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An investigation into turbine performance and wind flow modelling
under cold weather driven stable atmospheric conditions
Winterwind 2013 (Östersund, Sweden - 13 February 2013)
GL Garrad Hassan – Independent Renewable Experts
     Almost 1000 staff, in 44 locations, across 26 countries

                                                    Heerenveen
                                                    Sint Maarten
                                                      Kaiser-Wilhelm-
                                                      Koog
                                           Glasgow          Copenhagen
                                       London               Hinnerup
                                      Slough                Oldenburg
                                      Bristol               Hamburg      Beijing
  Vancouver                            Cork                 Warsaw
                                                                         Seoul
                                              Paris         Imola
      Ottawa                                                             Tokyo
    Portland                              Lisbon             Izmir       Shanghai
  San Diego                                        Barcelona Cairo       Mumbai
                                                   Zaragoza
    Montreal                                       Madrid                Bangkok
Peterborough                                                             Bangalore
      Austin                                                             Singapore
   Querétaro                                                             Newcastle
 Porto Alegre                                                            Wellington
    Santiago                                       Cape Town             Melbourne
Content
Cold climate driven stable atmospheric conditions in the Nordic Region:

          1 - Consequences to the wind flow (challenges) and how it translates


          2 - How complex CFD flow modelling can help with the wind flow modelling challenges


          3 - Impact of high frequency of stable atmospheric conditions on turbine performance
1 –2–3

Stable atmospheric conditions
What is it and how it translates
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- Unstable, neutral, stable and very stable atmospheric conditions



                                                                     - Actual
                                                                     - Dry-adiabatic




 - High frequency of stable atmospheric conditions
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions
- When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
High frequency of stable atmosphere and wind conditions




                  Low TI as a proxy for stable
                    atmospheric conditions
Wind Flow modelling challenges

   Wind speed at mast A/Wind speed at mast B = Speedup

          1.10

          1.05

          1.00
                 0   30   60   90   120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330
          0.95
Speedup




          0.90

          0.85

          0.80

          0.75

          0.70

          0.65
                               Direction Sector (deg)

                      Stable          Unstable       Total
1–   2   –3

Complex CFD flow modelling for
stable wind flow challenges
What is CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

•   Most accurate description of wind flow: Navier-Stokes Equations (below)
•   Very difficult to solve!




• Linear models simplify this equation - some accuracy is sacrificed

• CFD makes fewer changes – less loss of accuracy:
   • Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS)
   • Advanced software required
   • Modern computing power required
   • Like a wind tunnel on your computer
Wind Flow modelling under stable conditions

  Directional speedup errors (95 mast pairs at 16 sites)




Neutral CFD




 Linear
 (WAsP)
Stable + Neutral CFD approach (GL GH approach)

Directional speedup errors (95 mast pairs at 16 sites)




                                           Stable+Neutral    Average Errors
                                            error is lower


                                                             Linear (WAsP) = 9.6%
                                                             Neutral CFD = 9.5%
                                                             Stable + Neutral (CFD) = 6.6%
1– 2 –   3
High frequency of stable conditions
and turbine performance
Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the
             Nordic Region – What the theory suggests

                                                                        P = 1/2ρ(u)3(1+3TI2)ACp
             2000




             1500
Power (KW)




                                                                  0%
                                                                  5%
             1000
                                                                  10%
                                                                  15%
                                                                  20%

             500




               0
                    2   4   6          8           10   12   14
                                Wind speed (m/s)
Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the
                Nordic Region
                Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden


                                  106%
measured power curve production




                                  104%
                                  102%
        Low TI / High TI




                                                                        T1
                                  100%                                  T2        No partial icing cleaning
                                  98%                                   T3        and no temperature
                                  96%                                   T4        filtering
                                                                        T5
                                  94%
                                                                        Average
                                  92%
                                           6          7           8
                                         Annual mean wind speed (m/s)
Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the
              Nordic Region
               Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden


