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Ice Profile Classification          Based on ISO 12494                      Presented by:            Matthew Wadham-Gagnon...
Co-authorsDominic Bolduc, TCE, QC, CanadaBruno Boucher, TCE, QC, CanadaAmélie Camion, Repower Systems Inc, QC, CanadaJens ...
Content• Introduction to TCE• Motivation• Methodology   – Measurement Campaign   – Ice profile classification using ISO 12...
TCE infrastructure location                                 TCE R&D wind farm                    TCE office               ...
TCE R&D Wind Farm• Two 2.05 MW Repower  MM92 CCV wind turbines• Located in Riviere-au-  Renard, Québec, Canada• Icing & co...
TCE 126m Met Mast    Compliant with     CSA-S37-01(DLC: 40 mm of ice       and 57 m/s)                     6
TCE 126m Met Mast•   5 levels of unheated class 1    anemometers•   3 levels of heated anemometers•   2 levels of heated a...
TCE Micro Grid           8   www.eolien.qc.ca
TCE Micro Grid           9   www.eolien.qc.ca
Infrastructure Topographic Layout                projected    projected                  10
Objective/MotivationsWhat:• Quantify ice load during different icing eventsWhy:• To validate and/or improve theoretical ic...
Ice Measurement Campaign• Ongoing since October 2011• Intended to continue until at least winter 2013-2014•   Observations...
Observations - Blades• Pictures taken from the ground23 days of observed ice on blades (Winter 2011-2012)                 ...
Observations – Nacelle Weather Mast• Remote Camera on Nacelle – 5 min intervals800+ hours of icing on nacelle weather mast...
Ice throw• Shape, size, weight, distance from tower• 150+ fragments of ice from blades collected to date                  ...
Estimating Ice Load using ISO 12494• ISO 12494 – for RIME   – Ice Class (IC) for Rime (R) scale 1 to 10 according to kg/m ...
Estimating Ice Load using ISO 12494• ISO 12494 – for GLAZE (Freezing Rain)   – Ice Class (IC) for Glaze (G) scale 1 to 6 a...
Nacelle Weather Mast Load Classification• Weather mast ice load estimation   – “D” measured,   – “L” estimated, higher err...
Blade Ice Load Classification• Blade ice load estimation   – “L” measured   – “D” estimated   – Limited amount of pictures...
Ice throw Load Classification• Used to validate blade ice load   – More accurate measurement   – Precise time of ice shed ...
Ice Class Rime 1 (ICR1) – 0 to 0.5 kg/m                   21
Ice Class Rime 2 (ICR2) – 0.5 to 0.9 kg/m                    22
Ice Class Rime 3 (ICR3) – 0.9 to 1.6 kg/m                    23
Ice Class Rime 4 (ICR4) – 1.6 to 2.8 kg/m                    24
Ice Class Rime 5 (ICR5) – 2.8 to 5.0 kg/m                    25
Example Icing Event• April 21 to 23, 2012• Rime, ICR3 to ICR5                         26
Meteorological Icing (Ice Sensor)                    Met. Icing (ice sensor)1.00.80.60.40.20.0                         27
Met. Icing (Cloud Height & Temp.)                     Met. Icing (ice sensor)                   Met. Icing (CH & T)       ...
Instrumental Icing (WEC unheated anemo)                    Met. Icing (ice sensor)   Met. Icing (CH & T)   Instr. Icing (W...
Instr. Icing (MMV2 126m unheat anemo)                Met. Icing (ice sensor)   Met. Icing (CH & T)    Instr. Icing (WEC2) ...
Instr. Icing (MMV2 80m unheat anemo)                Met. Icing (ice sensor)    Met. Icing (CH & T)         Instr. Icing (W...
Instr. Icing (MMV2 34m unheat anemo)                Met. Icing (ice sensor)    Met. Icing (CH & T)         Instr. Icing (W...
WEC1 Production Loss                    Met. Icing (ice sensor)   Met. Icing (CH & T)          Instr. Icing (WEC2)   Instr...
Production Loss (WEC2)                    Met. Icing (ice sensor)   Met. Icing (CH & T)          Instr. Icing (WEC2)   Ins...
Nacelle Weather Mast Ice Load          Met. Icing (ice sensor)   Met. Icing (CH & T)   Instr. Icing (WEC2)          Instr....
Blade Ice Load          Met. Icing (ice sensor)   Met. Icing (CH & T)     Instr. Icing (WEC2)   Instr. Icing (126m)       ...
Example Icing Event• April 21 to 23, 2012• Rime, ICR3 to ICR5                         37
Power Curve• Production loss during april 20-23 icing event             2500             2000             1500Power (kW)  ...
Power Curve• Power curve estimations based on ice classification and  production losses of all icing events in Winter 2011...
Nacelle Weather Mast Load Classification• Weather mast occurrence of icing severity over the course  of the winter        ...
