decisions regarding
educational services for their children. They provide a unique perspective about the
pupil’s personality, development and learning. Open communication and cooperation
between home and school increases the opportunities for pupils with special needs to
experience success.
When the IEP team is formed, a member of the team should be assigned as the
coordinator, in order to lead its development and implementation.
This important document should contain:
• essential information about the pupil, including relevant medical, social and
educational background information;
• degree of participation in the regular programme;
• the areas in which the pupil needs programme adaptations and/or modification goals:
• required classroom accommodations;
• adjustments in the evaluation processes;
• individual plan considering transition into active life;
• IEP evaluation (criteria, tools, timetable and review).
Usually the services and goals outlined in an IEP can be provided in a standard school
environment. They can be done in the regular classroom or in a special resource room
in the regular school. The resource room can serve a group of pupils with similar needs
who are brought together for help.
2. Curriculum adaptations
• Concept of curriculum
Roldão (1999) considers the curriculum as a process of construction, management
and reflexive training focused on school. The right of everyone, without exception, to a
2
quality education makes it necessary to reinvent the school so that it can offer and
build a differentiated and meaningful curriculum that allows the realisation of such an
“Inclusive School, School for All”.
According to Bertram, Fotheringham and Harley (2000), a curriculum could be
understood in the following two ways:
• first, … as a plan (which may be written as a document). This plan reflects the
knowledge, skills and attitudes that any society chooses to pass on their pupils.
• second, … as the learning and teaching experiences that happen in any site of
education.
Therefore, a curriculum is a carefully planned and well written document which
explicitly reflects the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes of societies that are
intended to be passed to or mediated to the future generation, comprising both the old
and the young.
As we believe that everybody has the right to attend school and develop different skills,
we have to pay the same attention to everybody. So, we need to adapt curricula
according to the special needs of all the pupils.
• Curriculum adaptations
Curriculum adaptations are modifications related specifically to instruction or content of
a curriculum. They are not intended to lower the education standards. The curriculum is
thus adapted to make education accessible to everyone.
The scale and extent of curriculum adaptations and modifications will only be
determined after a thorough assessment of an individual pupil.
An individualised learning programme and work schedule with its related lesson plans
should be devised on the basis of the needs of visually impaired pupils. Adaptation at
lesson plan level will be required for all pupils in a class who need specific additional
support because of their disabilities. Those involved in this process must include the
teachers, parents, school team and relevant professionals.
There are different types of curriculum adaptations:
3
• Quantity: adapt the number of items or the number of activities;
• Time: individualise a timeline for completing a task;
• Level of support: increase/decrease the amount of personal assistance;
• Input: adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner;
• Difficulty: adapt the skill level, problem type or rules;
• Output: adapt the way the pupil can respond to instruction;
• Participation: adapt the extent to which a pupil is actively involved in the task;
• Alternative goals: adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same
materials;
• Functional curriculum: provide different instruction and materials to reach a pupil’s
individual goals; this is only for pupils with moderate to severe disabilities.
Certainly curriculum adaptations are not intended the education standards. Curriculum
is adapted to make education more accessible and to ensure that pupils with special
needs do not face prejudices or are treated unfairly. Learning problems, working
schedules and lesson plans can be modified and adapted to respond to the individual
needs of pupils.
The scale and scope of curriculum adaptations and modifications will only be
determined after an assessment of one individual pupil. An individualised learning
program and work schedule with its related lesson plans should be devised on the
basis of need for visually impaired pupils. Adaptation at lesson level plan will be
required for all pupils in a class who need specific additional support because of their
disabilities. Those involved in this process must include teachers, parents, school-
based and district-based support teams (when they exist). Other relevant professionals
from the community can be consulted too.
3. Collecting some ways of working in these areas:
In Catalonia
A pupil who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as a special
needs pupil is the perfect candidate for an IEP, for reasons such as:
o learning disabilities
o attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
o emotional disorders
4
o mental retardation
o autism
o hearing impairment
o visual impairment
o speech or language impairment
o development delay
o ...
