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VOLCANOES
INTRODUCTION
• More than 80% of the earth’s surface is volcanic
in origin. The sea floor and some mountains were
formed by countless volcanic eruptions. Gaseous
emissions from volcano formed the earth’s
atmosphere.
• There are more than 500 active volcanoes in the
world. More than half of these volcanoes are part
of the “Ring of Fire,” a region that encircles the
Pacific Ocean.
So…what is a volcano?
• A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a
planet's surface or crust, which allows
hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to
escape from below the surface.
• Volcanic activity involving the extrusion
of rock tends to form mountains or
features like mountains over a period of
time.
Where are the volcanoes
commonly found?
Countries within the ring of fire
• Chile
• Mexico
• United States
• Canada
• Russia
• Japan
• Philippines
• Indonesia
• New Zealand
• Peru
• Ecuador
• Panama
• The "Ring Of Fire" is associated with
a nearly continuous series of oceanic
trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic
belts and/or plate movements.
• Consists of 452 volcanoes and is
home to 75% of the worlds active
and dormant volcanoes
It's a string of volcanoes running
along the pacific ocean.
What are the different types
of volcanoes
Principal Types of Volcanoes
Cinder Cones
• Cinder cones are the simplest type of volcano.
• Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater
at the summit and rarely rise more than a
thousand feet or so above their surroundings.
• Cinder cones are numerous in western North
America as well as throughout other volcanic
terrains of the world.
Parícutin Volcano, Mexico, is a cinder cone rising approximately
1,200 feet above the surrounding plain.
Cinder Cones
They are built from particles and blobs of
congealed lava ejected from a single
vent.
As the gas-charged lava is blown violently
into the air, it breaks into small fragments
that solidify and fall as cinders around
the vent to form a circular or oval cone.
Composite Volcano
• Some of the Earth's grandest
mountains are composite volcanoes-
-sometimes called stratovolcanoes.
• They are typically steep-sided,
symmetrical cones of large
dimension.
• Most composite volcanoes have a crater
at the summit which contains a central
vent or a clustered group of vents.
• Lavas either flow through breaks in the
crater wall or issue from fissures on the
flanks of the cone. Lava, solidified within
the fissures, forms dikes that act as ribs
which greatly strengthen the cone.
Composite volcanoes
• Built of alternating layers of
lava flows, volcanic ash,
cinders, blocks, and bombs
and may rise as much as 8,000
feet above their bases.
Shishaldin Volcano, an imposing composite cone, towers 9,372
feet above sea level in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
Some of the most conspicuous
and beautiful mountains in the
world are composite volcanoes:
Mount Hood in Oregon,
Mount Shasta in California,
Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador,
Mt. Rainier, Washington
Mt. St. Helens, Washington
Shield volcanoes
• Shield volcanoes, the third type of volcano,
are built almost entirely of fluid lava flows.
• Flow after flow pours out in all directions from
a central summit vent, or group of vents,
building a broad, gently sloping cone of flat,
domical shape, with a profile much like that of
a warrior's shield.
Shield volcanoes
• They are built up slowly by the accretion of
thousands of highly fluid lava flows called
basalt lava that spread widely over great
distances, and then cool as thin, gently
dipping sheets. Lavas also commonly erupt
from vents along fractures (rift zones) that
develop on the flanks of the cone.
Shield volcanoes
• Some of the largest volcanoes in the
world are shield volcanoes.
• In northern California and Oregon,
many shield volcanoes have
diameters of 3 or 4 miles and heights
of 1,500 to 2,000 feet.
Shield volcanoes
• The Hawaiian Islands are
composed of linear chains of
these volcanoes including Kilauea
and Mauna Loa on the island of
Hawaii-- two of the world's most
active volcanoes.
Shield volcanoes
• The floor of the ocean is more than
15,000 feet deep at the bases of the
islands. As Mauna Loa, the largest of
the shield volcanoes (and also the
world's largest active volcano),
projects 13,677 feet above sea level,
its top is over 28,000 feet above the
deep ocean floor.
Lava Domes
• Volcanic or lava domes are
formed by relatively small,
bulbous masses of lava too
viscous to flow any great
distance; consequently, on
extrusion, the lava piles over and
around its vent.
Lava Domes
• As it grows its outer surface cools
and hardens, then shatters, spilling
loose fragments down its sides.
Some domes form craggy knobs or
spines over the volcanic vent,
whereas others form short, steep-
sided lava flows known as "coulees.“
Lava Domes
• Volcanic domes commonly
occur within the craters or on
the flanks of large composite
volcanoes.
