SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 16
Download to read offline
Spine degeneration is a general
term for the gradual wear and tear
of the discs, joints, and bones of
the spine. This can happen due to a
number of factors, including aging,
injury, and genetics.
The most common type of spine
degeneration is degenerative disc
disease. This occurs when the discs
between the vertebrae (the bones
of the spine) lose their water
content and become less flexible.
This can cause pain, stiffness, and
weakness in the back.
spine degeneration 1
Other types of spine degeneration
include:
1. Spinal stenosis: This is a
narrowing of the spinal canal,
which can put pressure on the
spinal cord and nerves.
2. Spondylosis: This is a general
term for the wear and tear of
the joints in the spine.
3. Kyphosis: This is an abnormal
rounding of the upper spine.
4. Lordosis: This is an abnormal
inward curvature of the lower
spine
spine degeneration 2
Symptoms of spine degeneration
can vary depending on the type
and severity of the condition.
Some common symptoms include:
•Pain in the back, neck, or arms
•Stiffness in the back or neck
•Weakness in the back or legs
•Numbness or tingling in the arms
or legs Loss of balance
spine degeneration 3
Spinal degeneration
Degenerative changes within the spine are the
most common pathological finding noted on
autopsy and on imaging of the spine.
Sagittal T2 weighed MR image of lumbar spine demonstrating a
normal-appearing signal of all discs except the L5 disc where
there is a high signal intensity zone in the posterior aspect of
the disc space (arrow). This represents nuclear material that
has extended through a confluence of annular tears, leading to
a radial fissure in the disc
spine degeneration 4
The speed and extent of the degenerative changes
appear to be impacted by hereditary factors as
well as specific and continuous traumatic events
that occur through a person’s life. Even the most
severe degenerative changes can occur in the
absence of symptomatology, but back pain is
more common in individuals who demonstrate
these degenerative changes. It appears that the
degenerative changes in the spine make one more
vulnerable to the inflammatory effects of trauma.
spine degeneration 5
Degenerative changes are most
evident in the intervertebral discs
and the facet joints, usually at the
same time, but often to varying
degrees. It is useful to visualize the
vertebral motion-segment as a
‘three joint complex’ in which
degenerative changes in the
posterior facets impact the
intervertebral disc, and pathological
changes within the intervertebral
disc will create greater stressors
upon the posterior facet joints.
spine degeneration 6
THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC
Degenerative changes within the
intervertebral disc usually start as
small circumferential tears in the
annulus fibrosus. These annular
tears increase in size and coalesce
to form radial fissures. The radial
fissures then expand and extend
into the nucleus pulposus,
disrupting the disc structure
internally. There is a loss of
proteoglycans and water content
from the nucleus which results in a
loss of the height
of the disc. As degeneration continues,
the disc collapses, shortening the
distance between the two vertebral
bodies. This re-absorption can progress
to
the point where the vertebral bodies are
eventually separated only by dense
sclerotic fibrous tissue
which is all that remains of the original
disc structure
spine degeneration 7
At the same time as the disc is
being reabsorbed, the vertebral
bodies on either side of the disc
become dense and sclerotic.
Osteophytes extend
from the vertebral bodies around its
circumference, presumably in an
attempt to stabilize the three-joint
complex and reduce motion.
Occasionally, the osteophytes may
join and fuse, resulting in bony
ankylosis of the joint
spine degeneration 8
THE FACET JOINTS
Degenerative changes within the
posterior facet usually begin with
an inflammatory synovitis, which
can lead to the formation of a
synovial fold, projecting into the
joint between the cartilage surfaces.
There is gradual thinning of the
cartilage, which starts in the
periphery with progressive loss of
cartilage tissue. Subperiosteal
osteophytes begin to form which
enlarge both the inferior and
superior facets.
spine degeneration 9
This breakdown continues until there is
almost total loss of articular cartilage with marked
periarticular fibrosis and the formation of
subperiosteal new bone expanding the volume of the
superior and inferior facets. During the early phases
of these degenerative changes, the facet capsule can
become very lax, allowing increased movement. It is
probably this period of increased mobility of the
joint which leads to further degeneration within the
posterior facets, and puts further stress on the
intervertebral discs
spine degeneration 10
There are two small
circumferential tears in
the posterior annulus
(arrows). This represents
stage one of the
degenerative process in
the discs. The posterior
facets are enlarged and the
facets show degenerative
changes. This
demonstrates the
interaction between the
discs and the posterior
joints.
spine degeneration 11
This cross-section of the lumbar
spine shows degenerative
changes in the intervertebral disc
and the posterior facet joints.
The extensive degenerative
changes in the posterior joints
have
resulted in enlargement of the
facets. On the left side of the
disc near the back of the
vertebral body, there is a small
circumferential tear in the
annulus fibrosus. This tear has
enlarged and spread to the center
of the disc.
spine degeneration 12
this cross-section through
a lumbar disc shows very
marked degenerative
changes.
There is complete
disintegration of the
nucleus pulposus. These
changes have resulted in
instability of the three-
joint complex at this level.
spine degeneration 13
Longitudinal section
through the lumbar
spine at L4–L5.
There
is almost complete
resorption of the disc
which is seen as a
small slit between
the vertebral bodies.
There is sclerosis of
the bone in the
vertebral bodies on
either side of the
disc.
spine degeneration 14
Longitudinal sagittal section of
the lumbar spine showing
marked degeneration at four
levels. There is a Schmorl’s node
at the upper level at L2–L3, with
herniation of the nucleus
pulposus into the vertebral body.
There is disintegration of the
L3–L4 and L4–L5 discs. At the
L5–S1 level, there is disc
resorption, with sclerotic bone
on either side of the remnants of
the
disc.
spine degeneration 15
spine degeneration 16

