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Do science and religion need
each other?
People ask questions
• Why does the sun rise and set?
• When will it rain?
• Why isn’t it raining?
• How can we make it rain?
• Why is there a universe?
• Why do people suffer?
“Happy is he who gets to know
the reasons for things.” (Virgil)
Trying to make sense of the world
• Religion, science,
philosophy developed to
answer such questions
• Originally they were not
divided
– The first astronomers were
priests
– Medicine men were also
prophets and physicians
• They strove for a
integrated explanation Stonehenge
Usual relationship - cooperation
and interaction
• Aquinas - Combined Christianity with Aristotle
• Benedictines, Domininicans, Franciscans,
and Jesuits were scientific leaders
• Scientists were supported by the Church
• Many great scientists were also believers -
Galileo, Kelper, Newton and Maxwell
Quotes of great scientists
• “Mathematics is the language in which God
has written the universe.” (Galileo)
• "Science brings men nearer to God.” (Louis
Pasteur)
• "It is evident that an acquaintance with
natural laws means no less than an
acquaintance with the mind of God therein
expressed.” (Joule)
What is science?
• Human endeavour to discover the
structure of the world and the laws that
govern its working
• Science is a spiritual adventure
– “The joy of discovery is certainly the liveliest that
the mind of man can ever feel.” Claude Bernard
(1813-78) French physiologist.
• Science is a communal enterprise
– Royal Society, French Academy etc.
– Peer review
What makes scientists tick?
“I want to know how God
created this world.”
Albert Einstein
“Science is an imaginative
adventure of the mind
seeking truth in a world of
mystery.”
Sir Cyril Hinshelwood
Nobel prize Chemistry 1956
What is the scientific method?
• Search for patterns and laws to explain the
hidden order underlying the natural world
• Notice something unusual or puzzling
– Develop hypothesis
– Experiment
– Accumulate evidence
– Develop a theory
– Test and try to disprove the theory
– Use models to explain the phenomena
What is the status of scientific
knowledge?
• Tentative not certain
• Theories are approximations to the truth
• Scientific theories cannot be proven
• What we know is much less than what we
don’t know
Limitations of science
Which of the following questions can be
answered by the natural sciences?
– How are atom bombs made?
– Should we make atom bombs?
– How does the human organism function?
– What is the meaning of human existence?
– How does a compact disc work?
– Is playing a CD of Coldplay enjoyable?
– Why are the laws of nature mathematical?
– Why do the laws of nature exist?
What is religion?
• Quest to understand life’s mysteries and
discover the true way of life
– What is the purpose of life?
– What is right and wrong?
• Spiritual adventure into the heart of God
– Prayer, meditation
• A communal activity
– Church, ummah, sangha, councils
What are religious practices?
• Religious knowledge based on
experience and reason
– Revelations - Insights from profound
encounters with the Divine
– Reflections on life’s experiences
• At the heart of reality is mystery
– Use metaphors and similes to describe it
Science and religion are different
"The goal of science is understanding
lawful relations among natural
phenomena. Religion is a way of life
within a larger framework of meaning.”
Ian Barbour (Professor of Physics and Professor of
Religion)
Different areas of competence
• Science focuses on
explaining physical
dimension of reality:
How?
• Religion focuses on
explaining spiritual
dimension: Why?
Science and religion
complementary
“Science and religion
are two windows that
people look through,
trying to understand
the big universe
outside, trying to
understand why we
are here.”
Freeman Dyson
What’s the problem then?
“Trouble arises when either science or
religion claims universal jurisdiction,
when either religious dogma or scientific
dogma claims to be infallible. Religious
creationists and scientific materialists
are equally dogmatic and insensitive.”
Freeman Dyson
Conflicts between science and
religion
• Religious imperialism
– Galileo affair - Church rejected facts that
conflicted with theology and tried to
supress scientific theories
• Scientific imperialism
– Neo-Darwinism - Some people claim that
evolution disproves the existence of God
Where does the idea of conflict
come from?
• Story of Prometheus
– Greek gods hostile to humans
– Prometheus gives fire and is punished
– Pursuit of science and knowledge means
fighting the gods
• Biblical view very different
– God loves humans
– Science and pursuit of knowledge is a good
thing
Need for cooperation
“Science can purify religion from error and
superstition, and religion can purify science
from idolatry and false absolutes.”
Pope John Paul II
"Science without religion is lame, religion
without science is blind."
Albert Einstein
Unification view
For humanity to completely overcome
the two aspects of ignorance . . . There
must emerge a new truth which can
reconcile religion and science and
resolve their problems in an integrated
understanding. EDP, 6-7
Science and values
“Science can only ascertain what is, but not
what should be, and outside of its domain
value judgments of all kinds remain
necessary.” Albert Einstein
• Religion and philosophy necessary to provide
ethical framework for science and its
application
– Genetic engineering
– Uses of technology
– Environment
God and the origin of the
universe
Has the universe always existed?
• If the universe has always existed we
do not need to explain its existence
• If it has not always existed we may ask
– When did the universe begin?
– How did the universe begin?
– Why does the universe exist?
Has the universe always existed?