Lava Domes
• The nearly circular Novarupta Dome that
formed during the 1912 eruption of Katmai
Volcano, Alaska, measures 800 feet across and
200 feet high. The internal structure of this
dome--defined by layering of lava fanning
upward and outward from the center--
indicates that it grew largely by expansion
from within.
Done

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Volcanoes23

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • More than 80% of the earth’s surface is volcanic in origin. The sea floor and some mountains were formed by countless volcanic eruptions. Gaseous emissions from volcano formed the earth’s atmosphere. • There are more than 500 active volcanoes in the world. More than half of these volcanoes are part of the “Ring of Fire,” a region that encircles the Pacific Ocean.
  • 3. So…what is a volcano? • A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface. • Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like mountains over a period of time.
  • 4. Where are the volcanoes commonly found?
  • 5.
  • 6. Countries within the ring of fire • Chile • Mexico • United States • Canada • Russia • Japan • Philippines • Indonesia • New Zealand • Peru • Ecuador • Panama
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. • The "Ring Of Fire" is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. • Consists of 452 volcanoes and is home to 75% of the worlds active and dormant volcanoes It's a string of volcanoes running along the pacific ocean.
  • 10.
  • 11. What are the different types of volcanoes
  • 12. Principal Types of Volcanoes
  • 13. Cinder Cones • Cinder cones are the simplest type of volcano. • Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than a thousand feet or so above their surroundings. • Cinder cones are numerous in western North America as well as throughout other volcanic terrains of the world.
  • 14.
  • 15. Parícutin Volcano, Mexico, is a cinder cone rising approximately 1,200 feet above the surrounding plain.
  • 16. Cinder Cones They are built from particles and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single vent. As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders around the vent to form a circular or oval cone.
  • 17. Composite Volcano • Some of the Earth's grandest mountains are composite volcanoes- -sometimes called stratovolcanoes. • They are typically steep-sided, symmetrical cones of large dimension.
  • 18.
  • 19. • Most composite volcanoes have a crater at the summit which contains a central vent or a clustered group of vents. • Lavas either flow through breaks in the crater wall or issue from fissures on the flanks of the cone. Lava, solidified within the fissures, forms dikes that act as ribs which greatly strengthen the cone.
  • 21. • Built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs and may rise as much as 8,000 feet above their bases.
  • 22. Shishaldin Volcano, an imposing composite cone, towers 9,372 feet above sea level in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
  • 23. Some of the most conspicuous and beautiful mountains in the world are composite volcanoes:
  • 24. Mount Hood in Oregon,
  • 25. Mount Shasta in California,
  • 26. Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador,
  • 28. Mt. St. Helens, Washington
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. Shield volcanoes • Shield volcanoes, the third type of volcano, are built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. • Flow after flow pours out in all directions from a central summit vent, or group of vents, building a broad, gently sloping cone of flat, domical shape, with a profile much like that of a warrior's shield.
  • 32. Shield volcanoes • They are built up slowly by the accretion of thousands of highly fluid lava flows called basalt lava that spread widely over great distances, and then cool as thin, gently dipping sheets. Lavas also commonly erupt from vents along fractures (rift zones) that develop on the flanks of the cone.
  • 33.
  • 34. Shield volcanoes • Some of the largest volcanoes in the world are shield volcanoes. • In northern California and Oregon, many shield volcanoes have diameters of 3 or 4 miles and heights of 1,500 to 2,000 feet.
  • 35. Shield volcanoes • The Hawaiian Islands are composed of linear chains of these volcanoes including Kilauea and Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii-- two of the world's most active volcanoes.
  • 36. Shield volcanoes • The floor of the ocean is more than 15,000 feet deep at the bases of the islands. As Mauna Loa, the largest of the shield volcanoes (and also the world's largest active volcano), projects 13,677 feet above sea level, its top is over 28,000 feet above the deep ocean floor.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Lava Domes • Volcanic or lava domes are formed by relatively small, bulbous masses of lava too viscous to flow any great distance; consequently, on extrusion, the lava piles over and around its vent.
  • 41. Lava Domes • As it grows its outer surface cools and hardens, then shatters, spilling loose fragments down its sides. Some domes form craggy knobs or spines over the volcanic vent, whereas others form short, steep- sided lava flows known as "coulees.“
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. Lava Domes • Volcanic domes commonly occur within the craters or on the flanks of large composite volcanoes.
  • 45. Lava Domes • The nearly circular Novarupta Dome that formed during the 1912 eruption of Katmai Volcano, Alaska, measures 800 feet across and 200 feet high. The internal structure of this dome--defined by layering of lava fanning upward and outward from the center-- indicates that it grew largely by expansion from within.
  • 46.
  • 47. Done