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Postpartum Health India # 2

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Postpartum Health India # 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER – 8 SUMMARY AND FINDINGS 8.1 Rationale of the Problem Medical Sociology is concerned with the social and consequences of health and illness (Cockerham, 2011:1). “Medical sociology as the study of health care as it is institutionalized in society, and of health, or illness and it‟s relationship to social factors” (Weiss, 2000 :1). Medical Sociology is sociological Analysis of medical organizations and Institutions the production of knowledge and section of methods-professionals and the social or cultural (rather then clinical or bodily) effect of medical practice. (en.wikipeida.org/wiki/medical.sociology). Medical Sociology is the subfield which applies the perspective, conceptualization, theories and methodologies of sociology to phenomena having to do with human health and disease. As a specialization, medical sociology encompasses a body of knowledge which places health and disease in social, cultural, and behavioral context (weiss,2000:1-2). Health is considered as a fundamental human right word wide social goal. It is essential to the satisfaction of basic human needs and improves the quality of life (Mathu, 2008: 332). Health is individuals capacity to perform roles and tasks in everyday living and acknowledges that there are social differences in defining 90
  2. 2. health (Weiss, 2000:107). Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (W.H.O. 1995). Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; It is a possible concept, emphasizing social and personal resources as well physical capabilities; (Sundar, 2007 : 97). Women‟s health involves women‟s emotional, social cultural, spiritual and physical well being, and is determined by the social, political, cultural and economic context of women‟s lives, as well as by Biology (www.med women‟shealth.html). Women‟s health refer to health status of women and the dispararities in health between the sexes are often critical indicators of equality in a society (W.H.O, : 1986). Women‟s health is the effect of gender on disease and health the encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues (http://medical-dectionary thefreedictionay.com) Reproductive health means a satisfying, safe sex life, free from the fear of disease and free from coercion and violence (Mathu, 2008 : 332). Reproductive health is a state which people have the ability to reproduce and regulate their fertility (Sinha, 2007 : 329). Reproductive health a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters related to reproductive system, it function and process (Sakhuja, 2008 : 102). The reproductive health of women is the backbone of every family, society and nation. Although reproductive health is the integral part of women‟s 91
  3. 3. general health, despite the fact, it needs extra care and precaution during specific time and situation (Sakhuja, 2008: 101). Postnatal means reproductive health status of a women after child birth or delivery. Post natal period refers to the period after giving birth. During this period, a new mother must be assessed for any tears and required treatment must be embarked on. Natural, social, medical activities and events occurring after birth. A suitable subdivision is: early postnatal within 48 hours of birth; delayed postnatal- 2 to 7 days; late postnatal-1 to 4 weeks. The postnatal period is associated with physiological psychological and social changes, which can influences sexual and reproductive health (Medical-dictionary/postnatal). The sociologists Like Alok Ranjan Chauaria, 2004; M.N. Sivakumar, 1999; Adrienne M. Lucas, 2013; study the impact of fertility on the women‟s health. Pawan Kumar Sharma and Komila Parthi, 2004; Abishek Singh, Faujdar Ram, Rajiv Ranjan, 2006; Anoshua Chaudhury, 2008; study the reproductive health services and program in India. A.S. Dey and A. Shrivastava, 2011; A. Sudarshan Reddy and A. Neelima, 2009; Narendra Singh & Binod C. Agarwal, 2009; study the impact of Health Communication, Health care, and Health modernity on people‟s. Nandini Bhattachary and Subha Ray, 2009; study the practice of Induced Abortion seekers of Kolkata, Arvinda Meera & Guntupalli and Parveen Nagia, 2008; Study the women‟s autonomy, Contraceptive use and fertility. K.V. Narayana, 2003; study the role of medical care. Santosh Jatrana, 2007; study the importance of child care arrangement of working mothers. 92
  4. 4. Pragya Sharma, 2009; study the health behaviour of Raikas. H.C. Srivastava, 2011; study the male involvement as supportive partners in women‟s reproductive health. Thus, there are large number of studies on various dimensions of health, but despite all there are few studies on reproductive health, there is no study which focuses on postnatal reproductive health care. There is the need to conduct such type of study which explore the various aspect of postnatal reproductive health illness and care. 8.2 Statement of the Problem In the light of the above mentioned framework following objectives will be undertaken. 1. To assess the socio-economic profile the women. 2. To identify the attitude towards the age at Marriage, pregnancy/delivery and children. 3. To know the attitude of women and their family members after child birth. 4. To examine the prevalence of post-delivery complications. 5. To indentify the source of consultation/treatment for post delivery complications.  The first objective takes note of the socio-economic profile of the women in terms of age, religion, caste, education, occupation, income, pattern of family, type of house etc. 93