• Judaism
– God created the universe ex nihilo
• Plato
– Prime matter always existed because ‘nothing
can come from nothing’
• Aristotle
– God is eternal and unchanging so the world is
eternal and uncreated
• Ultimate hyle, ultimate eidos
The discovery of the beginning
Edwin Hubble discovered galaxies are
moving away from each other (1920s)
– The universe is expanding
– Like a balloon inflating, all the parts are
moving away from each other
– Therefore they must originally have started
from the same place
Cosmic background radiation
• In 1963 a constant
radio background
source that was
spread all over the
universe was
discovered
• It was a relic from
the Big Bang
The Big Bang
13.7 billion years ago
• Singularity
– infinitely small
– infinitely dense
– Infinitely hot
Expanding universe
What happened at the Big
Bang?
Time Space
Time and space
started with the
Big Bang
Universe appeared
with time, not in time
So there was no
‘before’ the Big Bang
Big Bang
Big Bang implies God
“Science could predict
that the universe must
have had a beginning,
but it could not predict
how the universe
should begin: for that
one would have to
appeal to God.”
Stephen Hawking 1988
What would you expect from a
Big Bang?
• Chaos
• Disorder
• Randomness
• Ugliness
What is the universe like?
• Cosmos
• Orderly
• Complexity
• Beauty
What were the initial conditions
at the Big Bang?
• It was smooth - If the Big Bang was too ragged the result
would have been turbulence and a cosmos of black holes.
Roger Penrose calculated the chance of a smooth
beginning at 1 in 1010 123
• Expansion problem: To avoid not recollapsing within a
fraction of a second or expanding so fast that galaxies never
condensed, R.H. Dicke calculated that a 1 part in a million
speed decrease when Big Bang was 1 second old would
have led to a recollapse before the temperature fell below
10,000K. A similar increase and the stars would never have
formed.
Furthermore . . .
• Weak nuclear force controls proton-proton fusion. If it
was a bit stronger all matter would have become
helium and heavier elements. There would be no water
etc. and the sun would explode instead of burning. If it
was a bit weaker there would be only helium since the
weak nuclear force makes neutrons decay into
protons.
• Strong nuclear force: A 2% increase and quarks
would not turn into protons and there would be no
hydrogen etc. A 5% weakening would unbind the
deuteron (Proton + Neutron) and there would be no
elements heavier than hydrogen.
And . . .
• Electromagnetism: A change of just one part in 1040
would affect star formation. Slightly stronger and they
would be red stars and too cold. Slightly weaker and
they would be blue, very hot, radio-active and short
lived. A doubled strength would mean 1062 years would
be needed for life to evolve by which time all protons
would have decayed.
• Gravity: Gravity is 1039 times weaker than
electromagnetism. A slight change in this proportion
would be prevent the formation of stars. At its actual
strength it was possible for clouds to form stable stars
which do not fragment.
How can we explain this?
• Gravity created the universe
“Because there is a law such as gravity, the Universe
can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous
creation is the reason there is something rather than
nothing, why the Universe exists, why we exist.”
Stephen Hawking, The Grand Design, 2011
• But why is there gravity?
• Why is there a law of gravity?
• Is gravity God?
• Or is gravity an expression of the Universal Prime Force of
God?
How can we explain this?
• Laws of science created the universe
“The question is: is the way the universe began
chosen by God for reasons we can't understand, or
was it determined by a law of science? I believe the
second. If you like, you can call the laws of science
'God', but it wouldn't be a personal God that you
could meet, and ask questions.” Stephen Hawking,
Channel Four, 2011
• Can’t we know why God created the universe?
• How does he know God is not personal?
• So he admits to “God” but not a personal God with whom
one can form a relationship and who loves us
Quantum fields created universe
• Total energy of the
universe is zero
• Quantum fields but no
matter – quantum
vacuum
• Quantum fields
unstable
• The universe
appeared as a
quantum fluctuation
But . . .
• A quantum vacuum is not “nothing” as it
assumes the existence of quantum fields
which create matter
• True “nothing” is no fields
• Otherwise where did the fields come from?
Are they eternal? Are they God?
• Fields are an expression of the Universal
Prime Energy
How can we explain this?
• Multiple universes exist and ours just
happens to support life
• There is no evidence for the existence of
other universes. If there were they would be
in our universe
• Occam’s razor - among competing
hypotheses, the one that makes the fewest
assumptions should be selected
• Even if there are multiple universes still
doesn’t explain why they exist
How can we explain this?
• Maybe an intelligent Creator designed
the initial conditions to support the
development of complexity, life and
consciousness
• Maybe there is a purpose, a reason why
the universe exists
Which is more believable?
“When I see all the glories of the cosmos, I can’t
help but believe that there is a divine hand
behind it all.”
Einstein
God or chance?
Unification thought
. . . the direction of the development of the
universe was determined through the function
of reason on the basis of the operation of
laws . . . [which] . . . already existed within
God's inner hyungsang, even prior to God's
creation of the universe . . . In other words,
law had been prepared, from the very
beginning, for the realization of the purpose.
God versus Darwin?
The Six Days of Creation
Fact, fiction or something else?
How can we understand
the Bible?
