CHAPTER – 8
SUMMARY AND FINDINGS
8.1 Rationale of the Problem
Medical Sociology is concerned with the social and consequences of
health and illness (Cockerham, 2011:1). “Medical sociology as the study of
health care as it is institutionalized in society, and of health, or illness and it‟s
relationship to social factors” (Weiss, 2000 :1). Medical Sociology is
sociological Analysis of medical organizations and Institutions the production of
knowledge and section of methods-professionals and the social or cultural (rather
(en.wikipeida.org/wiki/medical.sociology). Medical Sociology is the subfield
which applies the perspective, conceptualization, theories and methodologies of
sociology to phenomena having to do with human health and disease. As a
specialization, medical sociology encompasses a body of knowledge which
places health and disease in social, cultural, and behavioral context
Health is considered as a fundamental human right word wide social goal.
It is essential to the satisfaction of basic human needs and improves the quality of
life (Mathu, 2008: 332). Health is individuals capacity to perform roles and tasks
in everyday living and acknowledges that there are social differences in defining
health (Weiss, 2000:107). Health is a state of complete physical, mental and
social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (W.H.O.
1995). Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; It is a
possible concept, emphasizing social and personal resources as well physical
capabilities; (Sundar, 2007 : 97).
Women‟s health involves women‟s emotional, social cultural, spiritual
and physical well being, and is determined by the social, political, cultural and
economic context of women‟s lives, as well as by Biology (www.med
women‟shealth.html). Women‟s health refer to health status of women and the
dispararities in health between the sexes are often critical indicators of equality in
a society (W.H.O, : 1986). Women‟s health is the effect of gender on disease and
health the encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues
Reproductive health means a satisfying, safe sex life, free from the fear of
disease and free from coercion and violence (Mathu, 2008 : 332). Reproductive
health is a state which people have the ability to reproduce and regulate their
fertility (Sinha, 2007 : 329). Reproductive health a state of complete physical,
mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,
in all matters related to reproductive system, it function and process (Sakhuja,
2008 : 102). The reproductive health of women is the backbone of every family,
society and nation. Although reproductive health is the integral part of women‟s
general health, despite the fact, it needs extra care and precaution during specific
time and situation (Sakhuja, 2008: 101).
Postnatal means reproductive health status of a women after child birth or
delivery. Post natal period refers to the period after giving birth. During this
period, a new mother must be assessed for any tears and required treatment must
be embarked on. Natural, social, medical activities and events occurring after
birth. A suitable subdivision is: early postnatal within 48 hours of birth; delayed
postnatal- 2 to 7 days; late postnatal-1 to 4 weeks. The postnatal period is
associated with physiological psychological and social changes, which can
influences sexual and reproductive health (Medical-dictionary/postnatal).
The sociologists Like Alok Ranjan Chauaria, 2004; M.N. Sivakumar,
1999; Adrienne M. Lucas, 2013; study the impact of fertility on the women‟s
health. Pawan Kumar Sharma and Komila Parthi, 2004; Abishek Singh, Faujdar
Ram, Rajiv Ranjan, 2006; Anoshua Chaudhury, 2008; study the reproductive
health services and program in India. A.S. Dey and A. Shrivastava, 2011; A.
Sudarshan Reddy and A. Neelima, 2009; Narendra Singh & Binod C. Agarwal,
2009; study the impact of Health Communication, Health care, and Health
modernity on people‟s. Nandini Bhattachary and Subha Ray, 2009; study the
practice of Induced Abortion seekers of Kolkata, Arvinda Meera & Guntupalli
and Parveen Nagia, 2008; Study the women‟s autonomy, Contraceptive use and
fertility. K.V. Narayana, 2003; study the role of medical care. Santosh Jatrana,
2007; study the importance of child care arrangement of working mothers.
Pragya Sharma, 2009; study the health behaviour of Raikas. H.C. Srivastava,
2011; study the male involvement as supportive partners in women‟s
Thus, there are large number of studies on various dimensions of health,
but despite all there are few studies on reproductive health, there is no study
which focuses on postnatal reproductive health care. There is the need to conduct
such type of study which explore the various aspect of postnatal reproductive
health illness and care.
8.2 Statement of the Problem
In the light of the above mentioned framework following objectives will
1. To assess the socio-economic profile the women.
2. To identify the attitude towards the age at Marriage, pregnancy/delivery
3. To know the attitude of women and their family members after child birth.
4. To examine the prevalence of post-delivery complications.
5. To indentify the source of consultation/treatment for post delivery
The first objective takes note of the socio-economic profile of the
women in terms of age, religion, caste, education, occupation, income,
pattern of family, type of house etc.
The second objectives take note of age at marriage, age at first
pregnancy, age at first delivery and no. of children.
