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Foundation Day
From Egypt to Canaan
     Lancaster Gate
    19th January 2013
The course to restore the substantial
Canaan under the leadership of Christ at
the second advent

 While Moses could enter Canaan only in spirit,
 Joshua walked the national course as a substantial
 course and actually conquered the promised land.
 Likewise, while Jesus has been restoring Canaan as
 a worldwide spiritual realm, Christ at the Second
 Advent is to complete this third worldwide course as
 a substantial course and build the actual Kingdom of
 Heaven on earth. Christ at the Second Advent must
 realize, on earth, God‟s ideal which was left
 unfulfilled at the First Coming.
The pattern for the natural subjugation
of Satan



            Moses             Jesus
  Jacob                    True Parents
            Joshua




 Family    National          World
What were the Hebrews
doing in Egypt?
• Abraham‟s faith in God‟s promise
“Look toward heaven, andnumber the stars, if you are able
  to number them.” Then he said to him, “So shall your
  offspring be.” And he believed the Lord, and he counted
  it to him as righteousness.
                                         Genesis15:5-6

• Abraham doubts God‟s promise
“I am the Lord whobrought you out from Ur of the
   Chaldeans to give you this land to possess.” But he said,
   “O Lord God, how am I to know that I shall possess it?”
                                         Genesis 15:7-8
Restoring the foundation of
faith

     God
                             Heifer          Completion

           Offering          Ram & goat      Growth
                             Dove & pigeon   Formation


                 What did the offerings represent?
  Abraham        Previous symbolic offerings
                 Generations: Adam, Noah, Abraham
Central person
Why the heavy ‘punishment’?
 Satan claimed 400 year period Noah          Abraham

   Satan
                                              God

                       Condition



     Curse                                   Blessing

               Condition decides ownership
Greater indemnity                        Lesser indemnity
National foundation to receive
the messiah
                                  And the Word
Foundation for the Messiah        became flesh

              Divine grace + Human will → God‟s will

      Foundation         Remove sinful nature
      of substance       Unity between Moses and Hebrews

                             Moses
      Foundation             Offering - Word of God
        of faith
                             40 years
What does this mean in
practice for the individual?
• Foundation of faith
  • Living a life of prayer, study, tithing and a
    clear conscience


• Foundation of substance
  • Saying sorry to anyone you have hurt or
    offended
  • Forgiving anyone who has hurt or offended
    you
What does this mean in
practice for the society?
• Foundation of faith
  – A spiritual community so that when the
    messiah comes they can understand him


• Foundation of substance
  – A spiritual community in which there is
    freedom of belief
  – Cain does not kill Abel
  – Rule of law
What was life like in Egypt?
• Jacob took family into
  Egypt
• Prospered and
  multiplied
• Now there arose a
  new king over Egypt
  who did not know
  Joseph.
Exodus 1:8
• Building projects        Goshen where Hebrews thought to have lived
   – Ramses, Pithom
• Slavery
What is a slave society like?
• Someone‟s property
  – Bought and sold
• No freedom
  – Movement
  – Religion
  – Work
• No family life
First national course
 to restore Canaan
What should have happened
 next?
                                                         God
1.   Loved Moses
2.   Respected Moses as mediator
3.   Listened to Moses
4.   Multiplied goodness
               Canaan 21 days

     What did happen?

1st national foundation
to receive the messiah     Hebrews                      Moses
failed


              “Who made you a prince and judge over us? Do you mean to kill me
              as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, and thought,
              “Surely the thing is known.” Ex. 2:14
Why 21 days?
• Egypt to Canaan
• Time from ark landing till Noah left
• Time to reach maturity – 21 years
• Dwells in direct dominion of God
• Hebrews to move from slavery to freedom
  in 21 days
• From obedience to responsibility
• Is it possible?
• What needs to change?
Where is all this happening?


                 21 days route

     Ramsees •

                   Moses fled
Second national course
  to restore Canaan
What conditions should be
established in the second course?
                    Foundation of faith
                    Central person: Moses    God
                    Object: Word - tablets
                    Time period: 40 years


Foundation of substance
Hebrews should
Love,
Respect,
                           Hebrews           Moses
Listen to and
Multiply goodness
Exodus
Second course of
restoration into Canaan
The first foundation for the
        tabernacle
God woos the Hebrews
“You yourselves have seen what I did to the
  Egyptians, and howI bore you on
  eagleswings and brought you to myself.
  Now therefore, if you will indeed hearken
  to my voice and keep my covenant, you
  shall be my treasured possession among
  all peoples, for all the earth is mine; and
  you shall be to me a kingdom of priests
  and a holy nation.”
                               Exodus 19:4-6
How did the people respond?
So Moses came and called the elders of the
  people and set before them all these words that
  the Lord had commanded him. All the people
  answered together and said, “All that the Lord
  has spoken we will do.” And Moses reported the
  words of the people to the Lord. And the Lord
  said to Moses, “Behold, I am coming to you in a
  thick cloud, that the people may hear when I
  speak with you, and may also believe you for
  ever.”
                            Exodus 19:7-9
Words, words, words . . .
• 7 pictogram writing
  systems
  – Elite hierarchical societies
• First alphabet was Semitic
  – Equal society – literacy
  – Western & Indian alphabets
    descended from it
• Kingdom of priests
                                   Proto-Sinaitic script 1950 BC
• Study word of God
  – Equality before God & law
  – Equality of access to law
How did the people prepare to
receive God?
• 3 days of purification
• Consecration - prayer
• Wash and clean
  clothes
• Apologised to and
  forgave family,
  friends, neighbours
  and enemies

                           God descends on Mount Sinai
                                   Exodus 19
How was the covenant made?
Moses rose early in the morning and built an altar at
the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars, for the
twelve tribes of Israel. And he sent young men to
sacrifice oxen to the Lord. And Moses took half of
the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood
he threw against the altar. Then he took the Book of
the Covenant and read it in the hearing of the
people. And they said, “All that the Lord has spoken
we will do, and we will attend him.” And Moses took
the blood and threw it on the people and said,
“Behold the blood of the covenant that the Lord has
made with you in accordance with all these words.”
                                   Exodus 24:4-8
Becoming the people of God




  Foundation day of the Jewish people 3500 years ago
               Fifty days after Exodus
   Pentecost – Foundation of the Christian church
Celebrating the covenant
Moses and Aaron, and the
seventy elders of Israel
went up and saw the God
of Israel. Under his feet
was something like a
pavement made of
sapphire, clear as the sky
itself. But God did not
raise his hand against
these leaders of the
Israelites; they saw God,
and they ate and drank.
                             The elders before the throne of God
         Exodus 24:9-11
What was change of lineage?