In most cases, the services and goals outlined in an IEP can be provided in a standard
school environment. This can be done in the regular classroom (for example, a teacher
helping a small group of pupils who need extra assistance while the other pupils in the
class are reading with the regular teacher) or in a special resource room in the regular
school.
The resource room can serve a group of pupils with similar needs who are brought
together for help.
However, pupils who need intense intervention may be taught in a special school
environment. These classes have fewer pupils per teacher, allowing for more
individualised attention. In addition, the teacher usually has specific training in helping
pupils with special educational needs. The pupils spend most of their day in a special
classroom and join the regular classes for non-academic activities (like music and gym)
or in academic activities in which they do not need extra help.
In Austria
A pupil who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as having
special needs has to have an Individual educational plan (law from November 2008) for
reasons such as:
o learning disabilities
o attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
o emotional disorders
o mental retardation
o autism
5
o hearing impairment
o visual impairment
o speech or language impairment
o development delay
o ...
In most cases, the services and goals outlined in an IEP can be provided in a standard
school environment, some of them (e.g. speech therapy …) are held in a special
resource room in the regular school.
Since November 2008 rough guidelines exist for the development of an individual
educational plan for pupils with SEN.
Those guidelines encompass:
• Collaborative planning (parents, teachers, other professionals …) based on the
assessment
• Regular evaluation
• Curriculum adaptations
There are no STANDARDS for Individual Educational Plans yet in Austria but experts
are already demanding such standards.
The classroom teacher is responsible for the IEP – in regular classes this is the regular
teacher and in integration classes it is the teacher for special needs education.
Curriculum adaptations and individualisation however are a major issue in the regular
curriculum in Austria in order to attend to the needs of the individual pupil. It is
mandatory for every teacher to adapt the curriculum and the planning to the needs of
all pupils in a class.
However, pupils who need intense intervention may be taught in a special school
environment. Parents in Austria can choose between integration and segregation in
special schools.
Special classes have fewer pupils per teacher, allowing for more individualised
attention. In addition, the teacher usually has specific training in helping pupils with
special educational needs.
6
In Belgium
A pupil who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as a special
needs has to have an Individual educational plan (law from 2007 March 3rd
)
Definition of the IEP in Belgian French speaking Community:
I.E.P.: (In French: Plan individuel d'apprentissage (P.I.A.)) : It is a methodological tool
written and designed for each pupil and adjusted throughout his schooling by the Staff
meeting, on the basis of the observations provided by its various members and data
communicated by the organisation of guidance of the pupils. It enumerates particular
objectives to reach during one given period. It is starting from the data of the IEP that
each member of the multi-field team implements the work of education, rehabilitation
and training. Through the IEP the pupil and his parents can be associated with his
development.
The mission statements for the staff meeting in charge of the guidance of the pupils are
as follows:
1. to work out and adjust for each pupil, an individual plan of training which
coordinates the teaching activities, ancillary medical, social and psychological;
2. to evaluate progress and the results of each pupil in order to adjust the
individual plan of training;
3. the members of the Staff meeting ensure the weekly management of the
individual plan of training of each one of its pupils during the periods of staff
meeting envisaged in their grid-schedule.
4. to evaluate each pupil in a formative way and continue with regard to the
understanding of the pupil in order to adjust the individual plan of training as
required;
The director of the class ensures the weekly management of the individual plan of
training of each one of his pupils during the periods envisaged in his schedule.
The team work allows the coordination and the exchange of information between the
various members of the ancillary medical, social and psychological team. For their
7
participation in the staff meeting, part of this time is reserved for the preparation of
these meetings and the drafting or the adjustment of the individual plan of training of
the pupils of which they have the responsibility.
In Portugal
The organisational model of care for children with specific educational needs recently
implemented by the Ministry of Education, centred on the so-called CIF, is nothing
more than a return to the medical model abandoned as inefficient in the 80s; here, the
attendance is determined from a list of illnesses which, if existent, may not require any
educational intervention and will leave a significant number of pupils without but
requiring educational intervention.