• Literalism
– The Bible is the inerrant word of God
– The Bible is literally true
• Contextually
– The meaning of the text depends on its
context
– Text should be examined rationally
– The Bible contains metaphors and symbols
Traditional perspective
“The Bible itself speaks to us of the
origin of the universe and its makeup,
not in order to provide us with a
scientific treatise, but in order to state
the correct relationships of man with
God and with the universe.”
Pope John Paul II
The first day
• The word “day” in Hebrew means “age”
• So one “age” or day could be millions or
billions of years
• Bible - “Let there be light”
• Science - Big Bang - an explosion of
light
The second day
• Bible - Let the upper and lower waters
be separated
• Science - The earth was very hot and
so water evaporating forming dense
clouds filling the sky
Earth
Lower water
(sea)
Sky
Upper
Water
(clouds)
The third day
• Bible - Let land appear and the land be
separated from the sea and let plants
appear
• Science - The earth was shrinking as it
cooled and bubble of land appeared
• Plants were first living organisms
Land
Lower water
(sea)
Atmosphere Upper
Water
(clouds)
Let dry land appear
Pangaea
And plants
The fourth day
• Bible - Let the sun and the moon and
the stars appear
• Science - What seems to be wrong
here?
• As the earth cooled and plants
generated oxygen the atmosphere
changed. The sky became visible
Let the sun and moon appear
Atmosphere
The fifth day
• Let the fish and
birds appear
The sixth day
• Let the creatures
appear
And finally
What is remarkable is that the
order of creation in Genesis is
very similar to that proposed by
modern science
How did all these living
creatures appear?
• Each kind separately created by God
– Creationism
Or,
• They evolved from each other
– Darwinism
Darwin and God
• As a young man Darwin believed in traditional
Christianity and was studying to be a priest
• Later he lost his faith in Christian doctrines
• “I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and
omnipotent God would have designedly created
parasitic wasps with the express intention of their
feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars.”
Darwinism and Creationism
• Darwin argued in favour of evolution
and against separate creation
• Darwin denied separate creation but
was not an atheist
• It is possible to argue that evolution was
the process God worked through
What is the evidence for
evolution?
Homology
– Common features
present due to
common ancestors
– E.g. 5 fingered hand
common to humans,
bats, porpoises etc.
Vehicle design
How many wheels have motor vehicles got?
Cars - 4
Trucks - 6
Lorries - 14
Tanks - 2 tracks
Motorbike - 2
Tricycle - 3
Why? Have number that is best for purpose
What is the evidence for
evolution?
• All known life is
based on DNA
– Life has one origin
– All life is one
• Fossil record
– New species appear
– Growth in complexity
Is complexity proof
of design?
“Nature contains every manifestation of
design . . . Design must have a designer
. . . That designer must have been a
person. That person is God.”
William Paley, Natural Theology
Can order and complexity come
about naturally?
• Self-organising
systems
– Physics
– Chemistry
– Biology
– Mathematics and
computing
– Cybernetics
– Economics
– Society
A Turing structure
A market
How about the human eye?
A classic example for both
creationists and Darwin
The human eye was designed
The human eye is so
complex it couldn’t
have come about by
random mutation and
natural selection.
Therefore it must have
been designed
The human eye evolved
• Many different types
of ‘eye’ exist from a
simple spot to the
very complex
• Advantageous
modifications
selected for
• If it is designed, it is
poorly designed Possible evolutionary pathway
in 400 000 generations
The mechanism of evolution
Natural selection
– Random variation
• Many differences between individuals
– The struggle for survival
• Only a minority of offspring survive and reproduce
• They are the ones best adapted to the
local ecology
– Survival of the fittest
• Advantageous adaptations passed on to the next
generation
Darwinism is a research program
with many unsolved problems
• What is the source of variations and
improvements?
– Random mutation or something else?
• How does epigenetics fit in?
• How does speciation occur?
– Problem of macroevolution
• Lack of intermediaries in the fossil record
• How did DNA appear?
• How to explain consciousness?
Is Darwinism compatible with
belief in God?
How was Darwinism received?
In the 19th century, “with a few exceptions the
leading Christian thinkers in Great Britain and
America came to terms quite readily with
Darwinism and evolution.”
James Moore The Post-Darwinian Controversies
Cambridge, 1979
“It is just as noble a conception of Deity to
believe that he created primal forms capable of
self-development . . . as to believe that He
required a fresh act of intervention to supply the
gaps which He himself had made.”
Reverend Charles Kingsley
The Catholic view
• New findings lead us toward the recognition of
evolution as more than a hypothesis. In fact it is
remarkable that this theory has had
progressively greater influence on the spirit of
researchers, following a series of discoveries in
different scholarly disciplines. The convergence
in the results of these independent studies—
which was neither planned nor sought—
constitutes in itself a significant argument in
favour of the theory.
– Pope John Paul II
And . . .
• Since it has been demonstrated that all living
organisms on earth are genetically related, it is
virtually certain that all living organisms have
descended from this first organism. Converging
evidence from many studies in the physical and
biological sciences furnishes mounting support
for some theory of evolution to account for the
development and diversification of life on earth,
while controversy continues over the pace and
mechanisms of evolution.
