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Sean Bechhofer University of Manchester [email_address] @seanbechhofer
The view from the twitterati
SKOS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
SKOS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Simplicity Standardisation  Extensibility
Bridging the Gap ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Personal History ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],S. Bechhofer, Y. Yesilada, R. Stevens, S. Jupp, and B. Horan.  Using Ontologies and Vocabularies for Dynamic Linking   IEEE Internet Computing 12(3), p.32--39 2008  http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MIC.2008.68
What goes around comes around ,[object Object],[object Object]
SKOS the Brave
Midwifery
Knowledge Organisation Systems Controlled Vocabulary Synonym Ring Authority File Taxonomy Thesaurus Collection of Terms Equivalent Terms Preferred Terms Hierarchy Related Terms Controlled vocabularies : designed for use in classifying or indexing documents and for searching them. Thesaurus : Controlled vocabulary in which concepts are represented by preferred terms, formally organised so that paradigmatic relationships between the concepts are made explicit, and the preferred terms are accompanied by lead-in entries for synonyms or quasi-synonyms.
SWAD Europe ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sem Web Best Practices & Deployment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],… hands on support for developers of Semantic Web Applications
Semantic Web Deployment ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],… provide guidance in the form of W3 Technical Reports on issues of practical development and deployment practices in the area of publishing vocabularies…and integrating RDF with HTML documents
SKOS Use Cases ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Bridge 77, Macclesfield Canal William Crosley  Macclesfield Canal Company 1825-1831
SKOS Goals ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Concepts vs Terms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
SKOS Example animals NT cats cats UF domestic cats RT wildcats BT animals SN used only for domestic cats domestic cats USE cats wildcats Graphic:  Antoine Isaac
SKOS Model
Labelling ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Documentation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Semantic Relations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mapping Relations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Collections ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],milk <milk by source animal>  cow milk  goat  milk   buffalo milk
What’s not there? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Stockport Viaduct George Watson Buck 1840
Bricks all the way through ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
SKOS and OWL ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],S. Jupp, S. Bechhofer and R. Stevens  A Flexible API and Editor for SKOS  ESWC2009   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02121-3_38
Containment  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ashness Bridge Unknown c. 17 th  Century
IVOA: A Bridge to the Stars ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],IVOA  Vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/latest/Vocabularies.html
IVOA Vocabularies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],A. Gray, N. Gray, C. Hall and I Ounis  Finding the right term: Retrieving and exploring semantic concepts in astronomical vocabularies   Information Processing and Management (2009)   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2009.09.004
IVOA Scenario ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
IVOA ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Europeana ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],S. Gradmann  Europeana White Paper 1 http://www.scribd.com/doc/32110457/Europeana-White-Paper-1
Examples: LCSH ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],E. Summers, A Isaac, C. Redding, and D. Krech.  LCSH, SKOS and linked data   International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications  2008  http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.2855v3
Scary Bridge Unknown, Dalat,  Vietnam 20 th  Century
LCSH ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
A happy ending: id.loc.gov ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
RDFa ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electronic Service Delivery (ESD) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
ZBW Economics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],J. Nuebert.  Bringing the &quot;Thesaurus for Economics&quot; on to the Web of Linked Data   LDOW2009 http://events.linkeddata.org/ldow2009/papers/ldow2009_paper7.pdf
ZBW Economics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
ONKI:Finland ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Jouni Tuominen, Matias Frosterus, Kim Viljanen, and Eero Hyvonen  ONKI SKOS Server for Publishing and Utilizing SKOS Vocabularies and Ontologies as Services  ESWC2009   http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02121-3_56
Drupal, RDFa and SKOS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],S. Corlosquet, R. Delbru, T. Clark, A. Polleres and S. Decker.  Produce and Consume Linked Data with Drupal!   ISWC2009  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04930-9_48
SKOS as a Gateway Drug
Tooling
Union Chain Bridge Captain Samuel Brown, Adam Clark, 1820
SKOS and Linked Data ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],SKOS LD Indexing/Retrieval Discovery Semantic Relations Navigation Mapping Linking and Integration beyond URI matching
sameAs vs mapping ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],H.Halpin,P Hayes.  When owl:sameAs isn’t the Same: An Analysis of Identity Links on the Semantic Web  LDOW2010 http://events.linkeddata.org/ldow2010/papers/ldow2010_paper09.pdf
The Mancunian Way Unknown Opened 1967
SKOS Namespace ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Transitivity of Semantic Relations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
skos:subject ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
SKOS and OWL ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
SKOS and OWL ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Forth Rail Bridge John Fowler & Benjamin Baker  Built by William Arrol & Co. 1883-1890
Are we done yet? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Postponed Issues ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Postponed in Last Call ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Who’s under there?
Ogres ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
W3C Library Linked Data Incubator
Community Wiki ,[object Object],[object Object]
SKOS ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Simplicity Standardisation  Extensibility
Thanks! ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Image Sources ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Let’s grab one of these…..
…some of these…
…and do this

