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Towards Digitizing Scholarly
Communication
Sören Auer
University of Bonn & Fraunhofer IAIS
Publishing 6600 BCE
Jiahu symbols 16 distinct
markings on prehistoric artifacts
found in Jiahu, a neolithic
Peiligang culture site found in
Henan, China
Publishing
2000 BCE
Cursive hieroglyphs
from the Papyrus of
Ani (1250 BCE)
Publishing
380 BCE
Papirus
Oxyrhynchus,
with fragment
of Plato's
Republic
12th century
publishing
Codex Gigas (largest extant
medieval manuscript) was
created in the Benedictine
monastery of Podlažice in
Bohemia (now Czech
Republic).
Scientific publishing
in the 17th century
One of the earliest research
journals: Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal
Society
© CC BY Henry Oldenburg
Scientific
publishing today
Mainly based on PDF
• Is only partially machine-
readable
• Does not preserve structure
• Does not allow embedding of
semantics
• Does not facilitate
interactivity/dynamicity/
repurposing
• …
Has it changed much?
In terms of distribution: YES
• Almost zero cost of copying and distribution
• (whole history of publishing is mainly a history of
the reduction of marginal costs of publishing)
In terms of method/representation: NO
• Articles are fixed sucessions of characters and
words
• static in terms of presentation, content, granularity
Researchers spend (most of)
their time on:
• Encoding their
findings in articles
• Decoding other
reserchers findings
from articles
• Finding related
work
• Getting an
overview over the
state-of-the-art
We need to develop means to make scholarly communication
more efficient and effective.
New possibilities in a
Digital World
• Machine-readability
• Semantic representation
• Dynamic content, interactive examples
• Integration of multimedia content
• Rich interlinking with context (related work, calls,
reviews, comments/ discussions)
• Integration of rich metadata (provenance,
licensing)
• Interactive collaboration
• …
Machine-readability
• In PDFs the structure of the documents is lost
• Headings, paragraphs, tables, references etc. are
not recognizable anymore
• Semantics can only be added as metadata on a per
document level
Semantic Representation
In addition to 5-star data (http://5stardata.info) we need 5-star
documents:
• Machine-readable
• Semantics-aware
• Interlinked
David Shotton: The Five Stars of Online Journal Articles, D-Lib Magazine
(2012), http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january12/shotton/01shotton.html
limes-paper describes appr1 .
appr1 a approach .
appr1 for Link_Discovery
appr1 hasProp looseless .
...
limes-paper describes impl1 .
impl1 a implementation
impl1 implements appr1 .
impl1 language Java .
...
limes-paper describes eval1 .
eval1 a evaluation .
eval1 evaluates impl1 .
eval1 uses Dbpedia .
...
Internal: Semantic Description of Scientific
Content
Facilitates querying for all link discovery approaches
having certain properties or implementations thereof in
a certain language using a certain dataset.
External: Rich Interlinking with Related Work,
Calls, Reviews, Discussions, …
Three approaches for digitizing
scholarly communication
Linked Research – enabling semantic
authoring, publishing, discovery
SlideWiki – courseware authoring and
translation
OpenResearch – Collaborative Management
of Scholarly Communication Metadata
Dokie.li: clientside editor for
decentralised article publishing,
annotations and social interactions
http://Dokie.li
Sarven Capadisli
A holistic view on scientific publishing
Sparklines –
Adding small interactive inline charts
Linked Research & dokie.li Features
• Documents are human and machine-
friendly.
• Using the plain old semantic HTML marking
process, with further semantic annotations
using microformats and RDF.
• All kinds of interactive content can be
embedded into the HTML5 documents e.g.
Javascript apps, code, videos, audio,
interactive visualizations
• Different views e.g., ACM, LNCS, W3C-ED,
Slideshow, Native
• Builds on Linked Data Platform, Solid and
Linked Data Notifications to realize truly
decentralized authoring & publishing
workflows
Interlinking a research article, call for
contributions and workshops, and proceedings
@prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> .
@prefix schema: <https://schema.org/> .
@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> .
<http://semstats.org/2013/>
sioc:reply_of <http://iswc2013.semanticweb.org/content/call-workshops.html> ;
schema:hasPart <http://semstats.org/2013/call-for-papers> .
<http://csarven.ca/linked-statistical-data-analysis>
sioc:reply_of <http://semstats.org/2013/call-for-papers> ;
bibo:citedBy <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/> .