The third objective takes note of the place of delivery, who perform
delivery, precautions taken after delivery, time taken to resume work
after delivery and pattern of care of new born children.
The fourth objective takes note of the post-delivery complications
like-high fever, lower abdominal pain, excessive bleeding, severe
consultation/treatment for post-delivery complications and source of
complication in a town.
8.3 Area of Study
Deoband town has been selected for the purpose of the study. Deoband is
situated in the North from Meerut, the distance of Deoband from Meerut is
83Km. and 161Km. from Delhi. The total population of Deoband is 274307
(according to 2011 census). In total population Muslims is 138523, 50.5% and
Hindus is 133402, 48.5% Deoband is surrounded by the famous cities like
Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee and Haridwar. There lives many caste in
this town. I have selected 100 respondents of two communities for interview
guide 50 Hindu and 50 Muslim women.
The data for the present study have been collected from 100 respondents
for the require fulfillment of the information. The data have been collected
through interview guide/schedule and observation method. Data have been
selected by using the purposive sampling. I deiced to conduct the interview from
the age group of 21-45 years old women‟s of two communities women (50
Hindu and 50 Muslim) of this town for collecting the information. Data have
been analyzed using simple statistical method i.e. single variate tables.
This research work is concentrated mainly on the socio-economic profile
of the women, Indentify the attitude towards the age at Marriage,
pregnancy/delivery and children, know the attitude of women and their family
members after child birth, specifically examine the prevalence of post-delivery
complications. And finally, identify the source of consultation/ treatment for post
delivery complications. Keeping all the above facts in view, the researcher has
decided to investigate the phenomenon of „Postnatal and reproductive health care
of women in Deoband town.
8.5.1 Socio – Economic Profile of the Women
The socio–economic profile of the respondents play an important role
because it affects every aspect of respondent day to day life. The socio–economic
profile with respect to the following variables have been include as age, religion,
caste, education, size of family, occupation and income of the respondent. The
respondents who belong to different socio–economic profile, the aspect about
them are as below :
Age – Larger segment in Muslim women belong to the low age group
(21-25), whereas the larger segment in Hindu women belong to high
age group of (26-30). The Muslim women are more young in
comparison to Hindu women.
Religion – 50 respondents belong to Hindu religion and 50
respondents belong to Muslim religion.
Caste – Larger segment in Hindu women belong to middle caste
where as the larger segment in Muslim women belong to lower caste.
Education – Among the illiterate Muslim women are more in
comparison to Hindu women whereas graduate and post graduate
Hindu women are more in comparison to Muslim women.
Thus Hindu women are more educated in comparison to Muslim
Occupation – The Hindu women are more in service/teaching
profession in comparison to Muslim women, whereas among the
housewives Muslims women are more in
comparison to Hindu
Type of family – Larger segment of Muslim women live in nuclear
families, whereas the larger segment of Hindu women live in joint
Size of family – More Hindu women live is small families in
comparison to Muslim women where as more Muslim women lives in
large families size in comparison to Hindu women.
(viii) Income – Among the poor income (1000 to 4000) group Muslim
women are in majority in comparison to Hindu women where as
among the higher income (16000 & above) group almost all women
(a) Type of house – Larger segment of Muslim women live in Kaccha
house, whereas larger segment of Hindu women live in Pakka
(b) No. of Rooms – More Muslim women live in single room set
house in comparison to Hindu women whereas more Hindu
women lives in 4 or 5 room set house in comparison to Muslim
(c) Light & Ventilation – Almost all Hindu and Muslim women
have light and ventilation in their houses.
(d) Separate Kitchen – More Hindu women have separate kitchen
in their houses whereas only few Muslim women have separate
kitchen in their houses.
(e) Bathroom – All Hindu women have bathroom in their houses
whereas very few no. of Muslim women have separate bathroom
in their houses.
Toilet – All most all Hindu and Muslim women have separate
toilets in their houses.
8.5.2 Attitude Towards Marriage, Pregnancy/Delivery and
Marriage is considered as an essential social institution to enter in family
life and for procreation of new generations, almost all societies, traditional or
modern. In India unlike some other countries, reproduction and fertility of
adolescents, young and adults occur mainly within the context of marriage.
Age at marriage – Majority of Muslim women got married at the age
of (15-20) & majority of Hindu women got married at the age of (2125). Thus, Muslim women got married at an early age as compare to
Age at first pregnancy – Large no. of Muslim women got pregnant
at the age of (17-20), and largest segment of Muslim women got
pregnant at an early age in comparison to Hindu women.