More Related Content

Similar to spine degeneration spine degeneration

Cervical spondylosis.pptx
Cervical spondylosis.pptxCervical spondylosis.pptx
Cervical spondylosis.pptx
Rajveer71
 
Intervertibral disc prolapse
Intervertibral disc prolapseIntervertibral disc prolapse
Intervertibral disc prolapse
mohammedalhussein
 
radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)
radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)
radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)
student
 
Msk Lecture3 1st Hospital
Msk Lecture3 1st HospitalMsk Lecture3 1st Hospital
Msk Lecture3 1st Hospital
Sumit Prajapati
 
Painrelief presentation
Painrelief presentationPainrelief presentation
Painrelief presentation
Amy Parker
 
Surgical Review Lumbar Spinal Fusion
Surgical Review Lumbar Spinal FusionSurgical Review Lumbar Spinal Fusion
Surgical Review Lumbar Spinal Fusion
Elijah Walker
 

Similar to spine degeneration spine degeneration (20)

Radiology 5th year, 5th lecture/part one (Dr. Ameer)
Radiology 5th year, 5th lecture/part one (Dr. Ameer)Radiology 5th year, 5th lecture/part one (Dr. Ameer)
Radiology 5th year, 5th lecture/part one (Dr. Ameer)
 
Cervical spondylosis
Cervical spondylosisCervical spondylosis
Cervical spondylosis
 
Intervertibral disc prolapse
Intervertibral disc prolapseIntervertibral disc prolapse
Intervertibral disc prolapse
 
Prolapse Intervertebral Disc LECTURE.pdf
Prolapse Intervertebral Disc LECTURE.pdfProlapse Intervertebral Disc LECTURE.pdf
Prolapse Intervertebral Disc LECTURE.pdf
 
Chiropractor Vancouver
Chiropractor VancouverChiropractor Vancouver
Chiropractor Vancouver
 
Degenerative Spine Disease.pptx
Degenerative Spine Disease.pptxDegenerative Spine Disease.pptx
Degenerative Spine Disease.pptx
 
Spine.pptx and its functions with complete assesment
Spine.pptx and its functions with complete assesmentSpine.pptx and its functions with complete assesment
Spine.pptx and its functions with complete assesment
 
Presentation1.pptx, radiological imaging of osteoarthritis.
Presentation1.pptx, radiological imaging of osteoarthritis.Presentation1.pptx, radiological imaging of osteoarthritis.
Presentation1.pptx, radiological imaging of osteoarthritis.
 
Dr David Greene's R3 Stem Cell Treatment For Spinal Stenosis.pptx
Dr David Greene's R3 Stem Cell Treatment For Spinal Stenosis.pptxDr David Greene's R3 Stem Cell Treatment For Spinal Stenosis.pptx
Dr David Greene's R3 Stem Cell Treatment For Spinal Stenosis.pptx
 
Cervical spondylosis.pptx
Cervical spondylosis.pptxCervical spondylosis.pptx
Cervical spondylosis.pptx
 
Osteoarthritis.pptx
Osteoarthritis.pptxOsteoarthritis.pptx
Osteoarthritis.pptx
 
Intervertibral disc prolapse
Intervertibral disc prolapseIntervertibral disc prolapse
Intervertibral disc prolapse
 
anatomy of the disc in spine anatomy complete
anatomy of the disc in spine anatomy completeanatomy of the disc in spine anatomy complete
anatomy of the disc in spine anatomy complete
 