– Pope Benedict XVI
But . . .
• Theories of evolution which, because of the
philosophies which inspire them, regard the
spirit either as emerging from the forces of
living matter, or as a simple epiphenomenon
of that matter, are incompatible with the truth
about man.
– Pope John Paul II
What does the Principle say?
Self-generating order
• The human mind imparts to every person a natural
inclination to join with others in harmony. Likewise,
positive ions and negative ions come together to form
particular molecules, because within every one of them
exists a rudimentary internal nature that guides them
toward that end. Electrons assemble around nuclei to
form atoms because they possess an attribute of internal
nature which directs them toward that purpose.
According to modern science, all particles that constitute
atoms are made up of energy. For energy to form
particles, it, too, must possess an internal nature which
directs it to assume specific forms. EDP, 32
man woman
family family
group group
society society
nation nation
nation
society
group
family
world
Social development
Political implications
• Individual peace must first be realized. Then family
peace can soon follow, and only on that foundation can
the peace of societies, nations and the world be
expected. This is because individuals are the basic
units of families, and families are the basic units of
societies and nations.
• Frequently leaders believe that through outstanding
organisation and superior thought they can restore both
the order of society and world peace. In reality,
however, the peace of mankind can never be realized
through these means alone.
– Sun Myung Moon, 1981
Self-generating order
• The human mind imparts to every person a natural
inclination to join with others in harmony. Likewise,
positive ions and negative ions come together to form
particular molecules, because within every one of them
exists a rudimentary internal nature that guides them
toward that end. Electrons assemble around nuclei to
form atoms because they possess an attribute of
internal nature which directs them toward that purpose.
According to modern science, all particles that
constitute atoms are made up of energy. For energy to
form particles, it, too, must possess an internal nature
which directs it to assume specific forms. EDP, 32
In the natural world too
• Sub-atomic particles, the basic building blocks of all matter,
possess either a positive charge, a negative charge or a
neutral charge formed by the neutralization of positive and
negative constituents. When particles join with each other
through the reciprocal relationships of their dual
characteristics, they form an atom. Atoms, in turn, display
either a positive or a negative valence. When the dual
characteristics within one atom enter into reciprocal
relationships with those in another atom, they form a
molecule. Molecules formed in this manner engage in further
reciprocal relationships between their dual characteristics to
eventually become nourishment fit for consumption by plants
and animals. EDP, 38
particle particle
atom atom
molecule molecule
Organic
material
Complex
molecules
molecule
atom
Development in nature
Complex
molecules
Complex
molecules
“We call it nature because it has developed naturally and spontaneously.”
Sun Myung Moon, CSG p.874
The role of universal prime force
• The Creation is harmonious in its myriad forms, regardless of the
countless types of Give and Take Action initiated by the Universal
Prime Force. In other words, through Universal Prime Force, give
and take action is directed by a unifying purpose, and through its
organic relationships, generates the forces necessary for
existence, reproduction, and action of all things, from the smallest
to the largest.
• The direction and goal of all give and take actions are controlled by
Universal Prime Force. Give and take action exists not only so that
a subject and object can fulfil their individual purposes, but also for
the greater purpose of unifying all things. The ultimate purpose of
give and take action is to have subject and object unite and
develop to a greater and higher dimension.
• Divine Principle Level 4, 16
What is Universal Prime Force?
► Fundamental energy of God’s being
►God is self-existing. Doesn’t need anything
► The acting energy of God’s hyungsang that causes
give and take action
► The origin of all the forces (e.g. gravity,
electromagnetism) that allow created beings to
exist
► Directs all interactions towards unity
► Vertical force that directs towards higher levels and
greater levels of complexity
man woman
family family
group group
society society
nation nation
nation
society
group
family
world
Social development
Universalprimeforce-Love
particle particle
atom atom
molecule molecule
Organic
material
Complex
molecules
molecule
atom
Development in nature
Complex
molecules
Complex
molecules
“We call it nature because it has developed naturally and spontaneously.”
Sun Myung Moon, CSG p.874
“For in Him we live and move
and have our being.”
Acts 17:28
God: origin of all existence and
activity
What is give and take action?
Initiating
Responding
What are the principles of Give and Take Action?
All relationships need subject and object
Need to have a common base to form a relationship
Giving precedes receiving
Love flows between subject and object
Brings subject and object into unity and oneness
Subject Object
S SO O
Within
Between
Universal Prime Force in creation
S
God
O
Subject Object
Forces
Existence
Action
Multiplication
Give and Take is horizontal.
Universal Prime Force is vertical.
Give and Take within the Subject
and Object caused by Universal
Prime Force which initiates the
relationship between the subject and object
“For where two or three
come together in my name,
there I am with them.”
God is present in
and through
give and take action
Immanence
Universal Prime Force
• The force that acts among correlative
elements in the created world; it is also the
force that is generated by the give and take
action between them
• The Universal Prime Force acting between
the subject and object is caused directly by
the Universal Prime Force acting within the
subject and object.
San Hun Lee, Explaining Unification Thought, 12
The challenge
• The theory of evolution does not invalidate the
faith, nor does it corroborate it. But it does
challenge the faith to understand itself more
profoundly and thus to help man to understand
himself and to become increasingly what he is:
the being who is supposed to say Thou to God
in eternity.