Age at first delivery – Large segment of Muslim women performed
delivery at the low age of (18-21) whaereas majority of Hindu
women performed delivery at the right age of (22-25), thus Muslim
women performed delivery in early age in the comparison to Hindu
No. of children – More Hindu women have 2 or 3 children in
comparison to Muslim women whereas large segment of Muslim
women have more children mainly 5 and above in comparison to
Hindu. Thus, Muslim women have more children in comparison to
8.5.3. Attitude of Women and Their Family Members
Attitude of women and their family members may be observed on
precaution and care taking during pregnancy, in term of type of precautions and
care taking, place of delivery, who perform delivery, precautions taken after
delivery problems and pattern care of new born children during the household
chores and outside work, the facts about all that are as below :
Place of Delivery – Large segment of Muslim women‟s delivery
have take place at home whereas the large segment of Hindu
women‟s go to the hospital or near by nursing home for delivery.
Type of Delivery – Large majority of the Muslim women
performed normal delivery whereas (1/6) of Hindu women
performed caesarean delivery.
Pregnancy Wastage – The pregnancy wastage among
women are more in comparison to Hindu women, whereas most of
Hindu women never face this situation.
Who Perform Delivery – Delivery of almost Hindu women
performed by lady doctor whereas half delivery case of Muslim
women still performed by midwives (Dai).
Precaution taken after Delivery – More Hindu women take
complete rest and use fruit, milk, ghee and they also use tonic &
medicine after delivery or child birth in comparison to Muslim
Who support during rest period – Most Hindu women are cared
by their husbands in comparison to Muslim women and Muslim
women are more cared by their mother-in-laws during their rest
period. Thus, In Hindus their Husbands are more careful.
Time taken to resume work after Delivery –Time taken by
Muslim Women to resume at work is 1 month after delivery in
comparison to Hindu women. And large segment of Hindu women
resume work after 45 days of delivery, thus, Hindu women take rest
more in comparison to Muslim women.
(viii) Pattern care of new born children during household chores and
outside work – More Muslim women take care of child themselves
in comparison to Hindu women where as in Hindu women their Inlaws take care of child in comparison to Muslim women.
8.5.4 Post Delivery Complications
Post delivery complications related to mother and infant are as below-
(i) Post Delivery Complications Related to Mother
More Hindu women are suffering from various disease like-Back pain,
Weakness and lower abdominal pain in comparison to Muslim women. Another
contrary finding is that Muslim women are in majority who have no disease in
comparison to Hindu women.
(ii) Post Delivery Complications Related to Infant
Muslim infant are more healthy in comparison to Hindu infant.
8.5.5 Source of Consulation/ Treatment for Post Delivery
Source of consultation and treatment for Post-delivery complications are
(i) Source of Consultation/ treatment for Post Delivery Complication
Majority of Hindu Women go to private hospital or near by nursing home
for their consultation and treatment, whereas majority of Muslim women
approach to their relatives and friends for their consultation and treatment.
(ii) Source of Consultation/ treatment by Person for Post Delivery
Majority of Hindu Women‟s consulted by doctor for their treatment in the
comparison to Muslim women, whereas more Muslim women, Consult friends
for their treatment in comparison to Hindu Women.
8.6 Summing up of Findings
There are a brief summary of postnatal reproductive health care of women
are as below :
Majority of Muslim women belong to low age group (21-25), lower caste,
illiterate, house wives, live mostly in nuclear and large family size, have
lower income group (1000-4000), live in Kaccha house and single room
set don‟t‟ have separate kitchen and bathroom whereas majority of Hindu
women belong to high age group (26-30), middle caste, graduate & post
graduate, engage in Service/Teaching profession, live in joint and small
family size have higher income group (16000 & above), live in Pakka
house and 4-5 room have separate kitchen, bathroom & Toilet.
Majority of Muslim women got married at an early age (15-20), got
pregnant and delivery at an early age, and have large no. of children (5
and above) whereas majority of Hindu women got married at right age
(21-25), got pregnant at right age, got delivery at an age more than
Muslim and have small no. of children 2 or 3.
Majority of Muslim women delivery take place at home, performed
normal delivery, face the causes of pregnancy wastage, whose delivery
performed by midwives (Dai), don‟t get any special diet or medical care,
cared by their mother in laws, time taken to resume work after one month
of delivery, take care of child themselves whereas majority of Hindu
women go to the hospital or nearby nursing home, never face pregnancy
wastage, delivery performed by lady doctor, take complete rest & use
fruit, milk, ghee etc. & also use tonic & medicine, cared by their
husbands, time taken to resume work after 45 days, In-laws take care of
Majority of Muslim women have no disease after post natal period, have
healthy infant whereas majority of Hindu women suffer from various
disease like back pain, weakness & lower abdomen pain after postnatal
period, have weak babies.
Majority of Muslim women approach to their-relatives and friends for
consultation/treatment, and also consult with neighbours whereas
Majority of Hindu women go to private hospital or near by nursing home
for their consultation/ treatment, consult and take treatment by Doctor.