However, every pupil who has been identified as a special needs pupil requires an IEP
which is coordinated by the director of the class.
The services and goals outlined in an IEP are provided in a standard school
environment, in a regular classroom or in a special resource room.
This new law has launched the reference schools for special disabilities (deafness,
blindness, autism …). Specialised professionals and specific resources are gathered at
these schools.
In the United Kingdom
In the UK all pupils have a Personal Education Plan (PEP): pupils identified as
requiring statutory assessment where their needs are greater will have an IEP. This is
reviewed annually by the team of professionals involved with the pupil. The IEP
contains goals and measurable targets which can be added by the class teacher.
Where the IEP has no direct relationship to a particular subject area some pupils will be
given an individual IEP for that subject and it will contain more meaningful targets.
Pupils will discuss their PEPs with the class teacher either as part of the class day or in
some schools on ‘Mentor Day’ on a termly basis. The latter enables the class teacher
to have longer to talk with the pupil to understand the pupil’s perception of his work
compared with the teachers. Together they agree a minimum of three goals to be
achieved in the term.
Bibliography
8
Austria and Belgium
Diana Browning Wright, Teaching & Learning 2005
Drave, Wolfgang; Rumpler, Franz; Wachtel, Peter (Hrsg.) 2000:
Empfehlungen zur sonderpädagogischen Förderung. Allgemeine
Grundlagen und Förderschwerpunkte (KMK)
Eggert, Dietrich 1997: Von den Stärken ausgehen. Individuelle
Entwicklungspläne (IEP) in der Lernförderungsdiagnostik.
Dortmund: borgmann publishing
Kretschmann, Rudolf 1999: Leitfaden für Förder- und
Entwicklungspläne. Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik 9/99
Ministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur
2002: Lehrplan Sonderpädagogische Förderung
Mutzeck, Wolfgang (Hrsg.) 2002: Förderdiagnostik. Konzepte
und Methoden. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz Verlag
Mutzeck, Wolfgang (Hrsg.) 2000: Förderplanung. Grundlagen –
Methoden – Alternativen. Weinheim: Deutscher Studienverlag
- Web sites:
DR. M.O. Maguvhe
Co-ordinator Education Services
http://www.sancb.org.za/Images/think%20tank.%20Obert.pdf
http://www.grandviewlibrary.org/CurriculumAdaptations/NineTypes.pdf
US department of education
http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html
Nemours foundation
http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/iep.html
Ministry of Education – British Columbia
http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/iepssn/
http://sonderpaedagogik.lernnetz.de/foerderplan-Dateien/handreichung-
foerderplan.doc
Community Integration Sonderpädagogik – CIS online
http://www.cisonline.at/index.php?id=102
Catalonia
-Ainscow, M. (2004). Desarrollo de escuelas inclusivas: Ideas, propuestas y
experiencias para mejorar las instituciones escolares. Madrid. Narcea.
-Huguet, T. (2006). Aprendre junts a l’aula. Barcelona. Graó.
-Pujolàs, P. (2003). Aprendre junts alumnes diferents. Vic. Eumo.
-School Regulation about this area.
9
-RESOLUCIÓ de 30 de juny de 2008 per la qual s’aproven les instruccions per a
l’organització i el funcionament dels centres educatius públics d’educació infantil i
primària i d’educació especial per al curs 2008-2009.
- RESOLUCIÓ de 30 de juny de 2008 per la qual s’aproven les instruccions per a
l’organització i el funcionament dels centres educatius públics d’educació secundària
per al curs 2008-2009.
-RESOLUCIÓ de 29 de juliol de 2008 per la qual s’aproven les instruccions per a
l’organització i el funcionament dels serveis educatius (CRP, EAP, ELIC, CREDA i
CdA) i del Programa de mestres itinerants per a deficients visuals per al curs 2008-
2009.
