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AGILE TESTING
12/10/2013

Sudipta Lahiri
Agile Testing
2





Agile testing is a software testing practice that
follows the principles of agile software
development (wikipedia)
Involves all members of a cross-functional
agile team, with special expertise contributed
by testers, to ensure delivering the business
value desired by the customer at frequent
intervals, working at a sustainable pace

12/10/2013
The role of Agile Testing
3



Agile teams do need testers
 People

with strong testing skills
 They might need QA in a different form/shape!


Your function is to support the business by
helping them understand the business and
acceptance criteria
 Understand

risks!

12/10/2013
4

The 9 principles...

12/10/2013
5

Testing moves the project
forward...

12/10/2013
Testing is not a phase
6

12/10/2013
Everybody tests!
7


Everyone Tests






On traditional projects, independent testers are responsible
for all test activities.

In Agile, getting the testing done is the responsibility of the
whole team. Yes, testers execute tests. Developers do too.

The need to get all testing done in an iteration may
mean that the team simply cannot do as much in
each sprint as they originally thought.






If yes, then Agile has made visible the impedance mismatch
between test and dev that already existed.
The team was not going as fast as they thought. They
appeared to be going quickly because the developers were
going fast. But if the testing isn't done, then the features
aren't done, and the team just does not have the velocity they
think.

Goldratt's TOC says that the whole team can only
go as fast as the slowest part.
12/10/2013


To go faster, the team has to widen the throughput of the
Reduce feedback latency
8

12/10/2013
9

Case Study:
Test Planning for one release – in
2011
IR
Activities
Pre Release
Defect Validation
- Merges ~ all 6.2 HF1 -6.2HF6 = 150 defects

Planned Planned
Dev Build Start
End
Team
17-01-11 08-02-11
QA -Aryaans

Test Case Development
CHR CFT
IR1

Cal Total Reso
Days PDs urces Rate

3

16-02-11

4 15/day/person

10
2

QA
QA ,QA Aryaans

12
60
8

6
4

items

~1000
TCs

17-02-11 01-03-11

Regression Testing ~Tier3 (1000 testcases)-need to
skip incase of bandwidth issue
Test Case Development
6.3 CHR Testing [Estimated Cases ~ 1000]
Merge Defect Validation all 6.2 HF1 -6.2HF5 defects

QA -Aryaans
QA
QA
QA

3 10.5

3.5 100 tc/day/person

5
2

25
6

5

65

1

4

4 15/day/person

QA Aryaans
QA Aryaans

0.5 1.5
0.5 1.75

3
3.5 50/day/person

QA Aryaans

1.5

4.5

3

Only rejected defects and automation run critical fixes

QA Aryaans

1

1

1

Acceptance Scenario and Unautomated sanity Testing
Release Packaging

QA Aryaans
QA

1
2
TOTAL

IR2

01-03-11
Regression Testing ~6000 testcases (Tier1,Tier2 and
Tier3 ;these are non automated cases of the modules
related to the defects tagged for 6.3 on dhruva)

02-03-11 08-03-11 - 5 cal days -(2000 testcases)
4 QA Aryaans
10 Resources - 80 tc/day/person to fill in the
bandwidth for execution of 4000 testcases for 5 cal
days

Defect Validation
- Defect Validation - QA Initiator Closure ~ 50 +
- CHR Defects ~100
IR3

QA - Aryaans + 1 QA
10-03-11

18-03-11

13

11-03-11 16-03-11

Defect Validation - Merges ~75
Regression Testing(Unexecuted) ~ 100 testcases
Initiator Closure Defect Validation (CHR + Regression )
~75
IR4

5 100TC/day/person
1000
3 15 defects /day /person

21-03-11 23-03-11

7000

200

We still
had
regression
leaks!