  5. 5.  The second objectives take note of age at marriage, age at first pregnancy, age at first delivery and no. of children.  The third objective takes note of the place of delivery, who perform delivery, precautions taken after delivery, time taken to resume work after delivery and pattern of care of new born children.  The fourth objective takes note of the post-delivery complications like-high fever, lower abdominal pain, excessive bleeding, severe headache etc.  The fifth objective takes note of the source of consultation/treatment for post-delivery complications and source of consultation/treatment by persons providers for post-delivery complication in a town. 8.3 Area of Study Deoband town has been selected for the purpose of the study. Deoband is situated in the North from Meerut, the distance of Deoband from Meerut is 83Km. and 161Km. from Delhi. The total population of Deoband is 274307 (according to 2011 census). In total population Muslims is 138523, 50.5% and Hindus is 133402, 48.5% Deoband is surrounded by the famous cities like Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee and Haridwar. There lives many caste in this town. I have selected 100 respondents of two communities for interview guide 50 Hindu and 50 Muslim women. 94
  6. 6. 8.4 Methodology The data for the present study have been collected from 100 respondents for the require fulfillment of the information. The data have been collected through interview guide/schedule and observation method. Data have been selected by using the purposive sampling. I deiced to conduct the interview from the age group of 21-45 years old women‟s of two communities women (50 Hindu and 50 Muslim) of this town for collecting the information. Data have been analyzed using simple statistical method i.e. single variate tables. 8.5 Findings This research work is concentrated mainly on the socio-economic profile of the women, Indentify the attitude towards the age at Marriage, pregnancy/delivery and children, know the attitude of women and their family members after child birth, specifically examine the prevalence of post-delivery complications. And finally, identify the source of consultation/ treatment for post delivery complications. Keeping all the above facts in view, the researcher has decided to investigate the phenomenon of „Postnatal and reproductive health care of women in Deoband town. 8.5.1 Socio – Economic Profile of the Women The socio–economic profile of the respondents play an important role because it affects every aspect of respondent day to day life. The socio–economic 95
  7. 7. profile with respect to the following variables have been include as age, religion, caste, education, size of family, occupation and income of the respondent. The respondents who belong to different socio–economic profile, the aspect about them are as below : (i) Age – Larger segment in Muslim women belong to the low age group (21-25), whereas the larger segment in Hindu women belong to high age group of (26-30). The Muslim women are more young in comparison to Hindu women. (ii) Religion – 50 respondents belong to Hindu religion and 50 respondents belong to Muslim religion. (iii) Caste – Larger segment in Hindu women belong to middle caste where as the larger segment in Muslim women belong to lower caste. (iv) Education – Among the illiterate Muslim women are more in comparison to Hindu women whereas graduate and post graduate Hindu women are more in comparison to Muslim women. Thus Hindu women are more educated in comparison to Muslim women. (v) Occupation – The Hindu women are more in service/teaching profession in comparison to Muslim women, whereas among the housewives Muslims women are more in women. 96 comparison to Hindu
  8. 8. (vi) Type of family – Larger segment of Muslim women live in nuclear families, whereas the larger segment of Hindu women live in joint families. (vii) Size of family – More Hindu women live is small families in comparison to Muslim women where as more Muslim women lives in large families size in comparison to Hindu women. (viii) Income – Among the poor income (1000 to 4000) group Muslim women are in majority in comparison to Hindu women where as among the higher income (16000 & above) group almost all women are Hindu. (ix) (a) Type of house – Larger segment of Muslim women live in Kaccha house, whereas larger segment of Hindu women live in Pakka house. (b) No. of Rooms – More Muslim women live in single room set house in comparison to Hindu women whereas more Hindu women lives in 4 or 5 room set house in comparison to Muslim women. (c) Light & Ventilation – Almost all Hindu and Muslim women have light and ventilation in their houses. (d) Separate Kitchen – More Hindu women have separate kitchen in their houses whereas only few Muslim women have separate kitchen in their houses. 97
  9. 9. (e) Bathroom – All Hindu women have bathroom in their houses whereas very few no. of Muslim women have separate bathroom in their houses. (f) Toilet – All most all Hindu and Muslim women have separate toilets in their houses. 8.5.2 Attitude Towards Marriage, Pregnancy/Delivery and Children Marriage is considered as an essential social institution to enter in family life and for procreation of new generations, almost all societies, traditional or modern. In India unlike some other countries, reproduction and fertility of adolescents, young and adults occur mainly within the context of marriage. (i) Age at marriage – Majority of Muslim women got married at the age of (15-20) & majority of Hindu women got married at the age of (2125). Thus, Muslim women got married at an early age as compare to Hindu women. (ii) Age at first pregnancy – Large no. of Muslim women got pregnant at the age of (17-20), and largest segment of Muslim women got pregnant at an early age in comparison to Hindu women. (iii) Age at first delivery – Large segment of Muslim women performed delivery at the low age of (18-21) whaereas majority of Hindu women performed delivery at the right age of (22-25), thus Muslim 98