• Change of identity to the people of God

• Change from Satan‟s way of life to God‟s
  way of life
What is Satan’s way of life?

•   False sense of identity
•   Things are purpose of life
•   Bad language
•   Workaholic or fun loving
•   Disrespecting parents
What is Satan’s way of life?

•   Violence and murder
•   Promiscuity
•   Stealing
•   Lying
•   Envy
The Ten Words challenge
  Satan’s tradition and
establish the minimum for
  living a righteous life
The Ten Words
1. I am the Lord your God. You shall have
   no other gods before me
2. You shall not make a graven image
3. You shall not take the Lord‟s name in
   vain
4. Remember the Sabbath
5. You shall honour your father and your
   mother
The Ten Words
•   You shall not murder
•   You shall not commit adultery
•   You shall not steal
•   You shall not bear false witness
•   You shall not covet
Development of the moral life
  “You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress
  him, for you were strangers in the land of
  Egypt.”       (Exodus 22:20)

Earliest appearance of empathy in ancient world
Empathy and compassion the basis of morality
What is the Biblical attitude to
the law?
I rejoice in following your statutes
   as one rejoices in great riches.
I shall walk at liberty,
    for I have sought out your precepts.
How sweet are your words to my taste,
     sweeter than honey to my mouth!
Your statutes are wonderful;
     therefore I keep them.
Streams of tears flow from my eyes,
     for your law is not followed.
                             Psalm 119
Law as mitzvah (act of human
 kindness)


• Tikkunolam
  – “Repairing the world” or “perfecting the world.”
• Performing ritual mitzvothastens the
  messianic age
• Strengthens good spiritual forces
• Makes people better which influences
  society and thus the world
What was the holiness code?

• “Consecrate yourselves and be holy,
  because I am the Lord your God. Keep my
  decrees and follow them. I am the Lord,
  who makes you holy.”
• “Speak to the entire assembly of Israel
  and say to them: 'Be holy because I, the
  Lord your God, am holy.‟”
  – Many laws on sexual relations, sexual purity
  – Justice, animal welfare, etc.
  – Good diet and healthy lifestyle
Foundation of faith and
substance
                    Foundation of faith
                    Central person: Moses       God
                    Object: Word - tabernacle
                    Time period: 40 days


Foundation of substance
Hebrews should
Love,
Respect,                   Hebrews              Moses
Listen to and
Multiply goodness
                             Cain                Abel
Foundation of faith
• Central person:
  Moses
• Offering: Word -
  tablets
• Time period: 40 days
  scouting by 12 spies
  representing 12 tribes



                           Moses sends out 12 spies
Foundation of substance
“We came to the land. It
flows with milk and
honey, and this is its
fruit. Yet the people who
dwell in the land are
strong, and the cities are
fortified.”
Caleb said, “Let us go up
at once and occupy; for
we are well able to
overcome it.”
         Numbers 13:27-30
Satan invades
• “We are not able to go
  up against the people;
  for they are stronger                 God
  than we.” So they
  brought to the people of
  Israel an evil report.”
• People lamented            12 spies   Moses
• “Let us choose a
  captain and return to
  Egypt.”
• Only 2 spies, Joshua
  and Caleb, argue
  against them
Moses pleads with God
God: “How long will this people despise me? I will
 strike them and disinherit them, and I will make
 of you a nation greater and mightier than they.”
Moses replied:“The Egyptians will hear of it.”
Moses reminded God of what he had said,
“The Lord is slow to anger, and abounding in
  steadfast love, forgiving iniquity . . . Pardon the
  iniquity of this people.”
  Numbers 14:11-13, 18-19
40 days becomes 40 years
“According to the number of days in which you
  spied out the land, forty days, for every day a
  year, you shall bear your iniquity, forty years,
  and you shall know my displeasure.” Numbers
  14:34


• All those over 20 years old to die in the
  wilderness
• Some decide to enter Canaan immediately
   – Defeated
Korah’s rebellion
• Korah and 250 chiefs of the congregation
  They assembled themselves together
  against Moses and against Aaron and said
  to them, “You have gone too far! For all in
  the congregation are holy, every one of
  them, and the LORD is among them. Why
  then do you exalt yourselves above the
  assembly of the LORD?”
     Numbers 16: 2-3
Third foundation
    for the tabernacle
      Three failures to lay
       foundation for the
          tabernacle



Satan invades the second national
    course to restore Canaan
Third national course to
    restore Canaan
Foundation of faith and
substance
                    Foundation of faith
                    Central person: Moses
                                             God
                    Object: Word - tablets
                    Time period: 40 years


Foundation of substance
Hebrews should
Love,
Respect,                   Hebrews           Moses
Listen to and
Multiply goodness
Wandering in the wilderness
                                   CANAAN
      Mediterranean Sea
                               Jericho


 Rameses
                           40 years
                               Kadesh-barnea