2
2
2
1
203 pds

So, 60mm of DCUT needed 20-25mm (10mm for testing + 10 developers
for supporting all defects from testing) over a period of 6-8 weeks to make a
12/10/2013
release!
Execution Today
10

Team is delivering continuously...
Changes to scope can be taken anytime and delivered in 3-4 weeks
Testing is part of the Development process
Everyone tests! Development automates UTC; Testing automates ST

12/10/2013
Tests Represent Expectations
11

12/10/2013
Fix bugs asap... keep the code
clean
12

12/10/2013
Reduce test documentation
overhead
13



Lightweight Documentation: Instead of
writing verbose, comprehensive test
documentation, Agile testers:








Use reusable checklists to suggest tests
Focus on the essence of the test rather than the
incidental details
Use lightweight documentation styles/tools
Capturing test ideas in charters for Exploratory
Testing
Leverage documents for multiple purpose

Leverage One Test Artifact for Manual and
Automated Tests




Today, we invest in extensive, heavyweight step-bystep manual test scripts in Word or a test
management tool
Instead, capture expectations in a format supported
by automated test frameworks like FIT/Fitnesse.



The test could be executed manually
12/10/2013
More importantly that same test artifact becomes an
Tested is part of “DONE”
14

12/10/2013
Test Driven (not Testing Last)
15

12/10/2013
16

4 key practices

12/10/2013
17

Automated Unit/Integration
tests

12/10/2013
Test Driven Development
18

12/10/2013
Automated System-Level Regression
Tests
19

12/10/2013
Acceptance Test Driven
Development
20

12/10/2013
In summary...
21

12/10/2013
The testing pyramid...
22

Ideal State

In most environments
Manu
al

C
O
S
T

R
O
I

UI
(5%)
Services
(15%)
Unit Tests
(80%)

UI
Services
Unit
Tests
12/10/2013
But let us understand this in more
detail
23

12/10/2013
Impact of Agile Requirements
24



Agile testing must be iterative
Agile testers cannot rely on having complete
specifications
Agile testers must be flexible



The techniques exist to make this possible...




12/10/2013
Testing in the Agile world...
25

12/10/2013
26

Let us discuss these test cycle
more...


Development Team Testing:




Testers are embedded in the development team, working side by side to build the
system



Focus of their testing efforts are often on confirmatory testing




Agile teams will take a whole team approach

Developer regression testing or better Test-Driven Development (TDD).

Parallel independent testing.


Continuous independent testing parallel to construction iterations throughout the
lifecycle.



Goal: find defects that got past the development team


Perform higher forms of testing such as system integration testing, security testing,
usability testing



Need significant testing skills, complex tools, and often complex pre-production testing
environments





10-15:1 ratio between people on the 2 teams
In larger organizations, one team can support several development teams

Release Testing

12/10/2013
Test
Automation
27

12/10/2013
28

Where can you apply
automation?

12/10/2013
TDD
29





Test-FirstDevelopment
Developer TDD
 Technical

doc - JIT
 Seen more with pair
programming
 “Test Immediately”
after approach


What happens when
we extend this to the
next level...
12/10/2013
ATDD
30



TDD at the requirement
level









Acceptance TC is a
expectation of the
customer
Write a single
acceptance test; make
code changes to pass it
Requirement spec (JIT)
If you do ATDD, you
don’t need to TDD
necessarily
Also, called BDD or
user-story driven
development

12/10/2013
Some industry trends...
31

12/10/2013
Some industry trends...
32

12/10/2013
Implications for Test Practioners
33









Become generalizing specialists
Be flexible.
Be prepared to work closely with developers.
Once again, be flexible.
Focus on value-added activities
and again... Be flexible

12/10/2013
34

Finally... Why Agile Testing
works?

12/10/2013
References
35





http://www.ambysoft.com/essays/agileTesting.
html
http://testobsessed.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/04/AgileTestingOverview
.pdf