-Web sites:
Catalonia
http://www.xtec.cat/dnee
http://www.xtec.cat/eap
http://www.xtec.cat/creda
http://phobos.xtec.es/sgfprp/resum.php?codi=983
http://www.xtec.es/sgfp/llicencies/200405/memories/983m.pdf
European Agency for Development in special needs Education:
http://www.inclusion-europe.org
Toronto
http://www.inclusion.com
Portugal
Bautista, R. (1997). Necessidades Educativas Especiais. Dinalivro: Lisboa.
Correia, L. M. (1997). Alunos com Necessidades Educativas Especiais nas Classes Regulares. Colecção
Educação Especial. Porto: Porto Editora.
Foreman, P. & Arthur, M. (2002). Parental perspectives on educational programmes for students with high
support needs. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17, pp. 175–84.
Foreman, P., Arthur-Kelly, M., Pascoe, S. & Smyth King, B. (2004). Evaluating the educational
experiences of students with profound and multiple disabilities in inclusive and segregated
classroom settings: an Australian perspective. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe
Disabilities, 29 (3), pp. 183–93.
Guess, D., Roberts, S. & Rues, J. (2002). Longitudinal analysis of state patterns and related variables
among infants and children with significant disabilities. Research & Practice for Persons with
Severe Disabilities, 27 (2), pp. 112–24.
Landivar, J. & Hernandez, R.(1993). Adaptações Curriculumes. Editorial CEPE, SL.
Mantoan, M. T. (2000). Integrar ou Incluir? http.//www.caleidoscopio.aleph.com.br./forum.htm
10
Marchesi, A. & Martín, E. (1990). Da terminologia do Distúrbio às Necessidades Educativas Especiais. In,
COLL et al. Desenvolvimento Psicológico e Educação: Necessidades Educativas Especiais e
Aprendizagem Escolar. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas.
Pacheco, J. A. (2001). Teoria Curriculum Critica: Os dilemas (e contradições) dos Educadores Críticos.
N.º 1. Lisboa: Revista Portuguesa de Educação.
Roldão, M. C. (1999). Os Professores e a Gestão do Currículo - Perspectiva e Práticas em Análise.
Colecção “Cidine”. Porto: Porto Editora.
Tadeu B. (2000). A inclusão dos portadores de necessidades especiais no atual contexto sócio-
educacional. Revista da Educação, v. 3, n. 17, 2002.
Sigafoos, J., Arthur-Kelly, M. & Butterfield, N. (2006). Enhancing Everyday Communication for Children
with Disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
WARNOCK, M. et al. (1978). Special Educational Needs. Report of Committee of Enquiry into the
Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. London: HMSO.
United Kingdom
http://www.dfes.gov.uk
Credits
Coordinator: Natália Cabral *****,
Team: Jean-Claude DeVreese*,
Eva Bernart **, Carme Mnegril Falcó***,Jenny Evans****, Jane
Brodin*******, Ana-Lena Ljusberg*******, ******Elisa Chaleta
* Service Général de L’ Inspection/ Inspection de L’Enseignement Spécialisé (BE);
**Centre for Special Needs Education (AT); ***Generalitat de Catalunya. Serveis
Territorials a Tarragona (ES); ****Devon County Council (UK); *****Agrupamento
de Escolas Eugénio de Andrade/Paranhos (PT) ; ******Universidade de Évora,(PT),
Centro de Investigação em Educação e Psicologia, Portugal; *******Stockholm
University, Department of Child and Youth Studies (SE)
11

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Tt iep and ca - english[1]

  • 1. IRIS 128735-CP-1-2006-1-BE-COMENIUS-C21 This Comenius project has been funded with support from the European Commission IEP AND CURRICULUM ADAPTATIONS Summary: 1. Defining the concept of the IEP p. 02 2. Curriculum adaptations p. 03 3. Collecting some ways of working in this area p. 05 4. Bibliography p. 10 Abstract The inclusive school should promote opportunities and attend to diversity. To do that, organisational and pedagogical changes are necessary. The aim of this study is to review the concept of the IEP and its importance, as well as to clarify the idea of “curriculum adaptations”. 1. Defining the concept of IEP An IEP is a written plan developed for a pupil who has been identified as having a problem (physical, sensory, intellectual, emotional, social, or any combination of these problems) which affects the learning and which leads to the need of a special or modified curriculum or conditions of learning specially adapted. This means a working document is the main tool for collaborative planning between the school team, the parents and the pupil. • IEP development In order to know if a pupil needs an IEP, a multidisciplinary team of professionals evaluates him based on their observations, the pupil’s performances on standardised tests and daily work.