Anatomy of the Disc
Anatomy of the DiscAnatomy of the Disc
Anatomy of the Disc
 
radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)
radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)
radiology.Spine 2.(ameer)
 
Knee Joint anatomy and Disorders
Knee Joint anatomy and DisordersKnee Joint anatomy and Disorders
Knee Joint anatomy and Disorders
 
Msk Lecture3 1st Hospital
Msk Lecture3 1st HospitalMsk Lecture3 1st Hospital
Msk Lecture3 1st Hospital
 
Painrelief presentation
Painrelief presentationPainrelief presentation
Painrelief presentation
 
Surgical Review Lumbar Spinal Fusion
Surgical Review Lumbar Spinal FusionSurgical Review Lumbar Spinal Fusion
Surgical Review Lumbar Spinal Fusion
 
Discogenic lower backache by DR.NAVEEN RATHOR
Discogenic lower backache by DR.NAVEEN RATHORDiscogenic lower backache by DR.NAVEEN RATHOR
Discogenic lower backache by DR.NAVEEN RATHOR
 

More from Mohamed Alashram

More from Mohamed Alashram (20)

software engineering history2.pptx
software      engineering  history2.pptxsoftware      engineering  history2.pptx
software engineering history2.pptx
 
software engineering history
software     engineering         historysoftware     engineering         history
software engineering history
 
lung cancer
lung                                 cancerlung                                 cancer
lung cancer
 
cancer incidence .pdf
cancer         incidence             .pdfcancer         incidence             .pdf
cancer incidence .pdf
 
cancer introduction .pdf
cancer            introduction      .pdfcancer            introduction      .pdf
cancer introduction .pdf
 
cancer etiology .pdf
cancer               etiology       .pdfcancer               etiology       .pdf
cancer etiology .pdf
 
oncology. pdf
oncology.                                        pdfoncology.                                        pdf
oncology. pdf
 
molecular biology1 .pdf
molecular           biology1         .pdfmolecular           biology1         .pdf
molecular biology1 .pdf
 
photosynthesis lecture1 introduction.pdf
photosynthesis lecture1 introduction.pdfphotosynthesis lecture1 introduction.pdf
photosynthesis lecture1 introduction.pdf
 
history of computer hardware .pdf
history   of computer      hardware  .pdfhistory   of computer      hardware  .pdf
history of computer hardware .pdf
 
Energy and metabolism.pdf
Energy          and        metabolism.pdfEnergy          and        metabolism.pdf
Energy and metabolism.pdf
 
Management leadership .pdf
Management           leadership      .pdfManagement           leadership      .pdf
Management leadership .pdf
 
biology introduction . pdf
biology          introduction   .     pdfbiology          introduction   .     pdf
biology introduction . pdf
 
cell membrane .pdf
cell    membrane                    .pdfcell    membrane                    .pdf
cell membrane .pdf
 
Charteris tics of life .pdf
Charteris tics       of        life .pdfCharteris tics       of        life .pdf
Charteris tics of life .pdf
 
biology introduction .pdf
biology                 introduction .pdfbiology                 introduction .pdf
biology introduction .pdf
 
AWS directory application.pdf
AWS         directory    application.pdfAWS         directory    application.pdf
AWS directory application.pdf
 
data science .1.pdf
data      science                 .1.pdfdata      science                 .1.pdf
data science .1.pdf
 
interacting with AWS2 .pdf
interacting       with    AWS2      .pdfinteracting       with    AWS2      .pdf
interacting with AWS2 .pdf
 
interacting with AWS . pdf
interacting   with   AWS   .          pdfinteracting   with   AWS   .          pdf
interacting with AWS . pdf
 

Recently uploaded

Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
EADTU
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
Peter Brusilovsky
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of TransportBasic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
ESSENTIAL of (CS/IT/IS) class 07 (Networks)
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 

