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Transportforum
8-9 Januari, Linköping, 2009




   Vattnets inverkan på vägars nedbrytning



                        Sigurdur Erlingsson
Outline
• Cost Action 351 – Watmove

• Field observation

• HVS – SE06

• Conclusion
Cost Action 351 - WATMOVE

Water Movements in Road Pavements and Embankments
• Homepage: www.watmove.org
   – Water In Pavements - WIP'05 Presentations
   – Water In Pavements - WIP'06 Presentations

•   Text book (Springer 2009)
    – WATER IN ROAD STRUCTURES
      Movement, Drainage & Effects
      Dawson, A (Ed.)




    http://www.springer.com/earth+sciences/hydrogeology/book/978-1-4020-8561-1
The book
1    Introduction
2    Water Flow Theory for Saturated and Unsaturated Pavement Material
3    Measurement Techniques for Water Flow
4    Heat Transfer in Soils
5    Water in Pavement Surfacing
6    Sources of Fate of Water Contaminants in Roads
7    Contaminant Sampling and Analysis
8    Water Influences on Bearing Capacity and Pavement Performance: Field
     Observations
9    Water Influence on Mechanical Behaviour of Pavements: Constitutive
     Modelling
10   Water Influence on Mechanical Behaviour of Pavements: Experimental
     Investigation
11   Modelling Coupled Mechanics, Moisture and Heat in Pavement
     Structures
12   Pollution Mitigation
13   Control of Pavement Water and Pollution Prevention
A moisture monitoring program
                                        20
       Gravimetric moisture cont. [%]


                                                                                                          Winter thaw                       Spring thaw

                                        15
                                                         Non-frost                  Unfrozen moisture             Unfrozen moisture
                                                                                      during winter               during winter
                                        10


                                         5


                                         0




                                                                                                                                   1/3/00




                                                                                                                                                    1/4/00
                                              1/10/99




                                                                               1/12/99




                                                                                                                  31/1/00
                                                                 31/10/99




                                                                                               31/12/99
                                        15
                                                                                                                            Grundartangi
                                        10
 Temperature [°C]




                                         5

                                         0

                                         -5

                                        -10
                                                                                                1/1/00




                                                                                                                   1/2/00




                                                                                                                                   1/3/00




                                                                                                                                                    1/4/00
                                               1/10/99




                                                                     1/11/99




                                                                               1/12/99
Moisture variation with depth and
time
                                              20

                                              15              Air temperature
                                              10




                           Temperature [°C]
                                               5

                                               0

                                               -5

                                              -10

                                              -15




                                                    15.3.02




                                                                  31.3.02




                                                                                16.4.02




                                                                                          2.5.02




                                                                                                   18.5.02




                                                                                                             3.6.02
                 Base
                 course

                Subbase




                Subgrade




                                                              March, 15th
                                                              2002
FWD backcalculations                                             Stiffnesses
                                 Base Course - Depth 0 - 20 cm


             100000


             10000
E1 [MPa]




              1000


               100
                  1.jan   31.jan 2.mar   1.apr   1.maí 31.maí 30.jún   30.júl 29.ágú

                                Subbase - Depth 20 - 60 cm

             100000
  E2 [MPa]




              10000


               1000


                100
                  1.jan 31.jan 2.mar     1.apr   1.maí 31.maí 30.jún 30.júl 29.ágú
FWD results & grav. moisture in 1999
Section 1.4.1


                                     25                                                                              500
                                                                     Moisture in base course 2, d = 15 cm
                                                                     Moisture in subbase 1, d = 25 cm
                                                                     Moisture in subbase 2, d = 45 cm
                                     20                                                                              400
                                                                     Stiffness of base & subbase
    Gravimetric moisture cont. [%]




                                                                     Stiffness of subgrade




                                                                                                                           Moduli, Mr [MPa]
                                     15                                                                              300




                                     10                                                                              200




                                      5                                                                              100




                                      0                                                                              0
                                          1/3/99




                                                   1/4/99




                                                            1/5/99




                                                                            1/6/99




                                                                                             1/7/99




                                                                                                            1/8/99
The APT device - The HVS Nordic


The HVS Nordic is a mobile APT
test facility.