• Pope Benedict XVI
Reading list
• Ian Barbour
– Religion and Science
– Issues in Science and Religion
• Paul Davies
– The Mind of God: Science and the Search for
Ultimate Meaning
– The Goldilocks Enigma: Why is the Universe Just
Right for Life?
• John Polkinghorne
– Belief in God in an Age of Science
Give and Take Action and Universal
Prime Force
Initiating
Responding
Subject Object
S SO O

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Science and religion

  • 1. Do science and religion need each other?
  • 2. People ask questions • Why does the sun rise and set? • When will it rain? • Why isn’t it raining? • How can we make it rain? • Why is there a universe? • Why do people suffer? “Happy is he who gets to know the reasons for things.” (Virgil)
  • 3. Trying to make sense of the world • Religion, science, philosophy developed to answer such questions • Originally they were not divided – The first astronomers were priests – Medicine men were also prophets and physicians • They strove for a integrated explanation Stonehenge
  • 4. Usual relationship - cooperation and interaction • Aquinas - Combined Christianity with Aristotle • Benedictines, Domininicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits were scientific leaders • Scientists were supported by the Church • Many great scientists were also believers - Galileo, Kelper, Newton and Maxwell
  • 5. Quotes of great scientists • “Mathematics is the language in which God has written the universe.” (Galileo) • "Science brings men nearer to God.” (Louis Pasteur) • "It is evident that an acquaintance with natural laws means no less than an acquaintance with the mind of God therein expressed.” (Joule)
  • 6. What is science? • Human endeavour to discover the structure of the world and the laws that govern its working • Science is a spiritual adventure – “The joy of discovery is certainly the liveliest that the mind of man can ever feel.” Claude Bernard (1813-78) French physiologist. • Science is a communal enterprise – Royal Society, French Academy etc. – Peer review
  • 7. What makes scientists tick? “I want to know how God created this world.” Albert Einstein “Science is an imaginative adventure of the mind seeking truth in a world of mystery.” Sir Cyril Hinshelwood Nobel prize Chemistry 1956
  • 8. What is the scientific method? • Search for patterns and laws to explain the hidden order underlying the natural world • Notice something unusual or puzzling – Develop hypothesis – Experiment – Accumulate evidence – Develop a theory – Test and try to disprove the theory – Use models to explain the phenomena
  • 9. What is the status of scientific knowledge? • Tentative not certain • Theories are approximations to the truth • Scientific theories cannot be proven • What we know is much less than what we don’t know
  • 10. Limitations of science Which of the following questions can be answered by the natural sciences? – How are atom bombs made? – Should we make atom bombs? – How does the human organism function? – What is the meaning of human existence? – How does a compact disc work? – Is playing a CD of Coldplay enjoyable? – Why are the laws of nature mathematical? – Why do the laws of nature exist?
  • 11. What is religion? • Quest to understand life’s mysteries and discover the true way of life – What is the purpose of life? – What is right and wrong? • Spiritual adventure into the heart of God – Prayer, meditation • A communal activity – Church, ummah, sangha, councils
  • 12. What are religious practices? • Religious knowledge based on experience and reason – Revelations - Insights from profound encounters with the Divine – Reflections on life’s experiences • At the heart of reality is mystery – Use metaphors and similes to describe it
  • 13. Science and religion are different "The goal of science is understanding lawful relations among natural phenomena. Religion is a way of life within a larger framework of meaning.” Ian Barbour (Professor of Physics and Professor of Religion)
  • 14. Different areas of competence • Science focuses on explaining physical dimension of reality: How? • Religion focuses on explaining spiritual dimension: Why?
  • 15. Science and religion complementary “Science and religion are two windows that people look through, trying to understand the big universe outside, trying to understand why we are here.” Freeman Dyson
  • 16. What’s the problem then? “Trouble arises when either science or religion claims universal jurisdiction, when either religious dogma or scientific dogma claims to be infallible. Religious creationists and scientific materialists are equally dogmatic and insensitive.” Freeman Dyson
  • 17. Conflicts between science and religion • Religious imperialism – Galileo affair - Church rejected facts that conflicted with theology and tried to supress scientific theories • Scientific imperialism – Neo-Darwinism - Some people claim that evolution disproves the existence of God
  • 18. Where does the idea of conflict come from? • Story of Prometheus – Greek gods hostile to humans – Prometheus gives fire and is punished – Pursuit of science and knowledge means fighting the gods • Biblical view very different – God loves humans – Science and pursuit of knowledge is a good thing
  • 19. Need for cooperation “Science can purify religion from error and superstition, and religion can purify science from idolatry and false absolutes.” Pope John Paul II "Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind." Albert Einstein
  • 20. Unification view For humanity to completely overcome the two aspects of ignorance . . . There must emerge a new truth which can reconcile religion and science and resolve their problems in an integrated understanding. EDP, 6-7
  • 21. Science and values “Science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary.” Albert Einstein • Religion and philosophy necessary to provide ethical framework for science and its application – Genetic engineering – Uses of technology – Environment
  • 22.
