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THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF
LIFE:CELL
CLASS IX
Cells
 Smallest living unit
 Most are microscopic
Discovery of Cells
 Robert Hooke (1665)
 Observed sliver of cork
 Saw “row of empty boxes”
 Coined the term cell
Cell theory
 (1839)Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden
“ all living things are made of cells”
 (1855) Rudolf Virchow
“Omnis cellula e cellula ” all cells arise from pre-
existing cells
Principles of Cell Theory
 All living things are made of cells
 Smallest living unit of structure and
function of all organisms is the cell
 All cells arise from preexisting cells
(this principle discarded the idea of
spontaneous generation)
Cell Size
Cells Have Large Surface
Area-to-Volume Ratio
Characteristics of All Cells
 A surrounding membrane
 Protoplasm – cell contents in thick fluid
 Organelles – structures for cell function
 Control center with DNA
Cell Types
 Prokaryotic
 Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic Cells
 First cell type on earth
 Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
Prokaryotic Cells
 No membrane bound nucleus
 Nucleoid = region of DNA concentration
 Organelles not bound by membranes
Eukaryotic Cells
 Nucleus bound by membrane
 Include fungi, protists, plant, and
animal cells
 Possess many organelles
Protozoan
THE UNIVERSE INSIDE OUR
CELLS
 Zoom into your own body to see the
different cells that make up your
heart, brain and bones.
 These trillions building block of cells
are communicating with each other
every moment of our lives.
 As the house is made by BRICKS.
ANIMAL CELL
PLANT CELL
CELL ORGANELLES
 The cellular components are called the Cell
Organelles.
 These cell organelles are membrane-bound,
present within the cells and are distinct in their
structures and functions.
 They coordinate with their functions efficiently
for the normal functioning of the cell.
 There are various organelles present within
the cell and are classified into three categories
based on the presence or absence of
membrane.
TYPES OF CELL
ORGANELLES
 Organelles without membrane: The Cell wall,
Ribosomes, Centrosome and Cytoskeleton are
without membrane-bound cell organelles.
 Single membrane-bound organelles: Vacuole,
Lysosome, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic
Reticulum are single membrane-bound organelles
present only in a eukaryotic cell.
 Double membrane-bound
organelles: Mitochondria and chloroplast are
double membrane-bound organelles present only
in a eukaryotic cell.
CELL ORGANELLES
Movement Across the Plasma Membrane
 A few molecules move freely
 Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen
 Carrier proteins transport some molecules
 Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer
 Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid nature of a
lipid bilayer with proteins
Membrane Proteins
1. Channels or transporters
 Move molecules in one direction
2. Receptors
 Recognize certain chemicals
Membrane Proteins
3. Glycoproteins
 Identify cell type
4. Enzymes
 Catalyze production of substances
CELL MEMBRANE FUNCTION
 Passive Transport
 Active Transport
 Endocytosis
(phagocytosis & pinocytosis)
 Exocytosis
Passive Transport
 No energy required
 Move due to gradient
 differences in concentration, pressure, charge
 Move to equalize gradient
 High moves toward low
Types of Passive Transport
1. Diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion
 Molecules move to equalize concentration
Osmosis
 Special form of diffusion
 Fluid flows from lower solute concentration
 Often involves movement of water
 Into cell
 Out of cell
Solution Differences & Cells
 solvent + solute = solution
 Hypotonic
 Solutes in cell more than outside
 Outside solvent will flow into cell And
cell will swell
 Isotonic
 Solutes equal inside & out of cell no
transport
 Hypertonic
 Solutes greater outside cell
 Fluid will flow out and shrink
Facilitated Diffusion
 Differentially permeable membrane
 Channels (are specific) help molecule or
ions enter or leave the cell
 Channels usually are transport proteins
(aquaporins facilitate the movement of
water)
 No energy is used
Process of Facilitated Transport
 Protein binds with molecule
 Shape of protein changes
 Molecule moves across membrane
Active Transport
 Molecular movement
 Requires energy (against gradient)
 Example is sodium-potassium pump
Endocytosis
 Movement of large material
 Particles
 Organisms
 Large molecules
 Movement is into cells
 Types of endocytosis
 bulk-phase (nonspecific)
 receptor-mediated (specific)
Process of Endocytosis
 Plasma membrane surrounds material
 Edges of membrane meet
 Membranes fuse to form vesicle
Forms of Endocytosis
 Phagocytosis – cell eating
 Pinocytosis – cell drinking
Exocytosis
 Reverse of endocytosis
 Cell discharges material
Exocytosis
 Vesicle moves to cell surface
 Membrane of vesicle fuses
 Materials expelled
Cell Walls
 Found in plants, fungi, & many protists
 Surrounds plasma membrane
Cell Wall Differences
