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Animal defense vs predators

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Animal defense vs predators

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Animal defense vs predators

  1. 1. Animal Defense against Predators
  2. 2. 1. Chemical Defense  There are two main ways animals can use chemicals to defend themselves.  Animals can synthesize toxin using their own metabolic processes, or they can accumulate toxin from the food they eat.
  3. 3. 1. Chemical Defense The poison dart frog has poison glands scattered all over its body.
  4. 4. 1. Chemical Defense In another example, the fire salamander makes a nerve poison, which it can squirt from glands on its back.
  5. 5. 1. Chemical Defense The  bombardier beetle  may look innocent enough, but it is famous for being able to spray boiling hot and chemically toxic bodily fluids in the direction of any would-be predator.
  6. 6. 1. Chemical Defense potato beetle babies (larvae) cover themselves in their own poop to avoid being eaten
  7. 7. 1. Chemical Defense The horned lizard  doesn’t use its horns to defend itself, as you might expect. Rather, when attacked, it pressures its own sinus cavities until the blood vessels in its eyes burst, and it sprays its attacker with blood from its eyes.
  8. 8. 1. Chemical Defense  Skunks amazing musk can be smelled miles away, their vision is exceptionally weak, and most skunks can only see about 10 feet in front of them. As a result, many are run over – half of all skunk deaths, in fact, are due to humans. The skunk’s anal musk is so powerful that if sprayed directly, the victim will experience temporary blindness.
  9. 9. 2. Camouflage Animals that camouflage themselves pretend to be something they are not. Either their coloration, marking patterns, or entire body resembles something else in their environment, here a leaf, an owl.
  10. 10. 2. Camouflage Here an aptly named walking stick pretends to be a twig, in an attempt to avoid being seen by a bird or other predator. This is an example of cryptic coloration. Photo courtesy of Dr. Lloyd Glenn Ingles, Cal. Acad. of Sciences.
  11. 11. 2. Camouflage Other bears and human poachers are the biggest threats to the majestic polar bear, but by blending into the blindingly white snow of the Arctic with equally white fur coats, some danger can be avoided. Only a polar bear's nose and foot pads are without fur. 
  12. 12. 2. Camouflage If you're ever swimming in the shallow waters off Australia or New Guinea, look for the ornate wobbegong -- though you probably won't be able to see it! This shark's body flattens out on the seafloor where its spots and blotchy lines resemble rock and coral. Wobbegongs take camouflage a step further with a little "beard" under their chins that looks like seaweed. 
  13. 13. 2. Camouflage In this picture, a four- eyed butterfly fish uses deceptive markings. The large spot near the tail resembles an eye. When predators attack the wrong end, the butterfly fish can swim away in the other direction!
  14. 14. 2. Camouflage Some predators also depend on camouflage, but this time it is in order to avoid being seen by their prey. Here, a frogfish resembles a sponge. Small fish swimming nearby will be engulfed in the frogfish’s enormous mouth!
  15. 15. 2. Camouflage Can you find the small shrimp hiding among the stinging tentacles of a sea anemone
  16. 16. 2. Camouflage Contrary to popular belief, chameleons only change color when in imminent danger. Their everyday skin color, a light khaki, keeps them hidden from enemies during those not-so- dangerous times.
  17. 17. 2. Camouflage Whether their coats are spotted or black these elegant and deadly cats are born with fashionable camouflage. Rabbits, young buffalo, and monkeys don't stand a chance when a hidden leopard makes a surprise attack.
  18. 18. 3. Actual Weapons
  19. 19. 3. Actual Weapons The simple defense system of turtles is its shell. It’s so effective as a protector for the turtles. Predators cannot penetrate it, and killer whales and large sharks are the only ones that are brave enough to attack turtles.
  20. 20. 3. Actual Weapons Hedgehogs have spikes that are enough to deter predators. However, it can also inflict a nasty prick on its own babies that’s why hedgehogs have soft undersides where its babies can safely suckle.
  21. 21. 3. Actual Weapons Flying fish can leap up to a meter clear of the waves and glide through the air at speeds of 15 km/h on their outstretched, rigid fins, leaving their pursuer behind.
  22. 22. 3. Actual Weapons Pufferfishes have the ability to inflate themselves into a balloon shape by swallowing water. Their bodies are also covered with thorny spikes, which stand out on inflation, providing a formidable defence against attack. The organs and fluids of pufferfishes are also highly poisonous to humans, if consumed, a small amount can kill a person.
  23. 23. 3. Mimicry In mimicry, an organism (the mimic) closely resembles another organism (the model) in order to deceive a third, (the operator). The model and the mimic are not always closely related, but both usually live in the same area. This is similar to camouflage, but in mimicry the model is generally a similar organism rather than a static part of the background environment.
  24. 24. 3. Mimicry There are several types of mimicry. The two most common types are Batesian mimicry and Mullerian mimicry.
  25. 25. 3. Mimicry Batesian mimicry occurs when an edible mimic resembles an unpalatable or poisonous model. In this type of mimicry, only the mimic benefits. An example of Batesian mimicry is the scarlet king snake, a non-poisonous mimic of the extremely venemous coral snake. Above: scarlet king snake Right: coral snake John H. Tashjian Photo courtesy of John H. Tashjian, Cal. Acad. of Sciences.
  26. 26. 3. Mimicry Another example of Batesian mimicry is the locust borer. This insect not only looks like a bee or wasp, it sounds like one, too!
  27. 27. 3. Mimicry By contrast, Mullerian mimicry occurs when two (or more) distasteful or poisonous organisms resemble each other. Both species benefit because a predator who learns to avoid one species will most likely avoid the other, too.
  28. 28. 3. Mimicry The two invertebrates on the left are different species of sea slugs, while the one on the right is a marine flatworm. All three secrete noxious substances and are unpalatable. Notice their similar aposematic coloring.

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