    EGYPT           SINAI
                  PENINSULA


                                   MIDIAN
                   Mt. Sinai
Starting out from Kadesh
Miriam died there and was
buried there. Now there was
no water for the
congregation; and they
assembled themselves
against Moses and Aaron.
The Lord said to Moses,
“Take the rod and tell the
rock before their eyes to
yield its water.”             Moses strikes the rock
Numbers 20:1,2,8
Moses makes a mistake
 “Hear now, you rebels; shall we bring forth
 water for you out of this rock?” And Moses
 lifted up his hand and struck the rock with
 his rod twice; and water came forth.
 And the Lord said, “Because you did not
 believe in me to sanctify me in the eyes of
 the people, you shall not bring this
 assembly into the land I have given them.”
 Numbers 20:10-12
Why was this a problem?
               Moses
First strike             Second
                          strike


   Rock                Rock with     Rock with
  without                water         water
   water

Fallen Adam       Restored Adam    Restored Adam
                          =




                                        =
                        Messiah       Messiah
Joshua inherits Moses position
as Abel

So the Lord said to Moses, “Take Joshua
 son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit,
 and lay your hand on him. Have him stand
 before Eleazar the priest and the entire
 assembly and commission him in their
 presence. Give him some of your authority
 so the whole Israelite community will listen
 to him.”
 Numbers 27:18-20
Spying out Jericho
• Two spies go to Jericho
• Rahab the prostitute
  hides them
• They report back:
  “Truly the Lord has
  given all the land into
  our hands; and
  moreover the
  inhabitants of the land
  are fainthearted
  because of us.”
           Joshua 2:24      Rahab and the spies
Setting out for Canaan

•   3 days before Jordan
•   Ark crossed the river
•   Took 12 stones
•   Built altar
•   Circumcised people
•   Celebrated Passover
•   Met commander of
    the army of the Lord
                             Crossing the River Jordan
                            with the Ark of the Covenant
Capture of Jericho

• 40,000 soldiers
• 7 priests blowing
  trumpets
• 6 times circled city
• 7th day shouted
• Walls came down
• Defeated 31 kings      Circling Jericho with trumpets and Ark
The national level foundation
  to receive the Messiah
      was established
Settled in Canaan
• Loose confederation
• Charismatic
  leadership – Judges
• God was their King
• Gideon told them, "I will
  not rule over you, nor will
  my son rule over you.
  The Lord will rule over
  you.”Judges 8:23
• Ruled by law
• Justice chief value
“The government of the Israelites was a federation,
held together by no political authority, but by the
unity of race and faith, and founded, not on physical
force, but on a voluntary covenant. The principle of
self-government was carried out not only in each
tribe, but in every group of at least 120 families; and
there was neither privilege of rank, nor inequality
before the law. Monarchy was so alien to the
primitive spirit of the community that it was resisted
by Samuel.”
The History of Freedom and Other Essays
    by John Acton
The people demand a king
• People said to Samuel:“We want a king over
  us. Then we will be like all the other
  nations, with a king to lead us and to go
  out before us and fight our battles.”
• God replied to Samuel: “Listen to all that the
  people are saying to you; it is not you they
  have rejected, but they have rejected me
  as their king.” Samuel 9
What will the king do?
• God warned the people that a king would:
  – Conscript their sons as soldiers
  – Turn their daughters into servants
  – Take best fields and vineyards
  – Take one tenth of harvest
  – Take one tenth of flocks
  – “You shall be his slaves”
How did David inherit the throne?
                                                            Own sons corrupt
                                              Samuel

             Saul
                            Tried to
                                kill
   Filial                                             Providence for the start
                        Filial
   piety
                        piety

                    Won love and respect
            Jonathan                          David                  Goliath
                       Offered his position
             Cain                              Abel                      Satan

Jonathan made a covenant with David, because he loved him as his own soul.
And Jonathan gave his robe and armour and sword and bow to David.I Samuel 18:3-4
Reign of Solomon
Song of Solomon
Proverbs of Solomon
Built Temple
Temple completion
of Exodus
How did Solomon build the temple?
  King Solomon conscripted labourers from all
  Israel—30,000 men. He sent them off to
  Lebanon in shifts of 10,000 a month, so that
  they spent one month in Lebanon and two
  months at home. Adoniram was in charge of
  the forced labour. Solomon had 70,000 carriers
  and 80,000 stonecutters in the hills, as well as
  3,300 foremen who supervised the project and
  directed the work.
                            I Kings 5:27-30
How was the tabernacle
built?

God spoke to Moses saying: “Speak to the
 Israelites and have them bring Me an
 offering. Take My offering from everyone
 whose heart impels him to give . . . They
 shall make a Sanctuary for Me and I will
 dwell in them.”
                    Exodus 25:2,8
Solomon’s family problems
 Now King Solomon loved many foreign
 women, along with the daughter of
 Pharaoh: Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite,
 Sidonian, and Hittite women, from the
 nations concerning which the LORD had
 said to the people of Israel, “You shall not
 enter into marriage with them, neither shall
 they with you, for surely they will turn away
 your heart after their gods.” Solomon clung
 to these in love.
What came next?
He had 700 wives, princesses, and 300
 concubines. And his wives turned away
 his heart. For when Solomon was old his
 wives turned away his heart after other
 gods, and his heart was not wholly true to
 the LORD his God, as was the heart of
 David his father. So Solomon did what
 was evil in the sight of the LORD and did
 not wholly follow the LORD, as David his
 father had done.
God’s judgement
 And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because
 his heart had turned away from the LORD, the
 God of Israel, who had appeared to him
 twice and had commanded him concerning this
 thing, that he should not go after other gods. But
 he did not keep what the LORD
 commanded. Therefore the LORD said to
 Solomon, “Since this has been your practice and
 you have not kept my covenant and my statutes
 that I have commanded you, I will surely tear the
 kingdom from you and will give it to your servant.
                            I Kings 11:9-11
Why did the kingdom split?
• Jeroboam chosen by God to rule 10 tribes
  – Ahijah the prophet (I Kings 11:27-40)
  – „If you walk in my ways . . . I will be with you.‟
• Rehaboam inherits kingship from Solomon
• Jeroboam and tribal leaders
  – “Your father made our yoke heavy. Lighten the yoke
    upon us and we will serve you faithfully.”
• Rehaboam replied:
  – “I will add to your yoke; my father chastised you with
    whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.”