                                  106%
measured power curve production




                                  104%
                                  102%
        Low TI / High TI




                                                                        T1
                                  100%                                  T2        Data cleaned for partial
                                  98%                                   T3        icing and filtered
                                  96%                                   T4        excluding temperatures
                                                                        T5        below 0˚C
                                  94%
                                                                        Average
                                  92%
                                          6           7           8
                                         Annual mean wind speed (m/s)
Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the
                Nordic Region
                Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden


                                  106%
measured power curve production




                                  104%
                                  102%
        Low TI / High TI




                                                                        T1
                                  100%                                  T2        Data cleaned for partial
                                  98%                                   T3        icing and filtered
                                  96%                                   T4        excluding temperatures
                                                                        T5        below 0˚C and different
                                  94%
                                                                        Average   site calibration speedups
                                  92%
                                                                                  applied for stable and
                                           6          7           8
                                         Annual mean wind speed (m/s)
                                                                                  unstable conditions
Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the
                                  Nordic Region
                                  Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden

                              Without different site calibration speedups                                                             With different site calibration speedups
                       110%                                                                                                    110%



                       105%                                                                                                    105%




                                                                                                        measured power curve
measured power curve




                       100%                                                                                                    100%
   Low TI / High TI




                                                                                                           Low TI / High TI
                       95%                                                                                                     95%



                       90%                                                                                                     90%



                       85%                                                                                                     85%



                       80%                                                                                                     80%
                              4    5    6    7   8        9   10    11   12   13    14   15   16   17                                 4   5    6    7   8        9   10    11   12   13    14   15   16   17
                                                          Wind speed (m/s)                                                                                       Wind speed (m/s)

                                   T1       T2       T3        T4        T5        Average                                                T1       T2       T3        T4        T5        Average
Conclusions
 There is high frequency of stable and very stable atmospheric conditions in sites
 across the Nordic Region caused by radiative cooling
 This presents a challenge for both wind flow modelling and turbine performance
 Stable CFD reduces the error in wind flow modelling at these sites
 Theory shows that low turbulence reduces turbine performance in raising part of
 the power curve
 Preliminary Nordic data supports this, however shows recovery in the “knee” of
 the power curve
 Need to gather more Power Curve Measurement data across the Nordic region
 Careful consideration should be given to winter Power Curve Measurement data,
 as partial icing affects more low TI data than high TI, and the anemometry used
 Site calibration speedups for stable and unstable conditions should be considered
 separately as suggested by the new draft of the IEC standard
Thank you
                      Any questions?
Contact:
Carla Ribeiro, Senior Team Leader Nordic Region
carla.ribeiro@gl-garradhassan.com

With Thanks to:
Simon Cox
Bob Hodgetts
Andrew Tindal
GL GH CFD Team
GL GH AMOS Team

