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Repository Deposit Service Description OR 2007   :  the 2nd International Conference on Open Repositories San Antonio, Texas, USA, 23-26 Jan 2007 Presenter: Julie Allinson, UKOLN, University of Bath Co-authors: Rachel Heery (UKOLN), Martin Morrey (Intrallect), Christopher Gutteridge (Southampton), and Jim Downing (Cambridge) www.bath.ac.uk a centre of expertise in digital information management www.ukoln.ac.uk UKOLN is supported  by:
Overview Background and context Requirements for depositing content in repositories Defining a lightweight deposit service Developing the service Proof-of-concept implementation - update
Context Higher (and Further) Education in the United Kingdom JISC – the Joint Information Systems Committee JISC – considerable investment in UK repositories R&D over the last 5 years, and continuing FAIR Programme (2002-2005) Exchange for Learning (X4L) Programme (2002-2005) Digital Repositories Programme (2005-2007) JISC Capital Programme Repositories and Preservation strand (2006-2009)
Deposit API Deposit API activity was brought together to find lightweight solution to assist populating repositories within timescales of JISC programmes It comprised a group of repository software developers from Eprints.org, DSpace, Fedora, Intrallect and others facilitated by the JISC Repositories Research Team to address the need for a common Deposit standard
Background motivation In general, developers are not creating repository systems and software from scratch repositories must interface with each other, with users and with other applications within institutions and the wider information landscape VLEs, authoring tools, packaging tools, name authority services, classification services and research systems There is no common deposit API or protocol
Pain points no standardised way of transferring existing collections of digital objects and/or metadata from a filesystem or legacy database into a repository no standard interface for tagging, packaging or authoring tools to upload catalogued objects into a repository no standard interface for transferring digital objects between repositories no way of initiating a contribution workflow from outside a repository system no way of including deposit into a repository a part of service orientated architecture for harvesting there is OAI-PMH – this has had a major impact There is no equivalent mechanism for deposit
Why is deposit  so  important? Without it, there is nothing in our repositories Ensuring the emerging network of repositories is well populated with content is a PRIORITY Encouraging deposit is one of the most difficult cultural issues for repositories Technology needs to support culture change and advocacy, through ease of use multiple deposit auto-deposit NOT closed or proprietary mechanisms
Repository Stores, manages and makes available content and metadata   Deposit interface  Delete interface  Search interface  Harvest interface  Obtain interface From Andy Powell, A 'service oriented' view of the JISC Information Environment:  http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/soa/jisc-ie-soa.pdf Similarly, the ORE initiative identifies put (deposit), obtain and harvest services
Deposit – abstract service definition A Deposit interface:  Provides an interface through which content and metadata can be deposited and initiates ingest process for local storage. Summarised from Andy Powell, A 'service oriented' view of the JISC Information Environment:  http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/soa/jisc-ie-soa.pdf Put:  A put service supports the request for ingest of one or more surrogates into a repository, thereby allowing the addition of digital objects to the repositories’ collection From An interoperable fabric for scholarly value chains: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october06/vandesompel/10vandesompel.html
A note on terminology Add Deposit Put Submit Post Ingest deposit, put, add etc. may be part of an ingest process, along with other functions may include both automated and manual procedures including format checking, editorial control, quality assurance mechanisms, etc. defined by OAIS these are out of scope for this activity used by the e-Framework terminology of choice for this work used by ORE used for blogs Largely synonymous, with subtle differences, often related to community of use
User requirements / scenarios Author deposits using a desktop authoring system to a mediated multiple deposit service A user submits an IMS-compliant learning object to a National Repository using a client application Deposit into multiple repositories Transfer between intermediate hosts Repositories share improved metadata Experimental data output from spectrometer is 'saved as' a file and a file containing metadata on operational parameters is also generated. A data capture service is invoked and the files pertaining to the experiment are deposited, along with the necessary metadata, in the laboratory repository. See more at http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/
Scenario 1 : Author deposits using a desktop authoring system to a mediated multiple deposit service A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Librarian L completes the deposit through the repository interface id Librarian L invokes deposit of a surrogate into arxiv.org Deposit id Author A deposits via an easy-deposit desktop application into the institutional repository's mediated deposit queue
Scenario 2 : A user submits an IMS-compliant learning object to a National Repository using a client application A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) A user wishes to submit an IMS-compliant content package to a repository using a client application id Put The user can choose from a list of ‘groups/collections’ to which they are allowed to deposit, in this centralised national LO repository.  They are not required to use the repository interface, but can deposit via a decentralised client. id