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SKOS, Past, Present and Future

Editor's Notes

  1. Is this just going to be preaching to the converted?
  2. Linking and Bridging: complimentary approaches.
  3. OWL used for representation, but bent to fit the purposes that we wanted it to serve. Not all Cells have a Nucleus So ended up with “OntoDirty” ontologies. Woods &amp; Schmolze: This situation is exacerbated by the fact that these systems (especially the more limited ones), often don&apos;t provide some of the capabilities that users need. When this happens, users get creative and the intended semantics of the notation is easily cast aside for an operational semantics determined by what the algorithms do (to the extent that they can be understood). In many cases, users have creatively used these systems to achieve behaviour that was not intended by the designers.&amp;quot;
  4. Various Standards: ISO 2788/5694, BS8723-2, BS8723-4, LIMBER, AGROVOC etc. But little RDF/SW.
  5. Semantic Web Advanced Development EU IST
  6. 2005
  7. Design and lasting aesthetics. Windy horse bridge on canal “Roving Bridge” (see wikipedia) Canals key communication infrastructure of their day. Solved a particular problem in an aesthetically pleasing fashion Don’t have to do it that way. Could have ramps on one side of bridge or gap on the middle for rope. Introduction of powered boats removed the need (but it still looks nice)
  8. SKOS Metamodel Note no explicit model in the Rec. Classes, properties etc. Primarily about the relations (which can be used elsewhere). Semantic Relations No specialisations Labelling pref/alt/hidden Mapping sameAs vs exactMatch Concept Based approach
  9. Example: STITCH Lookup service
  10. Bricks all the way through
  11. ZBW: German National Library of Economics
  12. Small bridges allow local communities to interact and communicate. Not absolutely vital to life You could get across by getting your feet wet But make things much more comfortable. Mappings allow people to work in their own domain/community and link where possible. No “imposition” (Skye bridge??).
  13. NASA Astrophysics Data System AVM Astronomy Visualisation Metadata: Subject categories for tagging images.
  14. CF Conversation with Antoine Isaac about opening up cultural heritage collections
  15. RDFa good for this. Structured information Chunked Both human and m/c readable aspects to it.
  16. ZBW: German National Library of Economics
  17. CONSTRUCT { [] a :Error; :message &apos;Descriptor [1] has narrower Thsys [2].&apos;; :implicated ( ?d ?t ); } WHERE { ?d skos:narrower ?t. ?d rdf:type zbwext:Descriptor . ?t rdf:type zbwext:Thsys } Thesaurus service: http://zbw.eu/beta/stw-ws
  18. Lots of others: AGROVOC (FAO) UMBEL http://www.umbel.org E-Culture http://e-culture.multimedian.nl
  19. Examples SKOSEd PoolParty Drupal TopBraid
  20. Scottish/English Border Oldest suspension bridge still carrying traffic
  21. Technology over users. Seen as an architectural triumph by designers – loved by the concrete geeks. It’s actually pretty horrible. Crescents etc.
  22. Vocabulary maintenance issues. Rock and a hard place.
  23. What does this tell us? People don’t read Specs? People read the specs but don’t care? We got the spec wrong?
  24. SKOS as navigation overlay supporting comprehension
  25. The mission of the Library Linked Data Incubator Group is to help increase global interoperability of library data on the Web, by bringing together people involved in Semantic Web activities—focusing on Linked Data—in the library community and beyond, building on existing initiatives, and identifying collaboration tracks for the future.