  • 23. God and the origin of the universe
  • 24. Has the universe always existed? • If the universe has always existed we do not need to explain its existence • If it has not always existed we may ask – When did the universe begin? – How did the universe begin? – Why does the universe exist?
  • 25. Has the universe always existed? • Judaism – God created the universe ex nihilo • Plato – Prime matter always existed because ‘nothing can come from nothing’ • Aristotle – God is eternal and unchanging so the world is eternal and uncreated • Ultimate hyle, ultimate eidos
  • 26. The discovery of the beginning Edwin Hubble discovered galaxies are moving away from each other (1920s) – The universe is expanding – Like a balloon inflating, all the parts are moving away from each other – Therefore they must originally have started from the same place
  • 27.
  • 28. Cosmic background radiation • In 1963 a constant radio background source that was spread all over the universe was discovered • It was a relic from the Big Bang
  • 29.
  • 30. The Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago • Singularity – infinitely small – infinitely dense – Infinitely hot
  • 32. What happened at the Big Bang? Time Space Time and space started with the Big Bang Universe appeared with time, not in time So there was no ‘before’ the Big Bang Big Bang
  • 33. Big Bang implies God “Science could predict that the universe must have had a beginning, but it could not predict how the universe should begin: for that one would have to appeal to God.” Stephen Hawking 1988
  • 34. What would you expect from a Big Bang? • Chaos • Disorder • Randomness • Ugliness What is the universe like? • Cosmos • Orderly • Complexity • Beauty
  • 35. What were the initial conditions at the Big Bang? • It was smooth - If the Big Bang was too ragged the result would have been turbulence and a cosmos of black holes. Roger Penrose calculated the chance of a smooth beginning at 1 in 1010 123 • Expansion problem: To avoid not recollapsing within a fraction of a second or expanding so fast that galaxies never condensed, R.H. Dicke calculated that a 1 part in a million speed decrease when Big Bang was 1 second old would have led to a recollapse before the temperature fell below 10,000K. A similar increase and the stars would never have formed.
  • 36. Furthermore . . . • Weak nuclear force controls proton-proton fusion. If it was a bit stronger all matter would have become helium and heavier elements. There would be no water etc. and the sun would explode instead of burning. If it was a bit weaker there would be only helium since the weak nuclear force makes neutrons decay into protons. • Strong nuclear force: A 2% increase and quarks would not turn into protons and there would be no hydrogen etc. A 5% weakening would unbind the deuteron (Proton + Neutron) and there would be no elements heavier than hydrogen.
  • 37. And . . . • Electromagnetism: A change of just one part in 1040 would affect star formation. Slightly stronger and they would be red stars and too cold. Slightly weaker and they would be blue, very hot, radio-active and short lived. A doubled strength would mean 1062 years would be needed for life to evolve by which time all protons would have decayed. • Gravity: Gravity is 1039 times weaker than electromagnetism. A slight change in this proportion would be prevent the formation of stars. At its actual strength it was possible for clouds to form stable stars which do not fragment.
  • 38. How can we explain this? • Gravity created the universe “Because there is a law such as gravity, the Universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the Universe exists, why we exist.” Stephen Hawking, The Grand Design, 2011 • But why is there gravity? • Why is there a law of gravity? • Is gravity God? • Or is gravity an expression of the Universal Prime Force of God?
  • 39. How can we explain this? • Laws of science created the universe “The question is: is the way the universe began chosen by God for reasons we can't understand, or was it determined by a law of science? I believe the second. If you like, you can call the laws of science 'God', but it wouldn't be a personal God that you could meet, and ask questions.” Stephen Hawking, Channel Four, 2011 • Can’t we know why God created the universe? • How does he know God is not personal? • So he admits to “God” but not a personal God with whom one can form a relationship and who loves us
  • 40. Quantum fields created universe • Total energy of the universe is zero • Quantum fields but no matter – quantum vacuum • Quantum fields unstable • The universe appeared as a quantum fluctuation
  • 41. But . . . • A quantum vacuum is not “nothing” as it assumes the existence of quantum fields which create matter • True “nothing” is no fields • Otherwise where did the fields come from? Are they eternal? Are they God? • Fields are an expression of the Universal Prime Energy
  • 42. How can we explain this? • Multiple universes exist and ours just happens to support life • There is no evidence for the existence of other universes. If there were they would be in our universe • Occam’s razor - among competing hypotheses, the one that makes the fewest assumptions should be selected • Even if there are multiple universes still doesn’t explain why they exist
  • 43. How can we explain this? • Maybe an intelligent Creator designed the initial conditions to support the development of complexity, life and consciousness • Maybe there is a purpose, a reason why the universe exists
  • 44. Which is more believable? “When I see all the glories of the cosmos, I can’t help but believe that there is a divine hand behind it all.” Einstein God or chance?
  • 45. Unification thought . . . the direction of the development of the universe was determined through the function of reason on the basis of the operation of laws . . . [which] . . . already existed within God's inner hyungsang, even prior to God's creation of the universe . . . In other words, law had been prepared, from the very beginning, for the realization of the purpose.
  • 47. The Six Days of Creation Fact, fiction or something else?