<http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/>
schema:hasPart <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/#article-06> .
<http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/#article-06>
bibo:uri <http://csarven.ca/linked-statistical-data-analysis> .
Comparison of scientific authoring and
publishing approaches
ACaA Access control and attribution
AtA Adaptation to audiences
CaF Commentary and feedback
DAaP Decentralised authoring and publishing
DI Data integration
DVaM Different views and media
EI Entity identifiers
FaI Feedback and interactions
HaMR Human and machine-readability
IAaPW Integrated authoring and publication workflow
IC Interactive content
IM Impact metrics
IoS Integration of semantics
M Multimedia
PaA Provenance and accountability
PaP Persistence and preservation
SaSI Sharing and social interactions
OpenResearch – a Semantic Wiki for Scientific
Event Metadata (RIS for Events)
We need Research Information Systems not only for organizations but
also for communities or specific types of content
Events are a crucial element of scholarly communication
Information about events is difficult to obtain:
• Quality (e.g. acceptance rate, PC members)
• Logistics (locations, fees)
• Dates (submission, registration etc.)
• Co-located events
• …
CC BY 3.0 Wiki4des at English Wikipedia
Structured
event meta
data
Semantic
(typed) links
inside call text
Interactive Queries
(can be also created by users)
OpenResearch.org Architecture
SlideWiki – A collaborative OpenCourseWare
Authoring Platform
• Collaborative creation and maintenance of high-quality,
multilingual OpenCourseWare is still a major challenge
• SlideWiki is a platform for OpenCourseWare creation
employing crowdsourcing, full versioning, WYSIWIG
Facilitates translations
to many languages
Helps to keep track of authors,
translators and sources
SlideWiki: Self-assessment questions
… can be attached
to every single slide
Learners can test their knowledge
… an be pointed exactly to
the content they need to
revisit
How is SlideWiki different?
SlideWiki differs from other online tools for presentations,
such as Google Docs Presentations, Prezi, SlideShare due to its
focus on:
• E-learning - you can add questions to slides and thus
compose comprehensive self-assessment tests for learners
• Collaboration - SlideWiki aims at empowering whole
communities to create presentations collaboratively
• Translation - with SlideWiki content can be easily translated
in more than 50 languages
Semantic Web Layer Cake 2001
http://www.w3.org/2001/10/03-sww-1/slide7-0.html
• Monolithic based on XML
• Focus on heavyweight Semantic
(Ontologies, Logic, Reasoning)
© Fraunhofer
The Semantic Web Layer Cake 2015 –
Bridging between Big & Smart Data
Unicode URIs
XML JSON CSV RDB HTML
RDF
RDF/XML JSON-LD CSV2RDF R2RML RDFa
RDF Data
Shapes
RDF-Schema
Vocabularies
OntologiesSKOS Thesauri
LogicSWRL Rules
SPARQL
(Accesscontrol),Signatur,
Encryption(HTTPS/CERT/DANE),
• Lingua Franca of Data
integration with many
technology interfaces (XML,
HTML, JSON, CSV, RDB,…)
• Focus on lightweight
vocabularies, rules,
thesauri etc.
• Less “invasive”
Towards an Ecosystem of Open Scholarly
Communication Infrastructure
Authoring
environments
•Crowd-sourcing,
versioning, social
networking
5-Star publishing
of data,
documents,
courseware and
artefacts
•Decentralized,
open, interlinked
Research
information
systems
•organization,
community, region,
communication-
type centered
We need to invest more into
techniques tailored for
digital knowledge exchange
instead of techniques
mimicking work-arounds of
the past.
From
document-centricity to
knowledge-centricity
Thanks for your attention
Sören Auer
http://eis.iai.uni-bonn.de/SoerenAuer.html
auer@cs.uni-bonn.de
http://OpenResearch.org
http://SlideWiki.org
https://dokie.li
Sarven Capadisli
http://csarven.ca
Christoph Lange
https://langec.wordpress.com

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Towards digitizing scholarly communication

  • 1. Towards Digitizing Scholarly Communication Sören Auer University of Bonn & Fraunhofer IAIS
  • 2. Publishing 6600 BCE Jiahu symbols 16 distinct markings on prehistoric artifacts found in Jiahu, a neolithic Peiligang culture site found in Henan, China
  • 3. Publishing 2000 BCE Cursive hieroglyphs from the Papyrus of Ani (1250 BCE)
  • 5. 12th century publishing Codex Gigas (largest extant medieval manuscript) was created in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice in Bohemia (now Czech Republic).