12/10/2013

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Training - Agile Testing

  • 2. Agile Testing 2   Agile testing is a software testing practice that follows the principles of agile software development (wikipedia) Involves all members of a cross-functional agile team, with special expertise contributed by testers, to ensure delivering the business value desired by the customer at frequent intervals, working at a sustainable pace 12/10/2013
  • 3. The role of Agile Testing 3  Agile teams do need testers  People with strong testing skills  They might need QA in a different form/shape!  Your function is to support the business by helping them understand the business and acceptance criteria  Understand risks! 12/10/2013
  • 5. 5 Testing moves the project forward... 12/10/2013
  • 6. Testing is not a phase 6 12/10/2013
  • 7. Everybody tests! 7  Everyone Tests    On traditional projects, independent testers are responsible for all test activities. In Agile, getting the testing done is the responsibility of the whole team. Yes, testers execute tests. Developers do too. The need to get all testing done in an iteration may mean that the team simply cannot do as much in each sprint as they originally thought.    If yes, then Agile has made visible the impedance mismatch between test and dev that already existed. The team was not going as fast as they thought. They appeared to be going quickly because the developers were going fast. But if the testing isn't done, then the features aren't done, and the team just does not have the velocity they think. Goldratt's TOC says that the whole team can only go as fast as the slowest part. 12/10/2013  To go faster, the team has to widen the throughput of the
  • 9. 9 Case Study: Test Planning for one release – in 2011 IR Activities Pre Release Defect Validation - Merges ~ all 6.2 HF1 -6.2HF6 = 150 defects Planned Planned Dev Build Start End Team 17-01-11 08-02-11 QA -Aryaans Test Case Development CHR CFT IR1 Cal Total Reso Days PDs urces Rate 3 16-02-11 4 15/day/person 10 2 QA QA ,QA Aryaans 12 60 8 6 4 items ~1000 TCs 17-02-11 01-03-11 Regression Testing ~Tier3 (1000 testcases)-need to skip incase of bandwidth issue Test Case Development 6.3 CHR Testing [Estimated Cases ~ 1000] Merge Defect Validation all 6.2 HF1 -6.2HF5 defects QA -Aryaans QA QA QA 3 10.5 3.5 100 tc/day/person 5 2 25 6 5 65 1 4 4 15/day/person QA Aryaans QA Aryaans 0.5 1.5 0.5 1.75 3 3.5 50/day/person QA Aryaans 1.5 4.5 3 Only rejected defects and automation run critical fixes QA Aryaans 1 1 1 Acceptance Scenario and Unautomated sanity Testing Release Packaging QA Aryaans QA 1 2 TOTAL IR2 01-03-11 Regression Testing ~6000 testcases (Tier1,Tier2 and Tier3 ;these are non automated cases of the modules related to the defects tagged for 6.3 on dhruva) 02-03-11 08-03-11 - 5 cal days -(2000 testcases) 4 QA Aryaans 10 Resources - 80 tc/day/person to fill in the bandwidth for execution of 4000 testcases for 5 cal days Defect Validation - Defect Validation - QA Initiator Closure ~ 50 + - CHR Defects ~100 IR3 QA - Aryaans + 1 QA 10-03-11 18-03-11 13 11-03-11 16-03-11 Defect Validation - Merges ~75 Regression Testing(Unexecuted) ~ 100 testcases Initiator Closure Defect Validation (CHR + Regression ) ~75 IR4 5 100TC/day/person 1000 3 15 defects /day /person 21-03-11 23-03-11 7000 200 We still had regression leaks! 2 2 2 1 203 pds So, 60mm of DCUT needed 20-25mm (10mm for testing + 10 developers for supporting all defects from testing) over a period of 6-8 weeks to make a 12/10/2013 release!
  • 10. Execution Today 10 Team is delivering continuously... Changes to scope can be taken anytime and delivered in 3-4 weeks Testing is part of the Development process Everyone tests! Development automates UTC; Testing automates ST 12/10/2013
  • 12. Fix bugs asap... keep the code clean 12 12/10/2013
  • 13. Reduce test documentation overhead 13  Lightweight Documentation: Instead of writing verbose, comprehensive test documentation, Agile testers:       Use reusable checklists to suggest tests Focus on the essence of the test rather than the incidental details Use lightweight documentation styles/tools Capturing test ideas in charters for Exploratory Testing Leverage documents for multiple purpose Leverage One Test Artifact for Manual and Automated Tests   Today, we invest in extensive, heavyweight step-bystep manual test scripts in Word or a test management tool Instead, capture expectations in a format supported by automated test frameworks like FIT/Fitnesse.   The test could be executed manually 12/10/2013 More importantly that same test artifact becomes an
  • 14. Tested is part of “DONE” 14 12/10/2013
  • 15. Test Driven (not Testing Last) 15 12/10/2013
  • 22. The testing pyramid... 22 Ideal State In most environments Manu al C O S T R O I UI (5%) Services (15%) Unit Tests (80%) UI Services Unit Tests 12/10/2013
  • 23. But let us understand this in more detail 23 12/10/2013
  • 24. Impact of Agile Requirements 24  Agile testing must be iterative Agile testers cannot rely on having complete specifications Agile testers must be flexible  The techniques exist to make this possible...   12/10/2013
  • 25. Testing in the Agile world... 25 12/10/2013
  • 26. 26 Let us discuss these test cycle more...  Development Team Testing:   Testers are embedded in the development team, working side by side to build the system  Focus of their testing efforts are often on confirmatory testing   Agile teams will take a whole team approach Developer regression testing or better Test-Driven Development (TDD). Parallel independent testing.  Continuous independent testing parallel to construction iterations throughout the lifecycle.  Goal: find defects that got past the development team  Perform higher forms of testing such as system integration testing, security testing, usability testing  Need significant testing skills, complex tools, and often complex pre-production testing environments    10-15:1 ratio between people on the 2 teams In larger organizations, one team can support several development teams Release Testing 12/10/2013
  • 28. 28 Where can you apply automation? 12/10/2013
  • 29. TDD 29   Test-FirstDevelopment Developer TDD  Technical doc - JIT  Seen more with pair programming  “Test Immediately” after approach  What happens when we extend this to the next level... 12/10/2013
  • 30. ATDD 30  TDD at the requirement level      Acceptance TC is a expectation of the customer Write a single acceptance test; make code changes to pass it Requirement spec (JIT) If you do ATDD, you don’t need to TDD necessarily Also, called BDD or user-story driven development 12/10/2013
  • 33. Implications for Test Practioners 33       Become generalizing specialists Be flexible. Be prepared to work closely with developers. Once again, be flexible. Focus on value-added activities and again... Be flexible 12/10/2013
  • 34. 34 Finally... Why Agile Testing works? 12/10/2013