spine degeneration spine degeneration

  • 1. Spine degeneration is a general term for the gradual wear and tear of the discs, joints, and bones of the spine. This can happen due to a number of factors, including aging, injury, and genetics. The most common type of spine degeneration is degenerative disc disease. This occurs when the discs between the vertebrae (the bones of the spine) lose their water content and become less flexible. This can cause pain, stiffness, and weakness in the back. spine degeneration 1
  • 2. Other types of spine degeneration include: 1. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerves. 2. Spondylosis: This is a general term for the wear and tear of the joints in the spine. 3. Kyphosis: This is an abnormal rounding of the upper spine. 4. Lordosis: This is an abnormal inward curvature of the lower spine spine degeneration 2
  • 3. Symptoms of spine degeneration can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include: •Pain in the back, neck, or arms •Stiffness in the back or neck •Weakness in the back or legs •Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs Loss of balance spine degeneration 3
  • 4. Spinal degeneration Degenerative changes within the spine are the most common pathological finding noted on autopsy and on imaging of the spine. Sagittal T2 weighed MR image of lumbar spine demonstrating a normal-appearing signal of all discs except the L5 disc where there is a high signal intensity zone in the posterior aspect of the disc space (arrow). This represents nuclear material that has extended through a confluence of annular tears, leading to a radial fissure in the disc spine degeneration 4
  • 5. The speed and extent of the degenerative changes appear to be impacted by hereditary factors as well as specific and continuous traumatic events that occur through a person’s life. Even the most severe degenerative changes can occur in the absence of symptomatology, but back pain is more common in individuals who demonstrate these degenerative changes. It appears that the degenerative changes in the spine make one more vulnerable to the inflammatory effects of trauma. spine degeneration 5
  • 6. Degenerative changes are most evident in the intervertebral discs and the facet joints, usually at the same time, but often to varying degrees. It is useful to visualize the vertebral motion-segment as a ‘three joint complex’ in which degenerative changes in the posterior facets impact the intervertebral disc, and pathological changes within the intervertebral disc will create greater stressors upon the posterior facet joints. spine degeneration 6
  • 7. THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC Degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc usually start as small circumferential tears in the annulus fibrosus. These annular tears increase in size and coalesce to form radial fissures. The radial fissures then expand and extend into the nucleus pulposus, disrupting the disc structure internally. There is a loss of proteoglycans and water content from the nucleus which results in a loss of the height of the disc. As degeneration continues, the disc collapses, shortening the distance between the two vertebral bodies. This re-absorption can progress to the point where the vertebral bodies are eventually separated only by dense sclerotic fibrous tissue which is all that remains of the original disc structure spine degeneration 7
  • 8. At the same time as the disc is being reabsorbed, the vertebral bodies on either side of the disc become dense and sclerotic. Osteophytes extend from the vertebral bodies around its circumference, presumably in an attempt to stabilize the three-joint complex and reduce motion. Occasionally, the osteophytes may join and fuse, resulting in bony ankylosis of the joint spine degeneration 8
  • 9. THE FACET JOINTS Degenerative changes within the posterior facet usually begin with an inflammatory synovitis, which can lead to the formation of a synovial fold, projecting into the joint between the cartilage surfaces. There is gradual thinning of the cartilage, which starts in the periphery with progressive loss of cartilage tissue. Subperiosteal osteophytes begin to form which enlarge both the inferior and superior facets. spine degeneration 9
  • 10. This breakdown continues until there is almost total loss of articular cartilage with marked periarticular fibrosis and the formation of subperiosteal new bone expanding the volume of the superior and inferior facets. During the early phases of these degenerative changes, the facet capsule can become very lax, allowing increased movement. It is probably this period of increased mobility of the joint which leads to further degeneration within the posterior facets, and puts further stress on the intervertebral discs spine degeneration 10
  • 11. There are two small circumferential tears in the posterior annulus (arrows). This represents stage one of the degenerative process in the discs. The posterior facets are enlarged and the facets show degenerative changes. This demonstrates the interaction between the discs and the posterior joints. spine degeneration 11
  • 12. This cross-section of the lumbar spine shows degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc and the posterior facet joints. The extensive degenerative changes in the posterior joints have resulted in enlargement of the facets. On the left side of the disc near the back of the vertebral body, there is a small circumferential tear in the annulus fibrosus. This tear has enlarged and spread to the center of the disc. spine degeneration 12
  • 13. this cross-section through a lumbar disc shows very marked degenerative changes. There is complete disintegration of the nucleus pulposus. These changes have resulted in instability of the three- joint complex at this level. spine degeneration 13
  • 14. Longitudinal section through the lumbar spine at L4–L5. There is almost complete resorption of the disc which is seen as a small slit between the vertebral bodies. There is sclerosis of the bone in the vertebral bodies on either side of the disc. spine degeneration 14
  • 15. Longitudinal sagittal section of the lumbar spine showing marked degeneration at four levels. There is a Schmorl’s node at the upper level at L2–L3, with herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the vertebral body. There is disintegration of the L3–L4 and L4–L5 discs. At the L5–S1 level, there is disc resorption, with sclerotic bone on either side of the remnants of the disc. spine degeneration 15