 Plants – mostly cellulose
 Fungi – contain chitin
 Bactria- Peptidoglycon or Murin
Cytoplasm
 Viscous fluid containing organelles
 components of cytoplasm
 Interconnected filaments & fibers
 Fluid = cytosol
 Organelles (not nucleus)
 storage substances
Centrioles
 Pairs of microtubular structures
 Play a role in cell division
DNA
 Hereditary material
 Chromosomes
 DNA
 Protiens
 Form for cell division
 Chromatin
Nucleolus
 Most cells have 2 or more
 Directs synthesis of RNA
 Forms ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Helps move substances within cells
 Network of interconnected membranes
 Two types
 Rough endoplasmic reticulum
 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Ribosomes attached to surface
 Manufacture protiens
 Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER
 May modify proteins from ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
 No attached ribosome
 Has enzymes that help build molecules
 Carbohydrates
 Lipids
Golgi Apparatus
 Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall
 Packaging & shipping station of cell
Golgi Apparatus Function
1. Molecules come in vesicles
2. Vesicles fuse with Golgi membrane
3. Molecules may be modified by Golgi
Golgi Apparatus Function
(Continued)
4. Molecules pinched-off in separate vesicle
5. Vesicle leaves Golgi apparatus
6. Vesicles may combine with plasma membrane
to secrete contents
Lysosomes
 Contain digestive enzymes
 Functions
 Aid in cell renewal
 Break down old cell parts
 Digests invaders
CELL ORGANELLES
1 NUCLEUS
2 GOLGI BODY
3 PLASMA MEMBRANE
4 CYTOPLASM
5 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
6 MITOCHONDRIA
7 LYSOSOME
8 VACUOLES
9 RIBOSOMES
10 MICROBODIES
(a)PEROXIXOMES
(b)GLYOXYSOME
DISCOVERY
1 ROBERT BROWN(1831)
2 CAMEILLIO GOLGI
3 SCHWANN(1838)
4 STRASBURGER(1882)
5 PORTER(1943)AND NAMED
IN(1953)
6 ALTAMAN(1894)AND
NAMED BY BENDA(1897)
7 de DUVE(1955)
8 SPALLANZONI
9 ROBINSON AND BROWN
(1953) IN PLANT CELL AND
PALADE(1955) IN ANIMAL
CELL
10 RHODIN(1954)
(a)de DUVE(1965)
(b)BRIEDENBACH(1967)
End Chapter

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THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE CLASS IX.ppt

  • 1. THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE:CELL CLASS IX
  • 2. Cells  Smallest living unit  Most are microscopic
  • 3. Discovery of Cells  Robert Hooke (1665)  Observed sliver of cork  Saw “row of empty boxes”  Coined the term cell
  • 4. Cell theory  (1839)Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden “ all living things are made of cells”  (1855) Rudolf Virchow “Omnis cellula e cellula ” all cells arise from pre- existing cells
  • 5. Principles of Cell Theory  All living things are made of cells  Smallest living unit of structure and function of all organisms is the cell  All cells arise from preexisting cells (this principle discarded the idea of spontaneous generation)
  • 7. Cells Have Large Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio
  • 8. Characteristics of All Cells  A surrounding membrane  Protoplasm – cell contents in thick fluid  Organelles – structures for cell function  Control center with DNA
  • 10. Prokaryotic Cells  First cell type on earth  Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
  • 11. Prokaryotic Cells  No membrane bound nucleus  Nucleoid = region of DNA concentration  Organelles not bound by membranes
  • 12. Eukaryotic Cells  Nucleus bound by membrane  Include fungi, protists, plant, and animal cells  Possess many organelles Protozoan
  • 13.
  • 14. THE UNIVERSE INSIDE OUR CELLS  Zoom into your own body to see the different cells that make up your heart, brain and bones.  These trillions building block of cells are communicating with each other every moment of our lives.  As the house is made by BRICKS.
  • 15.
  • 18.
  • 19. CELL ORGANELLES  The cellular components are called the Cell Organelles.  These cell organelles are membrane-bound, present within the cells and are distinct in their structures and functions.  They coordinate with their functions efficiently for the normal functioning of the cell.  There are various organelles present within the cell and are classified into three categories based on the presence or absence of membrane.
  • 20. TYPES OF CELL ORGANELLES  Organelles without membrane: The Cell wall, Ribosomes, Centrosome and Cytoskeleton are without membrane-bound cell organelles.  Single membrane-bound organelles: Vacuole, Lysosome, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum are single membrane-bound organelles present only in a eukaryotic cell.  Double membrane-bound organelles: Mitochondria and chloroplast are double membrane-bound organelles present only in a eukaryotic cell.
  • 22. Movement Across the Plasma Membrane  A few molecules move freely  Water, Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen  Carrier proteins transport some molecules  Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer  Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid nature of a lipid bilayer with proteins
  • 23.