Editor's Notes

  1. Speed needs discipline – the fast car vs slow car analogy
  2. Agile teams will take a whole team approachTesters are embedded in the development team, working side by side to build the systemFocus of their testing efforts are often on confirmatory testingdeveloper regression testing or better Test-Driven Development (TDD).
  3. Business Facing: means functional test casesTechnology Facing: means technical test cases like for cross browser support. However, what browser should be dominant browser is still a business decision.Critique Product Testing: typically defect discovery processSupport Development Testing: testing that supports ability to make code changes (regression)
  4. Become generalizing specialists.  The implication of whole team testing is that most existing test professionals will need to be prepared to do more than just testing if they want to be involved with agile projects.  Yes, the people on independent test teams would still focus solely on testing, but the need for people in this role is much less than the need for people with testing skills to be active members of agile delivery teams.Be flexible.  Agile teams take an iterative and collaborative approach which embraces changing requirements.  The implication is that gone are the days of having a detailed requirements speculation to work from, now anyone involved with testing must be flexible enough to test throughout the entire life cycle even when the requirements are changing.Be prepared to work closely with developers.  The majority of the testing effort is performed by the agile delivery team itself, not by independent testers. Be flexible.  This is worth repeating.  ;-)Focus on value-added activities.  I've lost track of the number of times I've heard test professionals lament that there's never enough time nor resources allocated to testing efforts.  Yet, when I explore what these people want to do, I find that they want to wait to have detailed requirements speculations available to them, they want to develop documents describing their test strategies, they want to write detailed test plans, they want to write detailed defect reports, and yes, they even want to write and then run tests.  No wonder they don't have enough time to get all this work done!  The true value added activities which testers provide are finding and then communicating potential defects to the people responsible for fixing them.  To do this they clearly need to create and run tests, all the other activities that I listed previously are ancillary at best to this effort.  Waiting for requirements speculations isn't testing.  Writing test strategies and plans aren't testing.  Writing defect reports might be of value, but there are better ways to communicate information than writing documentation.  Agile strategies focus on the value-added activities and minimize if not eliminate the bureaucratic waste which is systemic in many organizations following classical/traditional strategies.Be flexible.  This is really important.