  • 6. Scientific publishing in the 17th century One of the earliest research journals: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society © CC BY Henry Oldenburg
  • 7. Scientific publishing today Mainly based on PDF • Is only partially machine- readable • Does not preserve structure • Does not allow embedding of semantics • Does not facilitate interactivity/dynamicity/ repurposing • …
  • 8. Has it changed much? In terms of distribution: YES • Almost zero cost of copying and distribution • (whole history of publishing is mainly a history of the reduction of marginal costs of publishing) In terms of method/representation: NO • Articles are fixed sucessions of characters and words • static in terms of presentation, content, granularity
  • 9. Researchers spend (most of) their time on: • Encoding their findings in articles • Decoding other reserchers findings from articles • Finding related work • Getting an overview over the state-of-the-art We need to develop means to make scholarly communication more efficient and effective.
  • 10. New possibilities in a Digital World • Machine-readability • Semantic representation • Dynamic content, interactive examples • Integration of multimedia content • Rich interlinking with context (related work, calls, reviews, comments/ discussions) • Integration of rich metadata (provenance, licensing) • Interactive collaboration • …
  • 11. Machine-readability • In PDFs the structure of the documents is lost • Headings, paragraphs, tables, references etc. are not recognizable anymore • Semantics can only be added as metadata on a per document level
  • 12. Semantic Representation In addition to 5-star data (http://5stardata.info) we need 5-star documents: • Machine-readable • Semantics-aware • Interlinked David Shotton: The Five Stars of Online Journal Articles, D-Lib Magazine (2012), http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january12/shotton/01shotton.html
  • 13. limes-paper describes appr1 . appr1 a approach . appr1 for Link_Discovery appr1 hasProp looseless . ... limes-paper describes impl1 . impl1 a implementation impl1 implements appr1 . impl1 language Java . ... limes-paper describes eval1 . eval1 a evaluation . eval1 evaluates impl1 . eval1 uses Dbpedia . ... Internal: Semantic Description of Scientific Content Facilitates querying for all link discovery approaches having certain properties or implementations thereof in a certain language using a certain dataset.
  • 14. External: Rich Interlinking with Related Work, Calls, Reviews, Discussions, …
  • 15. Three approaches for digitizing scholarly communication Linked Research – enabling semantic authoring, publishing, discovery SlideWiki – courseware authoring and translation OpenResearch – Collaborative Management of Scholarly Communication Metadata
  • 16. Dokie.li: clientside editor for decentralised article publishing, annotations and social interactions http://Dokie.li Sarven Capadisli
  • 17. A holistic view on scientific publishing
  • 18.
  • 19. Sparklines – Adding small interactive inline charts
  • 20. Linked Research & dokie.li Features • Documents are human and machine- friendly. • Using the plain old semantic HTML marking process, with further semantic annotations using microformats and RDF. • All kinds of interactive content can be embedded into the HTML5 documents e.g. Javascript apps, code, videos, audio, interactive visualizations • Different views e.g., ACM, LNCS, W3C-ED, Slideshow, Native • Builds on Linked Data Platform, Solid and Linked Data Notifications to realize truly decentralized authoring & publishing workflows
  • 21. Interlinking a research article, call for contributions and workshops, and proceedings @prefix sioc: <http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns#> . @prefix schema: <https://schema.org/> . @prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> . <http://semstats.org/2013/> sioc:reply_of <http://iswc2013.semanticweb.org/content/call-workshops.html> ; schema:hasPart <http://semstats.org/2013/call-for-papers> . <http://csarven.ca/linked-statistical-data-analysis> sioc:reply_of <http://semstats.org/2013/call-for-papers> ; bibo:citedBy <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/> . <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/> schema:hasPart <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/#article-06> . <http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1549/#article-06> bibo:uri <http://csarven.ca/linked-statistical-data-analysis> .