                  Division
How was the kingdom divided?
What can we learn from this?
• Solomon had reversed the Exodus by
  reducing the Israelites to servitude
• Solomon had become a new Pharaoh
• Solomon was sexually immoral
• Solomon became an idol-worshipper
What can we learn from this?
• Indemnity means restoring the original
  position
• We will find ourselves in a similar situation
  to historical people. We have to overcome
  the temptation to make the same mistakes
• This is not inevitable
• This is not easy
• Restoration is not repeating the mistakes
  of the past but trying to do things right

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Foundation day

  • 1. Foundation Day From Egypt to Canaan Lancaster Gate 19th January 2013
  • 2. The course to restore the substantial Canaan under the leadership of Christ at the second advent While Moses could enter Canaan only in spirit, Joshua walked the national course as a substantial course and actually conquered the promised land. Likewise, while Jesus has been restoring Canaan as a worldwide spiritual realm, Christ at the Second Advent is to complete this third worldwide course as a substantial course and build the actual Kingdom of Heaven on earth. Christ at the Second Advent must realize, on earth, God‟s ideal which was left unfulfilled at the First Coming.
  • 3. The pattern for the natural subjugation of Satan Moses Jesus Jacob True Parents Joshua Family National World
  • 4. What were the Hebrews doing in Egypt? • Abraham‟s faith in God‟s promise “Look toward heaven, andnumber the stars, if you are able to number them.” Then he said to him, “So shall your offspring be.” And he believed the Lord, and he counted it to him as righteousness. Genesis15:5-6 • Abraham doubts God‟s promise “I am the Lord whobrought you out from Ur of the Chaldeans to give you this land to possess.” But he said, “O Lord God, how am I to know that I shall possess it?” Genesis 15:7-8
  • 5. Restoring the foundation of faith God Heifer Completion Offering Ram & goat Growth Dove & pigeon Formation What did the offerings represent? Abraham Previous symbolic offerings Generations: Adam, Noah, Abraham Central person
  • 6. Why the heavy ‘punishment’? Satan claimed 400 year period Noah Abraham Satan God Condition Curse Blessing Condition decides ownership Greater indemnity Lesser indemnity
  • 7. National foundation to receive the messiah And the Word Foundation for the Messiah became flesh Divine grace + Human will → God‟s will Foundation Remove sinful nature of substance Unity between Moses and Hebrews Moses Foundation Offering - Word of God of faith 40 years
  • 8. What does this mean in practice for the individual? • Foundation of faith • Living a life of prayer, study, tithing and a clear conscience • Foundation of substance • Saying sorry to anyone you have hurt or offended • Forgiving anyone who has hurt or offended you
  • 9. What does this mean in practice for the society? • Foundation of faith – A spiritual community so that when the messiah comes they can understand him • Foundation of substance – A spiritual community in which there is freedom of belief – Cain does not kill Abel – Rule of law
  • 10. What was life like in Egypt? • Jacob took family into Egypt • Prospered and multiplied • Now there arose a new king over Egypt who did not know Joseph. Exodus 1:8 • Building projects Goshen where Hebrews thought to have lived – Ramses, Pithom • Slavery
  • 11. What is a slave society like? • Someone‟s property – Bought and sold • No freedom – Movement – Religion – Work • No family life
  • 12. First national course to restore Canaan
  • 13. What should have happened next? God 1. Loved Moses 2. Respected Moses as mediator 3. Listened to Moses 4. Multiplied goodness Canaan 21 days What did happen? 1st national foundation to receive the messiah Hebrews Moses failed “Who made you a prince and judge over us? Do you mean to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, and thought, “Surely the thing is known.” Ex. 2:14
  • 14. Why 21 days? • Egypt to Canaan • Time from ark landing till Noah left • Time to reach maturity – 21 years • Dwells in direct dominion of God • Hebrews to move from slavery to freedom in 21 days • From obedience to responsibility • Is it possible? • What needs to change?
  • 15. Where is all this happening? 21 days route Ramsees • Moses fled
  • 16. Second national course to restore Canaan
  • 17. What conditions should be established in the second course? Foundation of faith Central person: Moses God Object: Word - tablets Time period: 40 years Foundation of substance Hebrews should Love, Respect, Hebrews Moses Listen to and Multiply goodness
  • 19. Second course of restoration into Canaan The first foundation for the tabernacle
  • 20. God woos the Hebrews “You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and howI bore you on eagleswings and brought you to myself. Now therefore, if you will indeed hearken to my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.” Exodus 19:4-6
  • 21. How did the people respond? So Moses came and called the elders of the people and set before them all these words that the Lord had commanded him. All the people answered together and said, “All that the Lord has spoken we will do.” And Moses reported the words of the people to the Lord. And the Lord said to Moses, “Behold, I am coming to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you for ever.” Exodus 19:7-9
  • 22. Words, words, words . . . • 7 pictogram writing systems – Elite hierarchical societies • First alphabet was Semitic – Equal society – literacy – Western & Indian alphabets descended from it • Kingdom of priests Proto-Sinaitic script 1950 BC • Study word of God – Equality before God & law – Equality of access to law
  • 23. How did the people prepare to receive God? • 3 days of purification • Consecration - prayer • Wash and clean clothes • Apologised to and forgave family, friends, neighbours and enemies God descends on Mount Sinai Exodus 19
  • 24. How was the covenant made? Moses rose early in the morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars, for the twelve tribes of Israel. And he sent young men to sacrifice oxen to the Lord. And Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he threw against the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it in the hearing of the people. And they said, “All that the Lord has spoken we will do, and we will attend him.” And Moses took the blood and threw it on the people and said, “Behold the blood of the covenant that the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.” Exodus 24:4-8