Scenario 3 : Deposit in multiple repositories A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit The depositor can choose one or more repositories to deposit into A depositor is required to submit to a Research Council repository, but they also wish to deposit into their institutional repository and a relevant subject repository
Scenario 4 : transfer  between intermediate hosts A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit Subsequent repositories may also transfer objects Deposit A repository may transfer objects to other repositories, or services, e.g. a preservation service
Scenario 5 : Repositories share improved metadata  (put both ways) A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit id Repository A  deposits an object in another repository Deposit Repository B improves the metadata and  deposits the object back into repository A id
Scenario 6 : laboratory auto-deposit A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit Experimental data output from laboratory machines is  deposited, along with the necessary metadata, in the laboratory repository in an automated process A metadata record is also deposited into the Institutional Repository
Some functional requirements A Deposit service should: be generic enough to support wide range of heterogeneous repositories scholarly publications, data, learning objects, images, etc. accept submission of   different digital object types in consistent way:  data and/or metadata in the form of complex objects or content packages support different workflows for deposit, e.g.  user to multiple repositories via intermediate client  user to repository, repository to additional repositories  user-triggered and machine-triggered deposit  accept large-scale (scientific datasets) support statuses, e.g. deposit to different states of a workflow support collections and changes in policy and permissions support differences in repository policy support non-instantaneous processes, e.g. deposit pending mediation support validation report and integrity checks support anonymous deposit  support more complex, authenticated deposit  support acceptance and handling of incomplete records  support rejection of records (reasons for rejection are out of scope)  support human-selected targets for deposit  support different deposit requests
Defining a lightweight deposit service Define abstract service scope information models and APIs must be developed in manner neutral to implementation binding Examine existing protocols and specifications could they be used implement the defined abstract service? Evaluate and decide whether a new protocol or API is required Abstract service:  a discrete piece of technical functionality required to fulfil a specific requirement or set of requirements Synonymous with a ‘service genre’ in the  JISC DEST e-Framework
Deposit – abstract service definition A Deposit interface:  Provides an interface through which content and metadata can be deposited and initiates ingest process for local storage. Summarised from Andy Powell, A 'service oriented' view of the JISC Information Environment:  http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/soa/jisc-ie-soa.pdf Put:  A put service supports the request for ingest of one or more surrogates into a repository, thereby allowing the addition of digital objects to the repositories’ collection From An interoperable fabric for scholarly value chains: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october06/vandesompel/10vandesompel.html
Existing standards WebDAV ( http://www.webdav.org/ )  JSR 170 ( http://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=170 )  JSR 283 ( http://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=283 )  SRW Update ( http://www.loc.gov/standards/sru/ )  Flickr Deposit API ( http://www.flickr.com/services/api/ )  Fedora Deposit API ( http://www.fedora.info/definitions/1/0/api/ )  OKI OSID ( http://www.okiproject.org/ )  ECL ( http://ecl.iat.sfu.ca/ ) ATOM Publishing Protocol ( http://www.ietf.org/html-charters/atompub-charter. html )
Deposit – two components Deposit : service offered by a repository, allowing remote users (machines or people) to upload data data in: deposit request with optional parameters (e.g.digital object ‘semantics’, metadata formats..)  data out: status (success, failure, pending), receipt confirmation and digital object identifier Explain : service offered by a repository, allowing remote users (machines or people) to inspect the repository for policy and/or other data data in: introspection request (“explain”) data out: introspection response (“repository policy info”)
Draft XML serialisations http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep
Deposit service specification To recap, following the scope defined earlier the repository developers came up two services: deposit and explain and a draft XML serialisation for each the service will work by the client issuing XML commands over HTTP to the repository Deposit service the service responds with formatted XML messages other approaches may also be considered, e.g. SOAP a layered approach was taken, with the specification of two levels of compliance.  Level 0 compliance requires a set of mandatory elements  Level 1 offers a set of additional optional elements that may or may not be used
Some issues Boundaries between deposit and ingest what has already happened at point of deposit? regarding metadata and identifiers how far does the deposit service need to validate what is being deposited and can it reject deposit requests? Data integrity is there requirement to get back (export) exact object that was deposited? Multiple data types, metadata formats and content packages how far should the deposit service check its ability to accept what is being deposited? Can look up of policy rules be done as a request to service registry? how far is look up of policy rules automated? Authorisation and authentication how will the deposit service check the authority of the person/machine doing the ‘putting’ how will it interface with auth services?