                                 Technical Specifications
                                 Test wheel:        Dual or single wheel
                                 Load range:        30 – 110 kN
                                 Capacity:          150 000 passages/week
                                 Loading direction: single or bi-directional
                                 Max speed:        12 km/h
                                 Lateral wander: 0 – 0.7 m
                                 Pavement temp: 0 – 30°C
                                 Power:              Diesel or electricity
The Test Hall
The instrumented test structures – SE06

 0.0
               Asphalt Concrete
 4.8                                             3 x 3 Pressure cells
               Bituminous Base
10.1                                             3 x 4 Vertical strain gauges
               Granular Base Course              4 x 2 Horizontal strains gauges
20.9                                             1 x 3 Deflection sensors
               Granular Subbase

35.1
               Subgrade, sand


                    Instrumentation

                           Pressure cell
                          Horizontal strain, longitudinal
                          Horizontal strain, transversal
                          Vertical strain
  Depth [cm]              Vertical deflection
Test procedure
                           0.0
                                        Asphalt Concrete
                           4.8
                                        Bituminous Base
                          10.1
                                        Granular Base Course
                          20.9
                                        Granular Subbase

                          35.1
                                        Subgrade, sand

                  30 cm
    35 cm


    30 cm   gwt            Depth [cm]




300 cm
The Response Measurements
                                  200                                                                                                       60




                                                                                                                Vertical stress, σv [kPa]
      Vertical stress, σv [kPa]




                                                                                   SPC-214 d = 17.5 cm                                      50                                              SPC-215 d = 44.0 cm
                                  150
                                                                                                                                            40
                                  100                                                                                                       30                                                                                        0.0
                                                                                                                                            20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Asphalt Concrete
                                   50                                                                                                                                                                                                 4.8
                                                                                                                                            10                                                                                                      Bituminous Base
                                   0                                                                                                        0                                                                                        10.1
                                        0       200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000                                                              0      200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000                                                         Granular Base Course
                                                   Number of load repetitions, N                                                                           Number of load repetitions, N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20.9
                                   60                                                                                                                                                                                                               Granular Subbase
Vertical stress, σv [kPa]




                                   50                                                SPC-218 d = 60.0 cm

                                   40                                                                                                                                                                                                35.1
                                   30
                                   20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Subgrade, sand
                                   10                                                                                                                                                                                        30 cm
                                    0
                                        0        200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000                                                                                                                                                                gwt
                                                   0.0040 of load repetitions, N
                                                    Number                                                                                                                     0.0010
                                                                                   Z-35 d = 10.1/20.7                                                                                                                                65.1
                                            Vertical strain, εv [-]




                                                                                                                                                     Vertical strain, εv [-]




                                                                                                                                                                               0.0008        Z-38 d = 20.7/35.3
                                                                      0.0030
                                                                                                                                                                               0.0006
                                                                      0.0020
                                                                                                                                                                               0.0004
                                                                      0.0010
                                                                                                                                                                               0.0002

                                                                      0.0000                                                                                                   0.0000
                                                                               0   200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000                                                                  0   200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000
                                                                                     Number of load repetitions, N                                                                            Number of load repetitions, N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Depth [cm]

                                                                      0.0010                                                                                                   0.0010
                                                                                    Z-29 d = 35.3/50.5
                                            Vertical strain, εv [-]




                                                                                                                                                     Vertical strain, εv [-]




                                                                      0.0008                                                                                                   0.0008        Z-30 d = 50.5/65.5

                                                                      0.0006                                                                                                   0.0006

                                                                      0.0004                                                                                                   0.0004

                                                                      0.0002                                                                                                   0.0002

                                                                      0.0000                                                                                                   0.0000
                                                                               0   200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000                                                                  0   200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000
                                                                                     Number of load repetitions, N                                                                            Number of load repetitions, N
Response – Numerical simulation
                                                 Stress σ z [kPa]
                  0   100   200                300       400        500       600       700       800              0.0
                                                                                                                                 Asphalt Concrete
             0                                                                                                     4.8
                                                                                                                                 Bituminous Base
                                                                                                                  10.1
             10                                                                                                                  Granular Base Course
                                                                                                                  20.9
             20                                                                                                                  Granular Subbase
Depth [cm]




             30                                                                                                   35.1
                                                               Calculated, dry
             40                                                Calculated, wet                                                   Subgrade, sand
                                                               Measurements, wet                          30 cm
             50                                                Measurements, dry
                                                                                                                                 gwt
                                                                               Vertical strain ε z [-]
             60                                                                                                   65.1
                                                -0.001              0.000             0.001              0.002           0.003
                                                0
             70
                                               10

                                               20                                                                   Depth [cm]
                                  Depth [cm]




                                               30

                                               40                                                  Calculations, dry
                                                                                                   Calculation, wet
                                               50                                                  Measurements, dry
                                                                                                   Measurement, wet
                                               60

                                               70
Permanent deformation prediction
                                10                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Asphalt Concrete
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Bituminous Base
Permanent deformation, δ [mm]