  • 2. Afterwards, when the pupil has been identified as having special needs, another team should be formed. The members of this team should be chosen on their ability to provide information or support the pupil’s programme. The participants usually include: a regular teacher, a specialised teacher, other professionals (a psychologist, different therapists), parents and, sometimes, the pupil. Parents should be encouraged to be actively involved in decisions regarding educational services for their children. They provide a unique perspective about the pupil’s personality, development and learning. Open communication and cooperation between home and school increases the opportunities for pupils with special needs to experience success. When the IEP team is formed, a member of the team should be assigned as the coordinator, in order to lead its development and implementation. This important document should contain: • essential information about the pupil, including relevant medical, social and educational background information; • degree of participation in the regular programme; • the areas in which the pupil needs programme adaptations and/or modification goals: • required classroom accommodations; • adjustments in the evaluation processes; • individual plan considering transition into active life; • IEP evaluation (criteria, tools, timetable and review). Usually the services and goals outlined in an IEP can be provided in a standard school environment. They can be done in the regular classroom or in a special resource room in the regular school. The resource room can serve a group of pupils with similar needs who are brought together for help. 2. Curriculum adaptations • Concept of curriculum Roldão (1999) considers the curriculum as a process of construction, management and reflexive training focused on school. The right of everyone, without exception, to a 2
  • 3. quality education makes it necessary to reinvent the school so that it can offer and build a differentiated and meaningful curriculum that allows the realisation of such an “Inclusive School, School for All”. According to Bertram, Fotheringham and Harley (2000), a curriculum could be understood in the following two ways: • first, … as a plan (which may be written as a document). This plan reflects the knowledge, skills and attitudes that any society chooses to pass on their pupils. • second, … as the learning and teaching experiences that happen in any site of education. Therefore, a curriculum is a carefully planned and well written document which explicitly reflects the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes of societies that are intended to be passed to or mediated to the future generation, comprising both the old and the young. As we believe that everybody has the right to attend school and develop different skills, we have to pay the same attention to everybody. So, we need to adapt curricula according to the special needs of all the pupils. • Curriculum adaptations Curriculum adaptations are modifications related specifically to instruction or content of a curriculum. They are not intended to lower the education standards. The curriculum is thus adapted to make education accessible to everyone. The scale and extent of curriculum adaptations and modifications will only be determined after a thorough assessment of an individual pupil. An individualised learning programme and work schedule with its related lesson plans should be devised on the basis of the needs of visually impaired pupils. Adaptation at lesson plan level will be required for all pupils in a class who need specific additional support because of their disabilities. Those involved in this process must include the teachers, parents, school team and relevant professionals. There are different types of curriculum adaptations: 3
  • 4. • Quantity: adapt the number of items or the number of activities; • Time: individualise a timeline for completing a task; • Level of support: increase/decrease the amount of personal assistance; • Input: adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner; • Difficulty: adapt the skill level, problem type or rules; • Output: adapt the way the pupil can respond to instruction; • Participation: adapt the extent to which a pupil is actively involved in the task; • Alternative goals: adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials; • Functional curriculum: provide different instruction and materials to reach a pupil’s individual goals; this is only for pupils with moderate to severe disabilities. Certainly curriculum adaptations are not