Next steps Finish it and test it! At the moment, the deposit web service is still embryonic To take it forward, a funding proposal has been submitted to finalise the original deposit API work test it against different repository software Eprints DSpace Fedora Intrallect intraLibrary build a client implementation iteratively revise and re-test disseminate and embed into the repositories community
Final thoughts … This work is aligned with the vision  of the JISC-DEST  E-Framework  and the soa approach in general also with the  JISC Information Environment  commitment to interoperability and the use of web services to facilitate interaction between Repositories and other services and  with the objectives of the Object Re-use and Exchange Initiative and the definition of a ‘put’ interface Thank you …

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Repository Deposit Service Description

  • 1. Repository Deposit Service Description OR 2007 : the 2nd International Conference on Open Repositories San Antonio, Texas, USA, 23-26 Jan 2007 Presenter: Julie Allinson, UKOLN, University of Bath Co-authors: Rachel Heery (UKOLN), Martin Morrey (Intrallect), Christopher Gutteridge (Southampton), and Jim Downing (Cambridge) www.bath.ac.uk a centre of expertise in digital information management www.ukoln.ac.uk UKOLN is supported by:
  • 2. Overview Background and context Requirements for depositing content in repositories Defining a lightweight deposit service Developing the service Proof-of-concept implementation - update
  • 3. Context Higher (and Further) Education in the United Kingdom JISC – the Joint Information Systems Committee JISC – considerable investment in UK repositories R&D over the last 5 years, and continuing FAIR Programme (2002-2005) Exchange for Learning (X4L) Programme (2002-2005) Digital Repositories Programme (2005-2007) JISC Capital Programme Repositories and Preservation strand (2006-2009)
  • 4. Deposit API Deposit API activity was brought together to find lightweight solution to assist populating repositories within timescales of JISC programmes It comprised a group of repository software developers from Eprints.org, DSpace, Fedora, Intrallect and others facilitated by the JISC Repositories Research Team to address the need for a common Deposit standard
  • 5. Background motivation In general, developers are not creating repository systems and software from scratch repositories must interface with each other, with users and with other applications within institutions and the wider information landscape VLEs, authoring tools, packaging tools, name authority services, classification services and research systems There is no common deposit API or protocol
  • 6. Pain points no standardised way of transferring existing collections of digital objects and/or metadata from a filesystem or legacy database into a repository no standard interface for tagging, packaging or authoring tools to upload catalogued objects into a repository no standard interface for transferring digital objects between repositories no way of initiating a contribution workflow from outside a repository system no way of including deposit into a repository a part of service orientated architecture for harvesting there is OAI-PMH – this has had a major impact There is no equivalent mechanism for deposit
  • 7. Why is deposit so important? Without it, there is nothing in our repositories Ensuring the emerging network of repositories is well populated with content is a PRIORITY Encouraging deposit is one of the most difficult cultural issues for repositories Technology needs to support culture change and advocacy, through ease of use multiple deposit auto-deposit NOT closed or proprietary mechanisms
  • 8. Repository Stores, manages and makes available content and metadata Deposit interface Delete interface Search interface Harvest interface Obtain interface From Andy Powell, A 'service oriented' view of the JISC Information Environment: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/soa/jisc-ie-soa.pdf Similarly, the ORE initiative identifies put (deposit), obtain and harvest services
  • 9. Deposit – abstract service definition A Deposit interface: Provides an interface through which content and metadata can be deposited and initiates ingest process for local storage. Summarised from Andy Powell, A 'service oriented' view of the JISC Information Environment: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/soa/jisc-ie-soa.pdf Put: A put service supports the request for ingest of one or more surrogates into a repository, thereby allowing the addition of digital objects to the repositories’ collection From An interoperable fabric for scholarly value chains: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october06/vandesompel/10vandesompel.html