                                                                            Sg measurements                                                                                                                       10.1
                                8
                                                                            Sg calculations                                                                                                                                                    Granular Base Course
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20.9
                                6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Granular Subbase
                                                                          2.0
                                4                                                                                                                                                                                 35.1
                                                                                                             Sb measurements
                                          Permanent deformation, δ [mm]




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Subgrade, sand
                                                                                                             Sb calculations
                                                                          1.5                                                                                                                             30 cm
                                2
                                                                                                                        2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               gwt
                                0                                                                                                      BC measurements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65.1
                                                                                        Permanent deformation, δ [mm]




                                              1.0
                                     0    200000 400000                                600000 800000                                   BC calculations
                                                                                                                                    1000000
                                                                                            1.5
                                                                            Number of passes, N
                                                                                                                                                                                    15
                                                                          0.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rut measurements
                                                                                                                        1.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rut calculations
                                                                                                                                                    Permanent deformation, δ [mm]


                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Depth [cm]
                                                                          0.0
                                                                                0   200000 0.5                        10
                                                                                            400000 600000 800000 1000000
                                                                                          Number of passes, N


                                                                                                                        0.0
                                                                                                                              0   200000   400000        5
                                                                                                                                                    600000                               800000 1000000
                                                                                                                                       Number of passes, N


                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                         0   200000    400000     600000    800000   1000000
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Number of passes, N
Conclusions
•   Water influences the structural behaviour of pavements.
•   A state of the art text book: Water in road structures –
    movement, drainage & effects has recently been published.
•   More knowledge need to be established regarding how water
    affects the pavement structure.
•   Water influence on pavement response and performance can be
    studies in field monitoring programs, lab experiments as well is
    full scale testing.
•   We need to take advantage of this to build up the knowledge of
    water impact on pavement structures.

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Session 68 Sigurdur Erlingsson