  • 25. Becoming the people of God Foundation day of the Jewish people 3500 years ago Fifty days after Exodus Pentecost – Foundation of the Christian church
  • 26. Celebrating the covenant Moses and Aaron, and the seventy elders of Israel went up and saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was something like a pavement made of sapphire, clear as the sky itself. But God did not raise his hand against these leaders of the Israelites; they saw God, and they ate and drank. The elders before the throne of God Exodus 24:9-11
  • 27. What was change of lineage? • Change of identity to the people of God • Change from Satan‟s way of life to God‟s way of life
  • 28. What is Satan’s way of life? • False sense of identity • Things are purpose of life • Bad language • Workaholic or fun loving • Disrespecting parents
  • 29. What is Satan’s way of life? • Violence and murder • Promiscuity • Stealing • Lying • Envy
  • 30. The Ten Words challenge Satan’s tradition and establish the minimum for living a righteous life
  • 31. The Ten Words 1. I am the Lord your God. You shall have no other gods before me 2. You shall not make a graven image 3. You shall not take the Lord‟s name in vain 4. Remember the Sabbath 5. You shall honour your father and your mother
  • 32. The Ten Words • You shall not murder • You shall not commit adultery • You shall not steal • You shall not bear false witness • You shall not covet
  • 33. Development of the moral life “You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.” (Exodus 22:20) Earliest appearance of empathy in ancient world Empathy and compassion the basis of morality
  • 34. What is the Biblical attitude to the law? I rejoice in following your statutes as one rejoices in great riches. I shall walk at liberty, for I have sought out your precepts. How sweet are your words to my taste, sweeter than honey to my mouth! Your statutes are wonderful; therefore I keep them. Streams of tears flow from my eyes, for your law is not followed. Psalm 119
  • 35. Law as mitzvah (act of human kindness) • Tikkunolam – “Repairing the world” or “perfecting the world.” • Performing ritual mitzvothastens the messianic age • Strengthens good spiritual forces • Makes people better which influences society and thus the world
  • 36. What was the holiness code? • “Consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am the Lord your God. Keep my decrees and follow them. I am the Lord, who makes you holy.” • “Speak to the entire assembly of Israel and say to them: 'Be holy because I, the Lord your God, am holy.‟” – Many laws on sexual relations, sexual purity – Justice, animal welfare, etc. – Good diet and healthy lifestyle
  • 37. Foundation of faith and substance Foundation of faith Central person: Moses God Object: Word - tabernacle Time period: 40 days Foundation of substance Hebrews should Love, Respect, Hebrews Moses Listen to and Multiply goodness Cain Abel
  • 38. Foundation of faith • Central person: Moses • Offering: Word - tablets • Time period: 40 days scouting by 12 spies representing 12 tribes Moses sends out 12 spies
  • 39. Foundation of substance “We came to the land. It flows with milk and honey, and this is its fruit. Yet the people who dwell in the land are strong, and the cities are fortified.” Caleb said, “Let us go up at once and occupy; for we are well able to overcome it.” Numbers 13:27-30
  • 40. Satan invades • “We are not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger God than we.” So they brought to the people of Israel an evil report.” • People lamented 12 spies Moses • “Let us choose a captain and return to Egypt.” • Only 2 spies, Joshua and Caleb, argue against them
  • 41. Moses pleads with God God: “How long will this people despise me? I will strike them and disinherit them, and I will make of you a nation greater and mightier than they.” Moses replied:“The Egyptians will hear of it.” Moses reminded God of what he had said, “The Lord is slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love, forgiving iniquity . . . Pardon the iniquity of this people.” Numbers 14:11-13, 18-19
  • 42. 40 days becomes 40 years “According to the number of days in which you spied out the land, forty days, for every day a year, you shall bear your iniquity, forty years, and you shall know my displeasure.” Numbers 14:34 • All those over 20 years old to die in the wilderness • Some decide to enter Canaan immediately – Defeated
  • 43. Korah’s rebellion • Korah and 250 chiefs of the congregation They assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron and said to them, “You have gone too far! For all in the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is among them. Why then do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?” Numbers 16: 2-3
  • 44. Third foundation for the tabernacle Three failures to lay foundation for the tabernacle Satan invades the second national course to restore Canaan
  • 45. Third national course to restore Canaan
  • 46. Foundation of faith and substance Foundation of faith Central person: Moses God Object: Word - tablets Time period: 40 years Foundation of substance Hebrews should Love, Respect, Hebrews Moses Listen to and Multiply goodness
  • 47. Wandering in the wilderness CANAAN Mediterranean Sea Jericho Rameses 40 years Kadesh-barnea EGYPT SINAI PENINSULA MIDIAN Mt. Sinai
  • 48. Starting out from Kadesh Miriam died there and was buried there. Now there was no water for the congregation; and they assembled themselves against Moses and Aaron. The Lord said to Moses, “Take the rod and tell the rock before their eyes to yield its water.” Moses strikes the rock Numbers 20:1,2,8
  • 49. Moses makes a mistake “Hear now, you rebels; shall we bring forth water for you out of this rock?” And Moses lifted up his hand and struck the rock with his rod twice; and water came forth. And the Lord said, “Because you did not believe in me to sanctify me in the eyes of the people, you shall not bring this assembly into the land I have given them.” Numbers 20:10-12