  • 48. How can we understand the Bible? • Literalism – The Bible is the inerrant word of God – The Bible is literally true • Contextually – The meaning of the text depends on its context – Text should be examined rationally – The Bible contains metaphors and symbols
  • 49. Traditional perspective “The Bible itself speaks to us of the origin of the universe and its makeup, not in order to provide us with a scientific treatise, but in order to state the correct relationships of man with God and with the universe.” Pope John Paul II
  • 50. The first day • The word “day” in Hebrew means “age” • So one “age” or day could be millions or billions of years • Bible - “Let there be light” • Science - Big Bang - an explosion of light
  • 51. The second day • Bible - Let the upper and lower waters be separated • Science - The earth was very hot and so water evaporating forming dense clouds filling the sky
  • 53. The third day • Bible - Let land appear and the land be separated from the sea and let plants appear • Science - The earth was shrinking as it cooled and bubble of land appeared • Plants were first living organisms
  • 57. The fourth day • Bible - Let the sun and the moon and the stars appear • Science - What seems to be wrong here? • As the earth cooled and plants generated oxygen the atmosphere changed. The sky became visible
  • 58. Let the sun and moon appear Atmosphere
  • 59. The fifth day • Let the fish and birds appear
  • 60. The sixth day • Let the creatures appear
  • 62. What is remarkable is that the order of creation in Genesis is very similar to that proposed by modern science
  • 63. How did all these living creatures appear? • Each kind separately created by God – Creationism Or, • They evolved from each other – Darwinism
  • 64. Darwin and God • As a young man Darwin believed in traditional Christianity and was studying to be a priest • Later he lost his faith in Christian doctrines • “I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars.”
  • 65. Darwinism and Creationism • Darwin argued in favour of evolution and against separate creation • Darwin denied separate creation but was not an atheist • It is possible to argue that evolution was the process God worked through
  • 66. What is the evidence for evolution? Homology – Common features present due to common ancestors – E.g. 5 fingered hand common to humans, bats, porpoises etc.
  • 67. Vehicle design How many wheels have motor vehicles got? Cars - 4 Trucks - 6 Lorries - 14 Tanks - 2 tracks Motorbike - 2 Tricycle - 3 Why? Have number that is best for purpose
  • 68. What is the evidence for evolution? • All known life is based on DNA – Life has one origin – All life is one • Fossil record – New species appear – Growth in complexity
  • 69. Is complexity proof of design? “Nature contains every manifestation of design . . . Design must have a designer . . . That designer must have been a person. That person is God.” William Paley, Natural Theology
  • 70. Can order and complexity come about naturally? • Self-organising systems – Physics – Chemistry – Biology – Mathematics and computing – Cybernetics – Economics – Society A Turing structure A market
  • 71. How about the human eye? A classic example for both creationists and Darwin
  • 72. The human eye was designed The human eye is so complex it couldn’t have come about by random mutation and natural selection. Therefore it must have been designed
  • 73. The human eye evolved • Many different types of ‘eye’ exist from a simple spot to the very complex • Advantageous modifications selected for • If it is designed, it is poorly designed Possible evolutionary pathway in 400 000 generations
  • 74. The mechanism of evolution Natural selection – Random variation • Many differences between individuals – The struggle for survival • Only a minority of offspring survive and reproduce • They are the ones best adapted to the local ecology – Survival of the fittest • Advantageous adaptations passed on to the next generation
  • 75. Darwinism is a research program with many unsolved problems • What is the source of variations and improvements? – Random mutation or something else? • How does epigenetics fit in? • How does speciation occur? – Problem of macroevolution • Lack of intermediaries in the fossil record • How did DNA appear? • How to explain consciousness?
  • 76. Is Darwinism compatible with belief in God?
  • 77. How was Darwinism received? In the 19th century, “with a few exceptions the leading Christian thinkers in Great Britain and America came to terms quite readily with Darwinism and evolution.” James Moore The Post-Darwinian Controversies Cambridge, 1979 “It is just as noble a conception of Deity to believe that he created primal forms capable of self-development . . . as to believe that He required a fresh act of intervention to supply the gaps which He himself had made.” Reverend Charles Kingsley
  • 78. The Catholic view • New findings lead us toward the recognition of evolution as more than a hypothesis. In fact it is remarkable that this theory has had progressively greater influence on the spirit of researchers, following a series of discoveries in different scholarly disciplines. The convergence in the results of these independent studies— which was neither planned nor sought— constitutes in itself a significant argument in favour of the theory. – Pope John Paul II
  • 79. And . . . • Since it has been demonstrated that all living organisms on earth are genetically related, it is virtually certain that all living organisms have descended from this first organism. Converging evidence from many studies in the physical and biological sciences furnishes mounting support for some theory of evolution to account for the development and diversification of life on earth, while controversy continues over the pace and mechanisms of evolution. – Pope Benedict XVI
  • 80. But . . . • Theories of evolution which, because of the philosophies which inspire them, regard the spirit either as emerging from the forces of living matter, or as a simple epiphenomenon of that matter, are incompatible with the truth about man. – Pope John Paul II
  • 81. What does the Principle say?