  • 10. A note on terminology Add Deposit Put Submit Post Ingest deposit, put, add etc. may be part of an ingest process, along with other functions may include both automated and manual procedures including format checking, editorial control, quality assurance mechanisms, etc. defined by OAIS these are out of scope for this activity used by the e-Framework terminology of choice for this work used by ORE used for blogs Largely synonymous, with subtle differences, often related to community of use
  • 11. User requirements / scenarios Author deposits using a desktop authoring system to a mediated multiple deposit service A user submits an IMS-compliant learning object to a National Repository using a client application Deposit into multiple repositories Transfer between intermediate hosts Repositories share improved metadata Experimental data output from spectrometer is 'saved as' a file and a file containing metadata on operational parameters is also generated. A data capture service is invoked and the files pertaining to the experiment are deposited, along with the necessary metadata, in the laboratory repository. See more at http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep/
  • 12. Scenario 1 : Author deposits using a desktop authoring system to a mediated multiple deposit service A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Librarian L completes the deposit through the repository interface id Librarian L invokes deposit of a surrogate into arxiv.org Deposit id Author A deposits via an easy-deposit desktop application into the institutional repository's mediated deposit queue
  • 13. Scenario 2 : A user submits an IMS-compliant learning object to a National Repository using a client application A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) A user wishes to submit an IMS-compliant content package to a repository using a client application id Put The user can choose from a list of ‘groups/collections’ to which they are allowed to deposit, in this centralised national LO repository. They are not required to use the repository interface, but can deposit via a decentralised client. id
  • 14. Scenario 3 : Deposit in multiple repositories A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit The depositor can choose one or more repositories to deposit into A depositor is required to submit to a Research Council repository, but they also wish to deposit into their institutional repository and a relevant subject repository
  • 15. Scenario 4 : transfer between intermediate hosts A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit Subsequent repositories may also transfer objects Deposit A repository may transfer objects to other repositories, or services, e.g. a preservation service
  • 16. Scenario 5 : Repositories share improved metadata (put both ways) A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit id Repository A deposits an object in another repository Deposit Repository B improves the metadata and deposits the object back into repository A id
  • 17. Scenario 6 : laboratory auto-deposit A lightweight deposit web service can facilitate this transfer of object(s) Deposit Experimental data output from laboratory machines is deposited, along with the necessary metadata, in the laboratory repository in an automated process A metadata record is also deposited into the Institutional Repository
  • 18. Some functional requirements A Deposit service should: be generic enough to support wide range of heterogeneous repositories scholarly publications, data, learning objects, images, etc. accept submission of different digital object types in consistent way: data and/or metadata in the form of complex objects or content packages support different workflows for deposit, e.g. user to multiple repositories via intermediate client user to repository, repository to additional repositories user-triggered and machine-triggered deposit accept large-scale (scientific datasets) support statuses, e.g. deposit to different states of a workflow support collections and changes in policy and permissions support differences in repository policy support non-instantaneous processes, e.g. deposit pending mediation support validation report and integrity checks support anonymous deposit support more complex, authenticated deposit support acceptance and handling of incomplete records support rejection of records (reasons for rejection are out of scope) support human-selected targets for deposit support different deposit requests