  • 22. Comparison of scientific authoring and publishing approaches ACaA Access control and attribution AtA Adaptation to audiences CaF Commentary and feedback DAaP Decentralised authoring and publishing DI Data integration DVaM Different views and media EI Entity identifiers FaI Feedback and interactions HaMR Human and machine-readability IAaPW Integrated authoring and publication workflow IC Interactive content IM Impact metrics IoS Integration of semantics M Multimedia PaA Provenance and accountability PaP Persistence and preservation SaSI Sharing and social interactions
  • 23. OpenResearch – a Semantic Wiki for Scientific Event Metadata (RIS for Events) We need Research Information Systems not only for organizations but also for communities or specific types of content Events are a crucial element of scholarly communication Information about events is difficult to obtain: • Quality (e.g. acceptance rate, PC members) • Logistics (locations, fees) • Dates (submission, registration etc.) • Co-located events • … CC BY 3.0 Wiki4des at English Wikipedia
  • 24.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Interactive Queries (can be also created by users)
  • 35.
  • 37. SlideWiki – A collaborative OpenCourseWare Authoring Platform • Collaborative creation and maintenance of high-quality, multilingual OpenCourseWare is still a major challenge • SlideWiki is a platform for OpenCourseWare creation employing crowdsourcing, full versioning, WYSIWIG
  • 38.
  • 39. Facilitates translations to many languages Helps to keep track of authors, translators and sources
  • 40.
  • 41. SlideWiki: Self-assessment questions … can be attached to every single slide
  • 42. Learners can test their knowledge … an be pointed exactly to the content they need to revisit
  • 43. How is SlideWiki different? SlideWiki differs from other online tools for presentations, such as Google Docs Presentations, Prezi, SlideShare due to its focus on: • E-learning - you can add questions to slides and thus compose comprehensive self-assessment tests for learners • Collaboration - SlideWiki aims at empowering whole communities to create presentations collaboratively • Translation - with SlideWiki content can be easily translated in more than 50 languages
  • 44. Semantic Web Layer Cake 2001 http://www.w3.org/2001/10/03-sww-1/slide7-0.html • Monolithic based on XML • Focus on heavyweight Semantic (Ontologies, Logic, Reasoning)
  • 45. © Fraunhofer The Semantic Web Layer Cake 2015 – Bridging between Big & Smart Data Unicode URIs XML JSON CSV RDB HTML RDF RDF/XML JSON-LD CSV2RDF R2RML RDFa RDF Data Shapes RDF-Schema Vocabularies OntologiesSKOS Thesauri LogicSWRL Rules SPARQL (Accesscontrol),Signatur, Encryption(HTTPS/CERT/DANE), • Lingua Franca of Data integration with many technology interfaces (XML, HTML, JSON, CSV, RDB,…) • Focus on lightweight vocabularies, rules, thesauri etc. • Less “invasive”
  • 46. Towards an Ecosystem of Open Scholarly Communication Infrastructure Authoring environments •Crowd-sourcing, versioning, social networking 5-Star publishing of data, documents, courseware and artefacts •Decentralized, open, interlinked Research information systems •organization, community, region, communication- type centered We need to invest more into techniques tailored for digital knowledge exchange instead of techniques mimicking work-arounds of the past. From document-centricity to knowledge-centricity
  • 47. Thanks for your attention Sören Auer http://eis.iai.uni-bonn.de/SoerenAuer.html auer@cs.uni-bonn.de http://OpenResearch.org http://SlideWiki.org https://dokie.li Sarven Capadisli http://csarven.ca Christoph Lange https://langec.wordpress.com

Editor's Notes

  1. Researchers discuss wether Jiahu symbols already represent some form of systematic writing Later these symbols evolved into oracle bone scripts, the oldest known member and ancestor of the Chinese family of scripts
  2. The Papyrus of Ani is a papyrus manuscript with cursive hieroglyphs and color illustrations created c. 1250 BCE, in the 19th dynasty of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Egyptians compiled an individualized book for certain people upon their death, called the Book of Going Forth by Day, more commonly known as the Book of the Dead, typically containing declarations and spells to help the deceased in their afterlife. The Papyrus of Ani is the manuscript compiled for the Theban scribe Ani. orientation of cursive hieroglyphs is not constant, reading right to left or left to right depending on the context
  3. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: De Re Publica[1]) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning the definition of justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state and the just man[2]—for this reason, ancient readers used the name On Justice as an alternative title Plato's best-known work, it has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and historically.[5][6] In it, Socrates along with various Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice and examine whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man by considering a series of different cities coming into existence "in speech"
  4. It is also known as the Devil's Biblebecause of a large illustration of the devil on the inside and the legend surrounding its creation. includes a unique picture of the devil, about 50 cm tall. Directly opposite the devil is a full page depiction of the kingdom of heaven, thus juxtaposing contrasting images of Good and Evil.