  • 82. Self-generating order • The human mind imparts to every person a natural inclination to join with others in harmony. Likewise, positive ions and negative ions come together to form particular molecules, because within every one of them exists a rudimentary internal nature that guides them toward that end. Electrons assemble around nuclei to form atoms because they possess an attribute of internal nature which directs them toward that purpose. According to modern science, all particles that constitute atoms are made up of energy. For energy to form particles, it, too, must possess an internal nature which directs it to assume specific forms. EDP, 32
  • 83. man woman family family group group society society nation nation nation society group family world Social development
  • 84. Political implications • Individual peace must first be realized. Then family peace can soon follow, and only on that foundation can the peace of societies, nations and the world be expected. This is because individuals are the basic units of families, and families are the basic units of societies and nations. • Frequently leaders believe that through outstanding organisation and superior thought they can restore both the order of society and world peace. In reality, however, the peace of mankind can never be realized through these means alone. – Sun Myung Moon, 1981
  • 85. Self-generating order • The human mind imparts to every person a natural inclination to join with others in harmony. Likewise, positive ions and negative ions come together to form particular molecules, because within every one of them exists a rudimentary internal nature that guides them toward that end. Electrons assemble around nuclei to form atoms because they possess an attribute of internal nature which directs them toward that purpose. According to modern science, all particles that constitute atoms are made up of energy. For energy to form particles, it, too, must possess an internal nature which directs it to assume specific forms. EDP, 32
  • 86. In the natural world too • Sub-atomic particles, the basic building blocks of all matter, possess either a positive charge, a negative charge or a neutral charge formed by the neutralization of positive and negative constituents. When particles join with each other through the reciprocal relationships of their dual characteristics, they form an atom. Atoms, in turn, display either a positive or a negative valence. When the dual characteristics within one atom enter into reciprocal relationships with those in another atom, they form a molecule. Molecules formed in this manner engage in further reciprocal relationships between their dual characteristics to eventually become nourishment fit for consumption by plants and animals. EDP, 38
  • 87. particle particle atom atom molecule molecule Organic material Complex molecules molecule atom Development in nature Complex molecules Complex molecules “We call it nature because it has developed naturally and spontaneously.” Sun Myung Moon, CSG p.874
  • 88.
  • 89. The role of universal prime force • The Creation is harmonious in its myriad forms, regardless of the countless types of Give and Take Action initiated by the Universal Prime Force. In other words, through Universal Prime Force, give and take action is directed by a unifying purpose, and through its organic relationships, generates the forces necessary for existence, reproduction, and action of all things, from the smallest to the largest. • The direction and goal of all give and take actions are controlled by Universal Prime Force. Give and take action exists not only so that a subject and object can fulfil their individual purposes, but also for the greater purpose of unifying all things. The ultimate purpose of give and take action is to have subject and object unite and develop to a greater and higher dimension. • Divine Principle Level 4, 16
  • 90. What is Universal Prime Force? ► Fundamental energy of God’s being ►God is self-existing. Doesn’t need anything ► The acting energy of God’s hyungsang that causes give and take action ► The origin of all the forces (e.g. gravity, electromagnetism) that allow created beings to exist ► Directs all interactions towards unity ► Vertical force that directs towards higher levels and greater levels of complexity
  • 91. man woman family family group group society society nation nation nation society group family world Social development Universalprimeforce-Love
  • 92. particle particle atom atom molecule molecule Organic material Complex molecules molecule atom Development in nature Complex molecules Complex molecules “We call it nature because it has developed naturally and spontaneously.” Sun Myung Moon, CSG p.874
  • 93. “For in Him we live and move and have our being.” Acts 17:28 God: origin of all existence and activity
  • 94. What is give and take action? Initiating Responding What are the principles of Give and Take Action? All relationships need subject and object Need to have a common base to form a relationship Giving precedes receiving Love flows between subject and object Brings subject and object into unity and oneness Subject Object S SO O Within Between
  • 95. Universal Prime Force in creation S God O Subject Object Forces Existence Action Multiplication Give and Take is horizontal. Universal Prime Force is vertical. Give and Take within the Subject and Object caused by Universal Prime Force which initiates the relationship between the subject and object “For where two or three come together in my name, there I am with them.” God is present in and through give and take action Immanence
  • 96. Universal Prime Force • The force that acts among correlative elements in the created world; it is also the force that is generated by the give and take action between them • The Universal Prime Force acting between the subject and object is caused directly by the Universal Prime Force acting within the subject and object. San Hun Lee, Explaining Unification Thought, 12
  • 97. The challenge • The theory of evolution does not invalidate the faith, nor does it corroborate it. But it does challenge the faith to understand itself more profoundly and thus to help man to understand himself and to become increasingly what he is: the being who is supposed to say Thou to God in eternity. • Pope Benedict XVI
  • 98. Reading list • Ian Barbour – Religion and Science – Issues in Science and Religion • Paul Davies – The Mind of God: Science and the Search for Ultimate Meaning – The Goldilocks Enigma: Why is the Universe Just Right for Life? • John Polkinghorne – Belief in God in an Age of Science
  • 99. Give and Take Action and Universal Prime Force Initiating Responding Subject Object S SO O