Winter 2011-2012 in numbersMeteorological Icing      ~200 hoursInstrumental Icing        ~400 hoursNacelle WM icing       ...
Conclusions•   Improved understanding of the severity of icing events•   Measurement Campaign database can be used to vali...
Checker board tape• In order to get a better estimation of blade ice load and  position along span of blade               ...
Hub Camera     44
Ongoing – Automation of Image Analysis                                 ICR= 5       In Collaboration with:                ...
ReferencesIEA Wind Task 19, Expert Group Study on Recommended Practices: 13. Wind Energy Projects in ColdClimates, 1. Edit...
Thank you, Tack, Danke, Merci!
Matthew Wadham-Gagnon, eng, M.engProject Leadmgagnon@eolien.qc.ca70, rue Bolduc, Gaspé (Québec) G4X 1G2CanadaTél. : +1 418...
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Ice profile classification - Matthew Wadham-Gagnon

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Ice profile classification - Matthew Wadham-Gagnon

  1. 1. Ice Profile Classification Based on ISO 12494 Presented by: Matthew Wadham-Gagnon 2012-02-12 WinterWind 2013
  2. 2. Co-authorsDominic Bolduc, TCE, QC, CanadaBruno Boucher, TCE, QC, CanadaAmélie Camion, Repower Systems Inc, QC, CanadaJens Petersen, Repower Systems SE, GermanyHannes Friedrich, Repower Systems SE, Germany 2
  3. 3. Content• Introduction to TCE• Motivation• Methodology – Measurement Campaign – Ice profile classification using ISO 12494• Example of data for one icing event• Summary for winter 2011-2012• Conclusions/Further work
  4. 4. TCE infrastructure location TCE R&D wind farm TCE office Over 900MW in operation 4
  5. 5. TCE R&D Wind Farm• Two 2.05 MW Repower MM92 CCV wind turbines• Located in Riviere-au- Renard, Québec, Canada• Icing & complex terrain• Commissionned in March 2010• Research, development and technology transfer projects involving northern climates and complex terrain. 5 www.eolien.qc.ca
  6. 6. TCE 126m Met Mast Compliant with CSA-S37-01(DLC: 40 mm of ice and 57 m/s) 6
  7. 7. TCE 126m Met Mast• 5 levels of unheated class 1 anemometers• 3 levels of heated anemometers• 2 levels of heated and unheated wind vanes• Ceilometer to detect cloud height• 4 levels of thermometers• Hygrometer1Hz data acquisition in Osisoft PI 7
  8. 8. TCE Micro Grid 8 www.eolien.qc.ca
  9. 9. TCE Micro Grid 9 www.eolien.qc.ca
  10. 10. Infrastructure Topographic Layout projected projected 10
  11. 11. Objective/MotivationsWhat:• Quantify ice load during different icing eventsWhy:• To validate and/or improve theoretical ice accretion models• To correlate with meteorological measurements, production loss and ice induced vibration• To evaluate the performance of anti-icing and de-icing technologies 11
  12. 12. Ice Measurement Campaign• Ongoing since October 2011• Intended to continue until at least winter 2013-2014• Observations during icing events• Remote Cameras• Ice throw• Meteorological and production data 12
  13. 13. Observations - Blades• Pictures taken from the ground23 days of observed ice on blades (Winter 2011-2012) 13
  14. 14. Observations – Nacelle Weather Mast• Remote Camera on Nacelle – 5 min intervals800+ hours of icing on nacelle weather mast (Winter 2011-2012) 14
  15. 15. Ice throw• Shape, size, weight, distance from tower• 150+ fragments of ice from blades collected to date 15
  16. 16. Estimating Ice Load using ISO 12494• ISO 12494 – for RIME – Ice Class (IC) for Rime (R) scale 1 to 10 according to kg/m of ice on structure, shape and dimensions of ice varies depending on structure size and shape 16
  17. 17. Estimating Ice Load using ISO 12494• ISO 12494 – for GLAZE (Freezing Rain) – Ice Class (IC) for Glaze (G) scale 1 to 6 according to ice thickness 17
  18. 18. Nacelle Weather Mast Load Classification• Weather mast ice load estimation – “D” measured, – “L” estimated, higher error but more data D 18
  19. 19. Blade Ice Load Classification• Blade ice load estimation – “L” measured – “D” estimated – Limited amount of pictures covering the duration of an icing event. 19
  20. 20. Ice throw Load Classification• Used to validate blade ice load – More accurate measurement – Precise time of ice shed unknown L D h W W’ 20
  21. 21. Ice Class Rime 1 (ICR1) – 0 to 0.5 kg/m 21
  22. 22. Ice Class Rime 2 (ICR2) – 0.5 to 0.9 kg/m 22
  23. 23. Ice Class Rime 3 (ICR3) – 0.9 to 1.6 kg/m 23