  10. 10. women performed delivery in early age in the comparison to Hindu women. (iv) No. of children – More Hindu women have 2 or 3 children in comparison to Muslim women whereas large segment of Muslim women have more children mainly 5 and above in comparison to Hindu. Thus, Muslim women have more children in comparison to Hindu women. 8.5.3. Attitude of Women and Their Family Members Attitude of women and their family members may be observed on precaution and care taking during pregnancy, in term of type of precautions and care taking, place of delivery, who perform delivery, precautions taken after delivery problems and pattern care of new born children during the household chores and outside work, the facts about all that are as below : (i) Place of Delivery – Large segment of Muslim women‟s delivery have take place at home whereas the large segment of Hindu women‟s go to the hospital or near by nursing home for delivery. (ii) Type of Delivery – Large majority of the Muslim women performed normal delivery whereas (1/6) of Hindu women performed caesarean delivery. 99
  11. 11. (iii) Pregnancy Wastage – The pregnancy wastage among Muslim women are more in comparison to Hindu women, whereas most of Hindu women never face this situation. (iv) Who Perform Delivery – Delivery of almost Hindu women performed by lady doctor whereas half delivery case of Muslim women still performed by midwives (Dai). (v) Precaution taken after Delivery – More Hindu women take complete rest and use fruit, milk, ghee and they also use tonic & medicine after delivery or child birth in comparison to Muslim women. (vi) Who support during rest period – Most Hindu women are cared by their husbands in comparison to Muslim women and Muslim women are more cared by their mother-in-laws during their rest period. Thus, In Hindus their Husbands are more careful. (vii) Time taken to resume work after Delivery –Time taken by Muslim Women to resume at work is 1 month after delivery in comparison to Hindu women. And large segment of Hindu women resume work after 45 days of delivery, thus, Hindu women take rest more in comparison to Muslim women. (viii) Pattern care of new born children during household chores and outside work – More Muslim women take care of child themselves 100
  12. 12. in comparison to Hindu women where as in Hindu women their Inlaws take care of child in comparison to Muslim women. 8.5.4 Post Delivery Complications Post delivery complications related to mother and infant are as below- (i) Post Delivery Complications Related to Mother More Hindu women are suffering from various disease like-Back pain, Weakness and lower abdominal pain in comparison to Muslim women. Another contrary finding is that Muslim women are in majority who have no disease in comparison to Hindu women. (ii) Post Delivery Complications Related to Infant Muslim infant are more healthy in comparison to Hindu infant. 8.5.5 Source of Consulation/ Treatment for Post Delivery Complications Source of consultation and treatment for Post-delivery complications are as below- (i) Source of Consultation/ treatment for Post Delivery Complication Majority of Hindu Women go to private hospital or near by nursing home for their consultation and treatment, whereas majority of Muslim women 101
  13. 13. approach to their relatives and friends for their consultation and treatment. (ii) Source of Consultation/ treatment by Person for Post Delivery Complication Majority of Hindu Women‟s consulted by doctor for their treatment in the comparison to Muslim women, whereas more Muslim women, Consult friends for their treatment in comparison to Hindu Women. 8.6 Summing up of Findings There are a brief summary of postnatal reproductive health care of women are as below : 1. Majority of Muslim women belong to low age group (21-25), lower caste, illiterate, house wives, live mostly in nuclear and large family size, have lower income group (1000-4000), live in Kaccha house and single room set don‟t‟ have separate kitchen and bathroom whereas majority of Hindu women belong to high age group (26-30), middle caste, graduate & post graduate, engage in Service/Teaching profession, live in joint and small family size have higher income group (16000 & above), live in Pakka house and 4-5 room have separate kitchen, bathroom & Toilet. 2. Majority of Muslim women got married at an early age (15-20), got pregnant and delivery at an early age, and have large no. of children (5 and above) whereas majority of Hindu women got married at right age 102
  14. 14. (21-25), got pregnant at right age, got delivery at an age more than Muslim and have small no. of children 2 or 3. 3. Majority of Muslim women delivery take place at home, performed normal delivery, face the causes of pregnancy wastage, whose delivery performed by midwives (Dai), don‟t get any special diet or medical care, cared by their mother in laws, time taken to resume work after one month of delivery, take care of child themselves whereas majority of Hindu women go to the hospital or nearby nursing home, never face pregnancy wastage, delivery performed by lady doctor, take complete rest & use fruit, milk, ghee etc. & also use tonic & medicine, cared by their husbands, time taken to resume work after 45 days, In-laws take care of their children. 4. Majority of Muslim women have no disease after post natal period, have healthy infant whereas majority of Hindu women suffer from various disease like back pain, weakness & lower abdomen pain after postnatal period, have weak babies. 5. Majority of Muslim women approach to their-relatives and friends for consultation/treatment, and also consult with neighbours whereas Majority of Hindu women go to private hospital or near by nursing home for their consultation/ treatment, consult and take treatment by Doctor. 103

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