intended the education standards. Curriculum is adapted to make education more accessible and to ensure that pupils with special needs do not face prejudices or are treated unfairly. Learning problems, working schedules and lesson plans can be modified and adapted to respond to the individual needs of pupils. The scale and scope of curriculum adaptations and modifications will only be determined after an assessment of one individual pupil. An individualised learning program and work schedule with its related lesson plans should be devised on the basis of need for visually impaired pupils. Adaptation at lesson level plan will be required for all pupils in a class who need specific additional support because of their disabilities. Those involved in this process must include teachers, parents, school- based and district-based support teams (when they exist). Other relevant professionals from the community can be consulted too. 3. Collecting some ways of working in these areas: In Catalonia A pupil who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as a special needs pupil is the perfect candidate for an IEP, for reasons such as: o learning disabilities o attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) o emotional disorders 4
  • 5. o mental retardation o autism o hearing impairment o visual impairment o speech or language impairment o development delay o ... In most cases, the services and goals outlined in an IEP can be provided in a standard school environment. This can be done in the regular classroom (for example, a teacher helping a small group of pupils who need extra assistance while the other pupils in the class are reading with the regular teacher) or in a special resource room in the regular school. The resource room can serve a group of pupils with similar needs who are brought together for help. However, pupils who need intense intervention may be taught in a special school environment. These classes have fewer pupils per teacher, allowing for more individualised attention. In addition, the teacher usually has specific training in helping pupils with special educational needs. The pupils spend most of their day in a special classroom and join the regular classes for non-academic activities (like music and gym) or in academic activities in which they do not need extra help. In Austria A pupil who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as having special needs has to have an Individual educational plan (law from November 2008) for reasons such as: o learning disabilities o attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) o emotional disorders o mental retardation o autism 5
  • 6. o hearing impairment o visual impairment o speech or language impairment o development delay o ... In most cases, the services and goals outlined in an IEP can be provided in a standard school environment, some of them (e.g. speech therapy …) are held in a special resource room in the regular school. Since November 2008 rough guidelines exist for the development of an individual educational plan for pupils with SEN. Those guidelines encompass: • Collaborative planning (parents, teachers, other professionals …) based on the assessment • Regular evaluation • Curriculum adaptations There are no STANDARDS for Individual Educational Plans yet in Austria but experts are already demanding such standards. The classroom teacher is responsible for the IEP – in regular classes this is the regular teacher and in integration classes it is the teacher for special needs education. Curriculum adaptations and individualisation however are a major issue in the regular curriculum in Austria in order to attend to the needs of the individual pupil. It is mandatory for every teacher to adapt the curriculum and the planning to the needs of all pupils in a class. However, pupils who need intense intervention may be taught in a special school environment. Parents in Austria can choose between integration and segregation in special schools. Special classes have fewer pupils per teacher, allowing for more individualised attention. In addition, the teacher usually has specific training in helping pupils with special educational needs. 6