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Ribeiro carla

  • 1. An investigation into turbine performance and wind flow modelling under cold weather driven stable atmospheric conditions Winterwind 2013 (Östersund, Sweden - 13 February 2013)
  • 2. GL Garrad Hassan – Independent Renewable Experts Almost 1000 staff, in 44 locations, across 26 countries Heerenveen Sint Maarten Kaiser-Wilhelm- Koog Glasgow Copenhagen London Hinnerup Slough Oldenburg Bristol Hamburg Beijing Vancouver Cork Warsaw Seoul Paris Imola Ottawa Tokyo Portland Lisbon Izmir Shanghai San Diego Barcelona Cairo Mumbai Zaragoza Montreal Madrid Bangkok Peterborough Bangalore Austin Singapore Querétaro Newcastle Porto Alegre Wellington Santiago Cape Town Melbourne
  • 3. Content Cold climate driven stable atmospheric conditions in the Nordic Region: 1 - Consequences to the wind flow (challenges) and how it translates 2 - How complex CFD flow modelling can help with the wind flow modelling challenges 3 - Impact of high frequency of stable atmospheric conditions on turbine performance
  • 4. 1 –2–3 Stable atmospheric conditions What is it and how it translates
  • 5. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - Unstable, neutral, stable and very stable atmospheric conditions - Actual - Dry-adiabatic - High frequency of stable atmospheric conditions
  • 6. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 7. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 8. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 9. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 10. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 11. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 12. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 13. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 14. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 15. Radiative cooling driven stable atmospheric conditions - When do stable and very stable atmospheric conditions happen in the Nordic region
  • 16. High frequency of stable atmosphere and wind conditions Low TI as a proxy for stable atmospheric conditions
  • 17. Wind Flow modelling challenges Wind speed at mast A/Wind speed at mast B = Speedup 1.10 1.05 1.00 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 0.95 Speedup 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 Direction Sector (deg) Stable Unstable Total
  • 18. 1– 2 –3 Complex CFD flow modelling for stable wind flow challenges
  • 19. What is CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) • Most accurate description of wind flow: Navier-Stokes Equations (below) • Very difficult to solve! • Linear models simplify this equation - some accuracy is sacrificed • CFD makes fewer changes – less loss of accuracy: • Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) • Advanced software required • Modern computing power required • Like a wind tunnel on your computer
  • 20. Wind Flow modelling under stable conditions Directional speedup errors (95 mast pairs at 16 sites) Neutral CFD Linear (WAsP)
  • 21. Stable + Neutral CFD approach (GL GH approach) Directional speedup errors (95 mast pairs at 16 sites) Stable+Neutral Average Errors error is lower Linear (WAsP) = 9.6% Neutral CFD = 9.5% Stable + Neutral (CFD) = 6.6%
  • 22. 1– 2 – 3 High frequency of stable conditions and turbine performance
  • 23. Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the Nordic Region – What the theory suggests P = 1/2ρ(u)3(1+3TI2)ACp 2000 1500 Power (KW) 0% 5% 1000 10% 15% 20% 500 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Wind speed (m/s)
  • 24. Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the Nordic Region Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden 106% measured power curve production 104% 102% Low TI / High TI T1 100% T2 No partial icing cleaning 98% T3 and no temperature 96% T4 filtering T5 94% Average 92% 6 7 8 Annual mean wind speed (m/s)
  • 25. Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the Nordic Region Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden 106% measured power curve production 104% 102% Low TI / High TI T1 100% T2 Data cleaned for partial 98% T3 icing and filtered 96% T4 excluding temperatures T5 below 0˚C 94% Average 92% 6 7 8 Annual mean wind speed (m/s)
  • 26. Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the Nordic Region Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden 106% measured power curve production 104% 102% Low TI / High TI T1 100% T2 Data cleaned for partial 98% T3 icing and filtered 96% T4 excluding temperatures T5 below 0˚C and different 94% Average site calibration speedups 92% applied for stable and 6 7 8 Annual mean wind speed (m/s) unstable conditions
  • 27. Performance of wind turbines under stable conditions in the Nordic Region Results for IEC Power Curve Measurements of 5 mast/turbine pairs in Sweden Without different site calibration speedups With different site calibration speedups 110% 110% 105% 105% measured power curve measured power curve 100% 100% Low TI / High TI Low TI / High TI 95% 95% 90% 90% 85% 85% 80% 80% 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Wind speed (m/s) Wind speed (m/s) T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Average T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Average
  • 28. Conclusions There is high frequency of stable and very stable atmospheric conditions in sites across the Nordic Region caused by radiative cooling This presents a challenge for both wind flow modelling and turbine performance Stable CFD reduces the error in wind flow modelling at these sites Theory shows that low turbulence reduces turbine performance in raising part of the power curve Preliminary Nordic data supports this, however shows recovery in the “knee” of the power curve Need to gather more Power Curve Measurement data across the Nordic region Careful consideration should be given to winter Power Curve Measurement data, as partial icing affects more low TI data than high TI, and the anemometry used Site calibration speedups for stable and unstable conditions should be considered separately as suggested by the new draft of the IEC standard
  • 29. Thank you Any questions? Contact: Carla Ribeiro, Senior Team Leader Nordic Region carla.ribeiro@gl-garradhassan.com With Thanks to: Simon Cox Bob Hodgetts Andrew Tindal GL GH CFD Team GL GH AMOS Team