  • 24. Membrane Proteins 1. Channels or transporters  Move molecules in one direction 2. Receptors  Recognize certain chemicals
  • 25. Membrane Proteins 3. Glycoproteins  Identify cell type 4. Enzymes  Catalyze production of substances
  • 26. CELL MEMBRANE FUNCTION  Passive Transport  Active Transport  Endocytosis (phagocytosis & pinocytosis)  Exocytosis
  • 27. Passive Transport  No energy required  Move due to gradient  differences in concentration, pressure, charge  Move to equalize gradient  High moves toward low
  • 28. Types of Passive Transport 1. Diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. Facilitated diffusion
  • 29. Diffusion  Molecules move to equalize concentration
  • 30. Osmosis  Special form of diffusion  Fluid flows from lower solute concentration  Often involves movement of water  Into cell  Out of cell
  • 31. Solution Differences & Cells  solvent + solute = solution  Hypotonic  Solutes in cell more than outside  Outside solvent will flow into cell And cell will swell  Isotonic  Solutes equal inside & out of cell no transport  Hypertonic  Solutes greater outside cell  Fluid will flow out and shrink
  • 32.
  • 33. Facilitated Diffusion  Differentially permeable membrane  Channels (are specific) help molecule or ions enter or leave the cell  Channels usually are transport proteins (aquaporins facilitate the movement of water)  No energy is used
  • 34. Process of Facilitated Transport  Protein binds with molecule  Shape of protein changes  Molecule moves across membrane
  • 35. Active Transport  Molecular movement  Requires energy (against gradient)  Example is sodium-potassium pump
  • 36. Endocytosis  Movement of large material  Particles  Organisms  Large molecules  Movement is into cells  Types of endocytosis  bulk-phase (nonspecific)  receptor-mediated (specific)
  • 37. Process of Endocytosis  Plasma membrane surrounds material  Edges of membrane meet  Membranes fuse to form vesicle
  • 38. Forms of Endocytosis  Phagocytosis – cell eating  Pinocytosis – cell drinking
  • 39. Exocytosis  Reverse of endocytosis  Cell discharges material
  • 40. Exocytosis  Vesicle moves to cell surface  Membrane of vesicle fuses  Materials expelled
  • 41. Cell Walls  Found in plants, fungi, & many protists  Surrounds plasma membrane
  • 42. Cell Wall Differences  Plants – mostly cellulose  Fungi – contain chitin  Bactria- Peptidoglycon or Murin
  • 43. Cytoplasm  Viscous fluid containing organelles  components of cytoplasm  Interconnected filaments & fibers  Fluid = cytosol  Organelles (not nucleus)  storage substances
  • 44. Centrioles  Pairs of microtubular structures  Play a role in cell division
  • 45. DNA  Hereditary material  Chromosomes  DNA  Protiens  Form for cell division  Chromatin
  • 46. Nucleolus  Most cells have 2 or more  Directs synthesis of RNA  Forms ribosomes
  • 47. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Helps move substances within cells  Network of interconnected membranes  Two types  Rough endoplasmic reticulum  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • 48. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum  Ribosomes attached to surface  Manufacture protiens  Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER  May modify proteins from ribosomes
  • 49. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum  No attached ribosome  Has enzymes that help build molecules  Carbohydrates  Lipids
  • 50. Golgi Apparatus  Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall  Packaging & shipping station of cell
  • 51. Golgi Apparatus Function 1. Molecules come in vesicles 2. Vesicles fuse with Golgi membrane 3. Molecules may be modified by Golgi
  • 52. Golgi Apparatus Function (Continued) 4. Molecules pinched-off in separate vesicle 5. Vesicle leaves Golgi apparatus 6. Vesicles may combine with plasma membrane to secrete contents
  • 53.
  • 54. Lysosomes  Contain digestive enzymes  Functions  Aid in cell renewal  Break down old cell parts  Digests invaders
  • 55. CELL ORGANELLES 1 NUCLEUS 2 GOLGI BODY 3 PLASMA MEMBRANE 4 CYTOPLASM 5 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 6 MITOCHONDRIA 7 LYSOSOME 8 VACUOLES 9 RIBOSOMES 10 MICROBODIES (a)PEROXIXOMES (b)GLYOXYSOME DISCOVERY 1 ROBERT BROWN(1831) 2 CAMEILLIO GOLGI 3 SCHWANN(1838) 4 STRASBURGER(1882) 5 PORTER(1943)AND NAMED IN(1953) 6 ALTAMAN(1894)AND NAMED BY BENDA(1897) 7 de DUVE(1955) 8 SPALLANZONI 9 ROBINSON AND BROWN (1953) IN PLANT CELL AND PALADE(1955) IN ANIMAL CELL 10 RHODIN(1954) (a)de DUVE(1965) (b)BRIEDENBACH(1967)
  • 56.