  24. 24. Ice Class Rime 4 (ICR4) – 1.6 to 2.8 kg/m 24
  25. 25. Ice Class Rime 5 (ICR5) – 2.8 to 5.0 kg/m 25
  26. 26. Example Icing Event• April 21 to 23, 2012• Rime, ICR3 to ICR5 26
  27. 27. Meteorological Icing (Ice Sensor) Met. Icing (ice sensor)1.00.80.60.40.20.0 27
  28. 28. Met. Icing (Cloud Height & Temp.) Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) WEC1 Temp MMV2 78m T MMV2 11m Min CH 14 12 140 10 120 8 100Temp (oC) 6 4 80 2 60 0 40 -2 -4 20 -6 0 CH (m) 28
  29. 29. Instrumental Icing (WEC unheated anemo) Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) 30 25 20WS (m/s) 15 10 5 0 WS1 WS2 29
  30. 30. Instr. Icing (MMV2 126m unheat anemo) Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) Instr. Icing (126m) 35 30 25WS (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 MMV2 126m U MMV2 126m H 30
  31. 31. Instr. Icing (MMV2 80m unheat anemo) Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) Instr. Icing (126m) Instr. Icing (78m) 35 30 25WS (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 MMV2 80m U MMV2 80m H 31
  32. 32. Instr. Icing (MMV2 34m unheat anemo) Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) Instr. Icing (126m) Instr. Icing (78m) Instr. Icing (34m) 35 30 25WS (m/s) 20 15 10 5 0 MMV2 34m U MMV2 34m H 32
  33. 33. WEC1 Production Loss Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) Instr. Icing (126m) Instr. Icing (78m) Instr. Icing (34m) Prod. Loss (WEC1) 3000 2500 2000Power (kW) 1500 1000 500 0 Power CPC 33
  34. 34. Production Loss (WEC2) Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) Instr. Icing (126m) Instr. Icing (78m) Instr. Icing (34m) Prod. Loss (WEC1) Prod. Loss (WEC2) 3000 2500 2000Power (kW) 1500 1000 500 0 Power CPC 34
  35. 35. Nacelle Weather Mast Ice Load Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) Instr. Icing (126m) Instr. Icing (78m) Instr. Icing (34m) Prod. Loss (WEC1) Prod. Loss (WEC2) Nacelle WM 5 4 3ICR 2 1 0 Met mast 35
  36. 36. Blade Ice Load Met. Icing (ice sensor) Met. Icing (CH & T) Instr. Icing (WEC2) Instr. Icing (126m) Instr. Icing (78m) Instr. Icing (34m) Prod. Loss (WEC1) Prod. Loss (WEC2) Nacelle WM Observ. 5 4 3ICR 2 1 0 Iced Blade Met mast 36
  37. 37. Example Icing Event• April 21 to 23, 2012• Rime, ICR3 to ICR5 37
  38. 38. Power Curve• Production loss during april 20-23 icing event 2500 2000 1500Power (kW) Icing Event Data 1000 Non-iced Production GPC 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 WS (m/s) 38
  39. 39. Power Curve• Power curve estimations based on ice classification and production losses of all icing events in Winter 2011-2012 2500 2000 1500Power (kW) Non-iced Prod. GPC 1000 ICR2&3 ICR4&5 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 WS (m/s) 39
  40. 40. Nacelle Weather Mast Load Classification• Weather mast occurrence of icing severity over the course of the winter 40
  41. 41. Winter 2011-2012 in numbersMeteorological Icing ~200 hoursInstrumental Icing ~400 hoursNacelle WM icing 800+ hoursIce observed on blades 23 daysProduction Loss ~140 hoursProduction Loss (% AEP) ~1.5%Hours of ICR2&3 ~300 hoursHours of ICR4&5 ~100 hoursHours of Glaze ~100 hours 41
  42. 42. Conclusions• Improved understanding of the severity of icing events• Measurement Campaign database can be used to validate simulation models (e.g. weather, ice accretion)• Methodology can be applied to assessing performance of ice protection technologies• Nacelle weather mast ice severity correlates to blade icing severity• Duration of weather mast icing generally much longer than blade icing• How to make measurement of icing severity on blades could be more accurate and more frequent? 42
  43. 43. Checker board tape• In order to get a better estimation of blade ice load and position along span of blade 43
  44. 44. Hub Camera 44
  45. 45. Ongoing – Automation of Image Analysis ICR= 5 In Collaboration with: 45
  46. 46. ReferencesIEA Wind Task 19, Expert Group Study on Recommended Practices: 13. Wind Energy Projects in ColdClimates, 1. Edition 2011ISO 12494:2001, Atmospehiric Icing of Structures, International Organisation for Standardization, 2001 46
  47. 47. Thank you, Tack, Danke, Merci!
  48. 48. Matthew Wadham-Gagnon, eng, M.engProject Leadmgagnon@eolien.qc.ca70, rue Bolduc, Gaspé (Québec) G4X 1G2CanadaTél. : +1 418 368-6162

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