  • 50. Why was this a problem? Moses First strike Second strike Rock Rock with Rock with without water water water Fallen Adam Restored Adam Restored Adam = = Messiah Messiah
  • 51. Joshua inherits Moses position as Abel So the Lord said to Moses, “Take Joshua son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay your hand on him. Have him stand before Eleazar the priest and the entire assembly and commission him in their presence. Give him some of your authority so the whole Israelite community will listen to him.” Numbers 27:18-20
  • 52. Spying out Jericho • Two spies go to Jericho • Rahab the prostitute hides them • They report back: “Truly the Lord has given all the land into our hands; and moreover the inhabitants of the land are fainthearted because of us.” Joshua 2:24 Rahab and the spies
  • 53. Setting out for Canaan • 3 days before Jordan • Ark crossed the river • Took 12 stones • Built altar • Circumcised people • Celebrated Passover • Met commander of the army of the Lord Crossing the River Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant
  • 54. Capture of Jericho • 40,000 soldiers • 7 priests blowing trumpets • 6 times circled city • 7th day shouted • Walls came down • Defeated 31 kings Circling Jericho with trumpets and Ark
  • 55. The national level foundation to receive the Messiah was established
  • 56. Settled in Canaan • Loose confederation • Charismatic leadership – Judges • God was their King • Gideon told them, "I will not rule over you, nor will my son rule over you. The Lord will rule over you.”Judges 8:23 • Ruled by law • Justice chief value
  • 57. “The government of the Israelites was a federation, held together by no political authority, but by the unity of race and faith, and founded, not on physical force, but on a voluntary covenant. The principle of self-government was carried out not only in each tribe, but in every group of at least 120 families; and there was neither privilege of rank, nor inequality before the law. Monarchy was so alien to the primitive spirit of the community that it was resisted by Samuel.” The History of Freedom and Other Essays by John Acton
  • 58. The people demand a king • People said to Samuel:“We want a king over us. Then we will be like all the other nations, with a king to lead us and to go out before us and fight our battles.” • God replied to Samuel: “Listen to all that the people are saying to you; it is not you they have rejected, but they have rejected me as their king.” Samuel 9
  • 59. What will the king do? • God warned the people that a king would: – Conscript their sons as soldiers – Turn their daughters into servants – Take best fields and vineyards – Take one tenth of harvest – Take one tenth of flocks – “You shall be his slaves”
  • 60. How did David inherit the throne? Own sons corrupt Samuel Saul Tried to kill Filial Providence for the start Filial piety piety Won love and respect Jonathan David Goliath Offered his position Cain Abel Satan Jonathan made a covenant with David, because he loved him as his own soul. And Jonathan gave his robe and armour and sword and bow to David.I Samuel 18:3-4
  • 61. Reign of Solomon Song of Solomon Proverbs of Solomon Built Temple Temple completion of Exodus
  • 62. How did Solomon build the temple? King Solomon conscripted labourers from all Israel—30,000 men. He sent them off to Lebanon in shifts of 10,000 a month, so that they spent one month in Lebanon and two months at home. Adoniram was in charge of the forced labour. Solomon had 70,000 carriers and 80,000 stonecutters in the hills, as well as 3,300 foremen who supervised the project and directed the work. I Kings 5:27-30
  • 63. How was the tabernacle built? God spoke to Moses saying: “Speak to the Israelites and have them bring Me an offering. Take My offering from everyone whose heart impels him to give . . . They shall make a Sanctuary for Me and I will dwell in them.” Exodus 25:2,8
  • 64. Solomon’s family problems Now King Solomon loved many foreign women, along with the daughter of Pharaoh: Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Sidonian, and Hittite women, from the nations concerning which the LORD had said to the people of Israel, “You shall not enter into marriage with them, neither shall they with you, for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods.” Solomon clung to these in love.
  • 65. What came next? He had 700 wives, princesses, and 300 concubines. And his wives turned away his heart. For when Solomon was old his wives turned away his heart after other gods, and his heart was not wholly true to the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father. So Solomon did what was evil in the sight of the LORD and did not wholly follow the LORD, as David his father had done.
  • 66. God’s judgement And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart had turned away from the LORD, the God of Israel, who had appeared to him twice and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods. But he did not keep what the LORD commanded. Therefore the LORD said to Solomon, “Since this has been your practice and you have not kept my covenant and my statutes that I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom from you and will give it to your servant. I Kings 11:9-11
  • 67. Why did the kingdom split? • Jeroboam chosen by God to rule 10 tribes – Ahijah the prophet (I Kings 11:27-40) – „If you walk in my ways . . . I will be with you.‟ • Rehaboam inherits kingship from Solomon • Jeroboam and tribal leaders – “Your father made our yoke heavy. Lighten the yoke upon us and we will serve you faithfully.” • Rehaboam replied: – “I will add to your yoke; my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.” Division
  • 68. How was the kingdom divided?
  • 69. What can we learn from this? • Solomon had reversed the Exodus by reducing the Israelites to servitude • Solomon had become a new Pharaoh • Solomon was sexually immoral • Solomon became an idol-worshipper
  • 70. What can we learn from this? • Indemnity means restoring the original position • We will find ourselves in a similar situation to historical people. We have to overcome the temptation to make the same mistakes • This is not inevitable • This is not easy • Restoration is not repeating the mistakes of the past but trying to do things right