  • 7. In Belgium A pupil who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as a special needs has to have an Individual educational plan (law from 2007 March 3rd ) Definition of the IEP in Belgian French speaking Community: I.E.P.: (In French: Plan individuel d'apprentissage (P.I.A.)) : It is a methodological tool written and designed for each pupil and adjusted throughout his schooling by the Staff meeting, on the basis of the observations provided by its various members and data communicated by the organisation of guidance of the pupils. It enumerates particular objectives to reach during one given period. It is starting from the data of the IEP that each member of the multi-field team implements the work of education, rehabilitation and training. Through the IEP the pupil and his parents can be associated with his development. The mission statements for the staff meeting in charge of the guidance of the pupils are as follows: 1. to work out and adjust for each pupil, an individual plan of training which coordinates the teaching activities, ancillary medical, social and psychological; 2. to evaluate progress and the results of each pupil in order to adjust the individual plan of training; 3. the members of the Staff meeting ensure the weekly management of the individual plan of training of each one of its pupils during the periods of staff meeting envisaged in their grid-schedule. 4. to evaluate each pupil in a formative way and continue with regard to the understanding of the pupil in order to adjust the individual plan of training as required; The director of the class ensures the weekly management of the individual plan of training of each one of his pupils during the periods envisaged in his schedule. The team work allows the coordination and the exchange of information between the various members of the ancillary medical, social and psychological team. For their 7
  • 8. participation in the staff meeting, part of this time is reserved for the preparation of these meetings and the drafting or the adjustment of the individual plan of training of the pupils of which they have the responsibility. In Portugal The organisational model of care for children with specific educational needs recently implemented by the Ministry of Education, centred on the so-called CIF, is nothing more than a return to the medical model abandoned as inefficient in the 80s; here, the attendance is determined from a list of illnesses which, if existent, may not require any educational intervention and will leave a significant number of pupils without but requiring educational intervention. However, every pupil who has been identified as a special needs pupil requires an IEP which is coordinated by the director of the class. The services and goals outlined in an IEP are provided in a standard school environment, in a regular classroom or in a special resource room. This new law has launched the reference schools for special disabilities (deafness, blindness, autism …). Specialised professionals and specific resources are gathered at these schools. In the United Kingdom In the UK all pupils have a Personal Education Plan (PEP): pupils identified as requiring statutory assessment where their needs are greater will have an IEP. This is reviewed annually by the team of professionals involved with the pupil. The IEP contains goals and measurable targets which can be added by the class teacher. Where the IEP has no direct relationship to a particular subject area some pupils will be given an individual IEP for that subject and it will contain more meaningful targets. Pupils will discuss their PEPs with the class teacher either as part of the class day or in some schools on ‘Mentor Day’ on a termly basis. The latter enables the class teacher to have longer to talk with the pupil to understand the pupil’s perception of his work compared with the teachers. Together they agree a minimum of three goals to be achieved in the term. Bibliography 8
  • 9. Austria and Belgium Diana Browning Wright, Teaching & Learning 2005 Drave, Wolfgang; Rumpler, Franz; Wachtel, Peter (Hrsg.) 2000: Empfehlungen zur sonderpädagogischen Förderung. Allgemeine Grundlagen und Förderschwerpunkte (KMK) Eggert, Dietrich 1997: Von den Stärken ausgehen. Individuelle Entwicklungspläne (IEP) in der Lernförderungsdiagnostik. Dortmund: borgmann publishing Kretschmann, Rudolf 1999: Leitfaden für Förder- und Entwicklungspläne. Zeitschrift für Heilpädagogik 9/99 Ministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur 2002: Lehrplan Sonderpädagogische Förderung Mutzeck, Wolfgang (Hrsg.) 2002: Förderdiagnostik. Konzepte und Methoden. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz Verlag Mutzeck, Wolfgang (Hrsg.) 2000: Förderplanung. Grundlagen – Methoden – Alternativen. Weinheim: Deutscher Studienverlag - Web sites: DR. M.O. Maguvhe Co-ordinator Education Services http://www.sancb.org.za/Images/think%20tank.%20Obert.pdf http://www.grandviewlibrary.org/CurriculumAdaptations/NineTypes.pdf US department of education http://www.