  • 19. Defining a lightweight deposit service Define abstract service scope information models and APIs must be developed in manner neutral to implementation binding Examine existing protocols and specifications could they be used implement the defined abstract service? Evaluate and decide whether a new protocol or API is required Abstract service: a discrete piece of technical functionality required to fulfil a specific requirement or set of requirements Synonymous with a ‘service genre’ in the JISC DEST e-Framework
  • 20. Deposit – abstract service definition A Deposit interface: Provides an interface through which content and metadata can be deposited and initiates ingest process for local storage. Summarised from Andy Powell, A 'service oriented' view of the JISC Information Environment: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/soa/jisc-ie-soa.pdf Put: A put service supports the request for ingest of one or more surrogates into a repository, thereby allowing the addition of digital objects to the repositories’ collection From An interoperable fabric for scholarly value chains: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/october06/vandesompel/10vandesompel.html
  • 21. Existing standards WebDAV ( http://www.webdav.org/ ) JSR 170 ( http://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=170 ) JSR 283 ( http://www.jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=283 ) SRW Update ( http://www.loc.gov/standards/sru/ ) Flickr Deposit API ( http://www.flickr.com/services/api/ ) Fedora Deposit API ( http://www.fedora.info/definitions/1/0/api/ ) OKI OSID ( http://www.okiproject.org/ ) ECL ( http://ecl.iat.sfu.ca/ ) ATOM Publishing Protocol ( http://www.ietf.org/html-charters/atompub-charter. html )
  • 22. Deposit – two components Deposit : service offered by a repository, allowing remote users (machines or people) to upload data data in: deposit request with optional parameters (e.g.digital object ‘semantics’, metadata formats..) data out: status (success, failure, pending), receipt confirmation and digital object identifier Explain : service offered by a repository, allowing remote users (machines or people) to inspect the repository for policy and/or other data data in: introspection request (“explain”) data out: introspection response (“repository policy info”)
  • 23. Draft XML serialisations http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/repositories/digirep
  • 24. Deposit service specification To recap, following the scope defined earlier the repository developers came up two services: deposit and explain and a draft XML serialisation for each the service will work by the client issuing XML commands over HTTP to the repository Deposit service the service responds with formatted XML messages other approaches may also be considered, e.g. SOAP a layered approach was taken, with the specification of two levels of compliance. Level 0 compliance requires a set of mandatory elements Level 1 offers a set of additional optional elements that may or may not be used
  • 25. Some issues Boundaries between deposit and ingest what has already happened at point of deposit? regarding metadata and identifiers how far does the deposit service need to validate what is being deposited and can it reject deposit requests? Data integrity is there requirement to get back (export) exact object that was deposited? Multiple data types, metadata formats and content packages how far should the deposit service check its ability to accept what is being deposited? Can look up of policy rules be done as a request to service registry? how far is look up of policy rules automated? Authorisation and authentication how will the deposit service check the authority of the person/machine doing the ‘putting’ how will it interface with auth services?
  • 26. Next steps Finish it and test it! At the moment, the deposit web service is still embryonic To take it forward, a funding proposal has been submitted to finalise the original deposit API work test it against different repository software Eprints DSpace Fedora Intrallect intraLibrary build a client implementation iteratively revise and re-test disseminate and embed into the repositories community
  • 27. Final thoughts … This work is aligned with the vision of the JISC-DEST E-Framework and the soa approach in general also with the JISC Information Environment commitment to interoperability and the use of web services to facilitate interaction between Repositories and other services and with the objectives of the Object Re-use and Exchange Initiative and the definition of a ‘put’ interface Thank you …