Editor's Notes

  1. What maturity mean?Inner and outer changeInner and outer freedomFreedom and responsibility
  2. Writing independently invented 7 times. Mesopotamia (cuneiform), ancient Egypt (hieroglyphics), Indus valley (Indus script), China (ideograms) Crete (Linear-B), Americas (Mayan and Aztec). All pictograms. Many symbols needed. Chinese 60,000. few could learn. Elite and hierarchical societies. Ruling administrative class. Most alphabetic scripts of India and Eastern Asia are descended from the Brahmi script, which is often believed to be a descendant of Aramaic.Alphabet. Less than 30 letters. First alphabet was Semitic. 2000-1800 BC. All scripts descendants of proto-Semitic. Alpha, beta, gamma, delta in Greek from aleph, bet, gimmel, daled in Hebrew. New understanding of God plus new script changed world. Knowledge is power. Need alphabet to create book and people of the book. Record the divine word. Could become universally literate and think in abstract. Possibility of non hierarchical society. Equality of access to knowledge. At Sinai God spoke to everyone. Not just to Moses. All equal before God. Kingdom of priests means nation of universal literacy. Law belonged to all. Everyone could and had to study it. Study a form of worship like prayer. Study the word of God.There have been two major discoveries of inscriptions that may be related to the Proto-Sinaitic script, the first in the winter of 1904–1905 in Sinai by Hilda and Flinders Petrie, dated to the mid 19th century BCE, and more recently in 1999 in Middle Egypt by John and Deborah Darnell, dated to the 18th century BCE.[1]The Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram. This script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century two other forms can be distinguished namely Canaanite and Aramaic. The Aramaic gave rise to Hebrew
  3. “You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt” (Exod. 22:20).  It is extremely unusual for the Torah to provide an explanation for a commandment, and that is what we have here. The reason why we must not oppress a stranger is an appeal to the past, to history: we were strangers in the land of Egypt.
In ancient Greece, when they were looking for task-masters to place in charge of a group of slaves, they would take someone who had been a slave himself, because he would remember the kind of sanction that was most painful to him and therefore be able to inflict it most effectively on the slaves he was now responsible for. The experience of suffering in the past does not automatically, necessarily produce an unwillingness to make others sufferyou know the feelings (literally ‘the soul’) of the stranger, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt” (Exod. 23:9). According to this verse, the historic memory of having been outsiders, aliens, enables you to understand what it is like to be an alien, and that requires that when you see aliens today, you must imagine that you are in their place, and treat them accordingly, the way you would want to be treated yourself.This act of imagination is what we call empathy. It is a buzz word in contemporary discourse. But we should appreciate that it is not at all self-evident. Indeed, this verse, and the ideas and feelings that it evokes, may well represent a monumental innovation in human thinking. There seems to be no evidence of this kind of attitude previously in the ancient world – not in the literature of the Babylonians or the Egyptians or the Greeks. For the ancient Greeks, the world was divided into categories: you were Greek or you were barbarian, you were free or you were slave. No act of the imagination led to identification with the Other across these boundary lines. In our own experience, seeing a person who is horribly disfigured, or living in squalor, is as likely to trigger feelings of disgust in the observer as feelings of compassion. It was the innovation of the Torah that all human beings share a common essence, expressed in that enigmatic phrase “tselemElohim”, and that we can imagine, understand, have compassion for the feelings of others apparently quite different from us. And so this commandment rooted in empathy is repeated frequently in the Torah, and it appears also in the rabbinic literature, as in the statement:
Do not judge your associate until you stand in his place (Avot 2:5).“You must not oppress the stranger, kiatemyedatem et nefesh ha-ger, for you know the soul of the stranger.” You are capable of imagining what it is like to be a stranger and acting accordingly. That is one of the great gifts of our Torah and our people to world consciousness. What a tragedy that the insight expressed in this mitzvah seems to be falling increasingly into abeyance in our time.
  4. The Korah who fought against Israel was the son of Izhar, the son of Kehath, the son of Levi, becoming the great-grandson of Levi, the third son of Jacob Korah accused Moses of elevating himself and using God’s name for own aggrandizment. Argued everyone holy. Earth swallowed up. Rebellion against what happened to Korah.What follows is what I consider to be one of the most provocatively subversive passages in the rabbinic literature. It appears in the first chapter of the Midrash on Psalms. Its purpose is to relate the Psalms to material in the Torah, and in our case it takes the first verse of Psalm 1 - Happy is the one who has not followed the counsel of the wicked, or taken the path of sinners, or joined the company of the insolent (Ps. 1:1) - and applies it to the uprising led by Korah who, in the rabbinic reading, spoke insolently against Moses and Aaron. What did Korah do? He assembled all the congregation against Moses and Aaron- up to here the Midrash is merely following the Torah text - and in their presence he began to speak words of scorn. This is what he said.At this point, the Torah text in our parashah is entirely abandoned, and a new speech is crafted and placed in Korah’s mouth. It is this speech that I find so extraordinary, worth citing in full. 
In my neighbourhood there was a widow, and with her were her two fatherless daughters. The widow had only one field, and when she was about to plough, Moses said unto her, “You shall not plough with an ox and an ass together”(Deut. 22:10). When she was about to sow, Moses said to her, ”You shallnot sow your field with two kinds of seed.” (Lev. 19:19).
So far, it is just making life a bit more difficult for the widow by restricting the range of her activities. But it gets worse.
When she was about to reap the harvest and to stack the sheaves, Moses said to her: “You shall not harvest the gleanings, the over-looked sheaves, and the corners of the field.” (based on Lev. 19:9 and Deut. 24:19) [these were, of course, to be left for the poor]. When she was about to bring the remaining harvest into the granary, Moses said to her, “Give me the heave-offering, the first tithe, and the second tithe.” (Num. 18:8ff, 18:26ff, Deut. 14:22ff). She submitted to God’s decree and gave them to him. What did the poor woman do then? She sold the field and bought two sheep, so that she might clothe herself in the wool shorn from them, and so that she might profit out of the lambs. As soon as the sheep brought forth their young, Aaron came and said to the widow, “Give me the first males, for this is what the Holy One, blessed be He, said to me, ‘All the firstling males that are born of thy herd and of tourflock you shall sanctify unto the Lord thy God.’” (Deut. 15:19). Again she submitted to God’s decree, and gave the young of her sheep to Aaron. When the time for shearing arrived, she sheared her two sheep. Then Aaron came again and said to the widow, “Give me the first portion of the shearing.” She said, “There is no strength in me to withstand this man. I will slaughter the sheep and eat them.” After she slaughtered them, Aaron came again and said to her, “Give me the shoulder, the jaws, and the maw.” (cf. Lev. 7:32).The widow said, “Though I have slaughtered my sheep, I am still not free of your demands; behold, I devote my sheep to the uses of the Temple.” But Aaron said to her, “If the sheep are to be devoted to the uses of the Temple, they belong entirely to me, for it was said to me, ‘Everything devoted in Israel shall be yours.’”(Num. 18:14). Thereupon Aaron lifted up the sheep, went on his way, and left her weeping with her daughters.
That is the end of the story that Korah tells the assembled Israelites, according to the Midrashic imagination. All that is left is a rhetorical flourish at the end, placed into Korah’s mouth: “Is such a thing right? Oh, the despoiled woman! The hapless woman! Moses and Aaron have done all these things to her, but hang the blame on the Holy One, blessed be He!”