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index.html Nemours foundation http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/iep.html Ministry of Education – British Columbia http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/iepssn/ http://sonderpaedagogik.lernnetz.de/foerderplan-Dateien/handreichung- foerderplan.doc Community Integration Sonderpädagogik – CIS online http://www.cisonline.at/index.php?id=102 Catalonia -Ainscow, M. (2004). Desarrollo de escuelas inclusivas: Ideas, propuestas y experiencias para mejorar las instituciones escolares. Madrid. Narcea. -Huguet, T. (2006). Aprendre junts a l’aula. Barcelona. Graó. -Pujolàs, P. (2003). Aprendre junts alumnes diferents. Vic. Eumo. -School Regulation about this area. 9
  • 10. -RESOLUCIÓ de 30 de juny de 2008 per la qual s’aproven les instruccions per a l’organització i el funcionament dels centres educatius públics d’educació infantil i primària i d’educació especial per al curs 2008-2009. - RESOLUCIÓ de 30 de juny de 2008 per la qual s’aproven les instruccions per a l’organització i el funcionament dels centres educatius públics d’educació secundària per al curs 2008-2009. -RESOLUCIÓ de 29 de juliol de 2008 per la qual s’aproven les instruccions per a l’organització i el funcionament dels serveis educatius (CRP, EAP, ELIC, CREDA i CdA) i del Programa de mestres itinerants per a deficients visuals per al curs 2008- 2009. -Web sites: Catalonia http://www.xtec.cat/dnee http://www.xtec.cat/eap http://www.xtec.cat/creda http://phobos.xtec.es/sgfprp/resum.php?codi=983 http://www.xtec.es/sgfp/llicencies/200405/memories/983m.pdf European Agency for Development in special needs Education: http://www.inclusion-europe.org Toronto http://www.inclusion.com Portugal Bautista, R. (1997). Necessidades Educativas Especiais. Dinalivro: Lisboa. Correia, L. M. (1997). Alunos com Necessidades Educativas Especiais nas Classes Regulares. Colecção Educação Especial. Porto: Porto Editora. Foreman, P. & Arthur, M. (2002). Parental perspectives on educational programmes for students with high support needs. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17, pp. 175–84. Foreman, P., Arthur-Kelly, M., Pascoe, S. & Smyth King, B. (2004). Evaluating the educational experiences of students with profound and multiple disabilities in inclusive and segregated classroom settings: an Australian perspective. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29 (3), pp. 183–93. Guess, D., Roberts, S. & Rues, J. (2002). Longitudinal analysis of state patterns and related variables among infants and children with significant disabilities. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 27 (2), pp. 112–24. Landivar, J. & Hernandez, R.(1993). Adaptações Curriculumes. Editorial CEPE, SL. Mantoan, M. T. (2000). Integrar ou Incluir? http.//www.caleidoscopio.aleph.com.br./forum.htm 10
  • 11. Marchesi, A. & Martín, E. (1990). Da terminologia do Distúrbio às Necessidades Educativas Especiais. In, COLL et al. Desenvolvimento Psicológico e Educação: Necessidades Educativas Especiais e Aprendizagem Escolar. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas. Pacheco, J. A. (2001). Teoria Curriculum Critica: Os dilemas (e contradições) dos Educadores Críticos. N.º 1. Lisboa: Revista Portuguesa de Educação. Roldão, M. C. (1999). Os Professores e a Gestão do Currículo - Perspectiva e Práticas em Análise. Colecção “Cidine”. Porto: Porto Editora. Tadeu B. (2000). A inclusão dos portadores de necessidades especiais no atual contexto sócio- educacional. Revista da Educação, v. 3, n. 17, 2002. Sigafoos, J., Arthur-Kelly, M. & Butterfield, N. (2006). Enhancing Everyday Communication for Children with Disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. WARNOCK, M. et al. (1978). Special Educational Needs. Report of Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. London: HMSO. United Kingdom http://www.dfes.gov.uk Credits Coordinator: Natália Cabral *****, Team: Jean-Claude DeVreese*, Eva Bernart **, Carme Mnegril Falcó***,Jenny Evans****, Jane Brodin*******, Ana-Lena Ljusberg*******, ******Elisa Chaleta * Service Général de L’ Inspection/ Inspection de L’Enseignement Spécialisé (BE); **Centre for Special Needs Education (AT); ***Generalitat de Catalunya. Serveis Territorials a Tarragona (ES); ****Devon County Council (UK); *****Agrupamento de Escolas Eugénio de Andrade/Paranhos (PT) ; ******Universidade de Évora,(PT), Centro de Investigação em Educação e Psicologia, Portugal; *******Stockholm University, Department of Child and Youth Studies (SE) 11