  • 1. Transportforum 8-9 Januari, Linköping, 2009 Vattnets inverkan på vägars nedbrytning Sigurdur Erlingsson
  • 2. Outline • Cost Action 351 – Watmove • Field observation • HVS – SE06 • Conclusion
  • 3. Cost Action 351 - WATMOVE Water Movements in Road Pavements and Embankments • Homepage: www.watmove.org – Water In Pavements - WIP'05 Presentations – Water In Pavements - WIP'06 Presentations • Text book (Springer 2009) – WATER IN ROAD STRUCTURES Movement, Drainage & Effects Dawson, A (Ed.) http://www.springer.com/earth+sciences/hydrogeology/book/978-1-4020-8561-1
  • 4. The book 1 Introduction 2 Water Flow Theory for Saturated and Unsaturated Pavement Material 3 Measurement Techniques for Water Flow 4 Heat Transfer in Soils 5 Water in Pavement Surfacing 6 Sources of Fate of Water Contaminants in Roads 7 Contaminant Sampling and Analysis 8 Water Influences on Bearing Capacity and Pavement Performance: Field Observations 9 Water Influence on Mechanical Behaviour of Pavements: Constitutive Modelling 10 Water Influence on Mechanical Behaviour of Pavements: Experimental Investigation 11 Modelling Coupled Mechanics, Moisture and Heat in Pavement Structures 12 Pollution Mitigation 13 Control of Pavement Water and Pollution Prevention
  • 5. A moisture monitoring program 20 Gravimetric moisture cont. [%] Winter thaw Spring thaw 15 Non-frost Unfrozen moisture Unfrozen moisture during winter during winter 10 5 0 1/3/00 1/4/00 1/10/99 1/12/99 31/1/00 31/10/99 31/12/99 15 Grundartangi 10 Temperature [°C] 5 0 -5 -10 1/1/00 1/2/00 1/3/00 1/4/00 1/10/99 1/11/99 1/12/99
  • 6. Moisture variation with depth and time 20 15 Air temperature 10 Temperature [°C] 5 0 -5 -10 -15 15.3.02 31.3.02 16.4.02 2.5.02 18.5.02 3.6.02 Base course Subbase Subgrade March, 15th 2002
  • 7. FWD backcalculations Stiffnesses Base Course - Depth 0 - 20 cm 100000 10000 E1 [MPa] 1000 100 1.jan 31.jan 2.mar 1.apr 1.maí 31.maí 30.jún 30.júl 29.ágú Subbase - Depth 20 - 60 cm 100000 E2 [MPa] 10000 1000 100 1.jan 31.jan 2.mar 1.apr 1.maí 31.maí 30.jún 30.júl 29.ágú
  • 8. FWD results & grav. moisture in 1999 Section 1.4.1 25 500 Moisture in base course 2, d = 15 cm Moisture in subbase 1, d = 25 cm Moisture in subbase 2, d = 45 cm 20 400 Stiffness of base & subbase Gravimetric moisture cont. [%] Stiffness of subgrade Moduli, Mr [MPa] 15 300 10 200 5 100 0 0 1/3/99 1/4/99 1/5/99 1/6/99 1/7/99 1/8/99
  • 9. The APT device - The HVS Nordic The HVS Nordic is a mobile APT test facility. Technical Specifications Test wheel: Dual or single wheel Load range: 30 – 110 kN Capacity: 150 000 passages/week Loading direction: single or bi-directional Max speed: 12 km/h Lateral wander: 0 – 0.7 m Pavement temp: 0 – 30°C Power: Diesel or electricity
  • 11. The instrumented test structures – SE06 0.0 Asphalt Concrete 4.8 3 x 3 Pressure cells Bituminous Base 10.1 3 x 4 Vertical strain gauges Granular Base Course 4 x 2 Horizontal strains gauges 20.9 1 x 3 Deflection sensors Granular Subbase 35.1 Subgrade, sand Instrumentation Pressure cell Horizontal strain, longitudinal Horizontal strain, transversal Vertical strain Depth [cm] Vertical deflection
  • 12. Test procedure 0.0 Asphalt Concrete 4.8 Bituminous Base 10.1 Granular Base Course 20.9 Granular Subbase 35.1 Subgrade, sand 30 cm 35 cm 30 cm gwt Depth [cm] 300 cm
  • 13. The Response Measurements 200 60 Vertical stress, σv [kPa] Vertical stress, σv [kPa] SPC-214 d = 17.5 cm 50 SPC-215 d = 44.0 cm 150 40 100 30 0.0 20 Asphalt Concrete 50 4.8 10 Bituminous Base 0 0 10.1 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Granular Base Course Number of load repetitions, N Number of load repetitions, N 20.9 60 Granular Subbase Vertical stress, σv [kPa] 50 SPC-218 d = 60.0 cm 40 35.1 30 20 Subgrade, sand 10 30 cm 0 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 gwt 0.0040 of load repetitions, N Number 0.0010 Z-35 d = 10.1/20.7 65.1 Vertical strain, εv [-] Vertical strain, εv [-] 0.0008 Z-38 d = 20.7/35.3 0.0030 0.0006 0.0020 0.0004 0.0010 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Number of load repetitions, N Number of load repetitions, N Depth [cm] 0.0010 0.0010 Z-29 d = 35.3/50.5 Vertical strain, εv [-] Vertical strain, εv [-] 0.0008 0.0008 Z-30 d = 50.5/65.5 0.0006 0.0006 0.0004 0.0004 0.0002 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Number of load repetitions, N Number of load repetitions, N
  • 14. Response – Numerical simulation Stress σ z [kPa] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0.0 Asphalt Concrete 0 4.8 Bituminous Base 10.1 10 Granular Base Course 20.9 20 Granular Subbase Depth [cm] 30 35.1 Calculated, dry 40 Calculated, wet Subgrade, sand Measurements, wet 30 cm 50 Measurements, dry gwt Vertical strain ε z [-] 60 65.1 -0.001 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.003 0 70 10 20 Depth [cm] Depth [cm] 30 40 Calculations, dry Calculation, wet 50 Measurements, dry Measurement, wet 60 70
  • 15. Permanent deformation prediction 10 0.0 Asphalt Concrete 4.8 Bituminous Base Permanent deformation, δ [mm] Sg measurements 10.1 8 Sg calculations Granular Base Course 20.9 6 Granular Subbase 2.0 4 35.1 Sb measurements Permanent deformation, δ [mm] Subgrade, sand Sb calculations 1.5 30 cm 2 2.0 gwt 0 BC measurements 65.1 Permanent deformation, δ [mm] 1.0 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 BC calculations 1000000 1.5 Number of passes, N 15 0.5 Rut measurements 1.0 Rut calculations Permanent deformation, δ [mm] Depth [cm] 0.0 0 200000 0.5 10 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Number of passes, N 0.0 0 200000 400000 5 600000 800000 1000000 Number of passes, N 0 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Number of passes, N
  • 16. Conclusions • Water influences the structural behaviour of pavements. • A state of the art text book: Water in road structures – movement, drainage & effects has recently been published. • More knowledge need to be established regarding how water affects the pavement structure. • Water influence on pavement response and performance can be studies in field monitoring programs, lab experiments as well is full scale testing. • We need to take advantage of this to build up the knowledge of water impact on pavement structures.