What are we to make of this passage?Some unknown rabbinic author has fabricated a supposedly villainous speech by a would-be demagogue that can hardly avoid evoking sympathy for the widow and for the man who stands up in her defence.

I will focus on two serious issues are raised by this speech. The first comes at the very end: ‘Moses and Aaron have done all these things to her, but hang the blame on God.’ In other words, the Korah of the rabbinic imagination is presenting the religious claim that God is the source of all these laws as a fraud. He articulates the dissident view that religious rules, including the commandments of the Torah, are invented by human beings for their own self-interest. The extensive laws relating to the sacrifices in the book of Leviticus include a substantial percentage said to be owed to the Priests and the Levites, to be consumed only by them. This can be seen as a kind of tax system for the benefit of an elite, hereditary in-group that uses the taxes for its own self-perpetuation - represented by Aaron claiming a portion of the slaughtered sheep, and eventually seizing the entire animal. In this analysis, God is cynically invoked in order to justify the self-aggrandizement of the privileged. 

How many of the commandments come from God, how many from human beings, who may conceive of them with their own interest either in the front or the back of their minds? Cynical secularists from Machiavelli to Marx to Dawkins would say that they are all of this nature; Orthodox Jews would of course recoil from the thought. Most Progressive Jews would say that they are the words of human beings engaged in a sincere effort to understand what God wants of us in order to create a sacred and just society. But those human beings were products of their own time and culture, political position and social status, all of which may have affected their own understanding of what God wants. The Midrashic story of Korah warns us that we must not take any human authority as self-evident, that we must always probe for our own insight into what God demands.

A second serious claim is expressed by the widow’s statement of exasperation: “There is no strength in me to withstand this man.” (Aaron). This suggests that the commandments of the Torah are an oppressive system that is especially burdensome to the poor, and that cannot be fulfilled even by those who - like the widow - seem sincerely committed to trying. No matter how sincere they are, no matter how much they try, the religious leaders will never be satisfied. 

This was, indeed, the critique of Judaism articulated by the Apostle Paul in his Epistles to various Christian communities: The Torah is too demanding, human beings will never be able to fulfil all of its demands, it is impossible to be sanctified in God’s sight through the acts we perform as we will always fall short, therefore God provides an alternative way: justification through what we believe rather than how we behave. 

Here too, the Progressive approach to Judaism strikes me as relevant and helpful. The Orthodox system is essentially all or nothing. Every one of the commandments, every detail of the rabbinic interpretation and expansion of the commandments, is an integral part of God’s literal revelation and therefore binding on every Jew. Many years ago, a young Chabad Hasid said to me, “If you eat beef from a non-kosher butcher (today, he probably would have said, from a non-glatt kosher butcher), that’s exactly the same as eating ham or pork.Treifis treif.”

I suspect we all prefer the approach that, instead of making each failure to observe a sin that requires atonement, makes each observance into a positive, re-enforcing affirmation of one’s Jewish identity. Contrary to the Hasid’s approach, keeping some of the dietary laws is better than keeping none; keeping Shabbat incompletely from a halakhic perspective is far preferable to ignoring it completely. It may indeed be the case, as the story of the widow suggests, that schwertzusein a Yid. But no Jew should feel that the obligations upon him or her are an impossible task.

Though in jarring counterpoint to what the biblical narrative originally intended, the issues raised by the rabbinic retelling the story of his challenge are also issues we need to take seriously:”to remember that our understanding of God’s demands upon us is imperfect and that we must therefore be wary of imposing it on others;・to appreciate the special difficulties faced by those near the bottom of the economic ladder in meeting the obligations we accept for ourselves;・to ensure that our tradition is experienced not as an oppressive burden, but rather as a set of life-affirming options.
Korah’s widow may be a product of the rabbinic imagination, but she embodies the pain of many real people. Her voice deserves to be heard. 

Rabbi Professor Marc Saperstein
  5. Religious and national identity rolled into oneIn Canaan should have maintained faith in God, kept the law and be united with judge and each other. Usually supported Judge but after judge fell into faithlessness. Judges 2:16-19People not bound together by central govt but common devotion to God, common religious festivals and law. Tribal independence. People followed conscience not king. Authority of judges non-hereditary and charismatic. God rules, not king like other people. Theocracy. Valued freedom and independence after slavery in Egypt. Abimelech with support of priests of Baal tried to become king and create Canaanite type of government but people rebelled at the idea of human king.Wanted to make Gideon and descendants `King “The Israelites said to Gideon, "Rule over usムyou, your son and your grandsonムbecause you have saved us out of the hand of Midian."ハ23 But Gideon told them, "I will not rule over you, nor will my son rule over you. The LORD will rule over you.”Later wanted a king so they could become as other nations. Rejected freedom and responsibility and uncertainties of divine rule and leadership.
  6. John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton
  7. 480th year after exodusSolomon became a Pharaoh.Worship forced is not true worshipEnd doesn’t justify meansSolomon other foreign wives and their gods - I Kings 11 - 700 wives, 300 concubines, When he was old his heart went after other gods. Ashteroth, Milcom
  8. 480th year after exodusSolomon became a Pharaoh.Worship forced is not true worshipEnd doesn’t justify means
  9. God lives in the builders not the building. Building a place whose holiness opened hearts to the One worshipped there. Temple always had an ambiguous place. Led to a priesthood and wealth accumulated in Jerusalem. Many prophets criticised the Temple and sacrificial system. Amos etc. Also led to devaluing of northern places of worship such as Shechem and Bethel. Monopoly on worship.