2. Characteristics of Psychological test
3. Need of Psychological Test
4. Major classification of psychological test
5. Counselor's use of psychological test
According to Freeman:
“A Psychological test is a standardized instrument
designed to measures objectively one or more
aspects of a total personality by means of samples
of verbal and non-verbal responses, or by means of
Characteristics of Psychological Test:
Ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
Test consistency; the ability to yield the same result under a variety
of different circumstances.
Free of personal biasness in terms of scoring, interpretation of
scoring, and in administration.
In terms of time, place, material employed in a test, atmosphere, and
in over all instructions, It would be standardized.
Appropriate and accurate norms must be present in a
quality test. Like age, grade, percentile rank, etc.
Administering, scoring of test should be simple and can
be done in a available resources and experts.
It should be administer in short time for the ease of
those persons which are involve in administering the
Test should be interesting for the examinee that he or
she does not feel boredom in attempting the
Man is a complex creature . He possesses different
traits as intelligence, aptitudes, interests in different
measures. His achievement also differs. There is also
a great difference in the personality make-up of
people. With the background of all these
differences, the individual has to make various
choices of courses and careers, choice of playmates
and room-mates, choice of life-partners and life
styles. To help him in all these and make his journey
smooth and satisfying, there is an utmost need of
some objective measurement.
The psychological tests in different areas are
supposed to meet the following pertinent needs:
(a) To help students at choice
and critical points when they
have to make a decision:
The psychological test can provide the client or
student with information about himself in relation
to a series of choices where the decision would
be his own . Objective quantitative data plus
subjective observation and assessment are needed
to enable him to make a correct choice .
For instance , the single factor that Ahmad’s parents
will be highly disappointed if he does not go in
for architecture can decide Ahmad’s choice in
favor of architecture. But if the quantitative data is
also available signifying the capacity of Ahmad go in
for architecture, the situation becomes simpler and
satisfactory decision can be arrived at. Similarly,
psychological tests can help a students to decide
whether he should continue his studies or take up
business. The scores on the interest inventories will
enable him to find out whether his interests are those
of a scholar or those of a businessman.
(b) To enable the counselor to have a broad-
gauge look and uncover as many
promising opportunities as possible for the
It is important for the counselor to survey as
many of the skills and abilities of his
counselee as can in order to arrive at a
judgment as to which areas of endeavor are
likely to be most promising. It is not
enough, in a guidance setting, to know that
Daud has medical aptitude; if he also the
makings of an electronics engineer, Daud and
the counselor need to know that too.
(c)To enhance the client’s ability to
make his own decision:
Students in schools, colleges and universities
have to make decision regarding the
selection of courses, co-curricular and extra-
curricular activities. Studies have revealed
some disconcerting insights in to the ways
such choices are made. Often such random
factors as having friends in the field, the
chance encounter with a particular
course, the influence of a teacher who made
the subject mean enough to merit further
effort, were the determining ones.
(d) To help teachers
to adapt teaching
to the needs of students:
If the teacher could get objective
assessment of the interest and capacities
of students with the help of psychological
tests, he can adapt his teaching to the needs
of students. He can also differentiate
between the slow learners and
under-achievers and help them
according to their needs.
(e)To help the counselors:
Modern schools provide
individual counseling for
pupils with respect to
their educational and
vocational plans. Many schools
also provide for maladjusted
pupils some sort of clinical service. The psychological
testing is an integral and accepted part of
the fact finding phase of counseling.
Wise counselor use the meaningful and
relevant data obtained from the tests as a partial basis for
their client-centered interviewing and clinical judgments.
(f)To help in satisfying an administrative need
for selecting the most promising pupils from
among the applicants:
True, in a democratic society, pupils should be allowed as
of choice as possible. Also the selection of curricula
should be based
on sound counseling. But at time it does become
Important to select the
most promising pupils for the good of individuals and
tests help here.
(g) To help establish homogeneous
Psychological tests can be used to help
homogeneous groups within elementary
and secondary school system and college
set-ups. Placement in a class appropriate
to the student’s potential can
accelerate development and improve self-
(h) To provide information for selection, classification
and distribution of clients, To serve primarily the
interests of the particular administrative system:
Psychological tests can be used by admission committees
in schools and colleges to sort applicants into groups.
They can also be used by school and college system to
classify and distribute students across various curricula.
Thus if we could know that ability level A, interest pattern
B, achievement level D and extra-curricular activities
grading S , relate to successful performance in a
professional college, then the college can use the test
result in future too to assign students to either the medical
or non medical group.
(i) To help in the selection of students
for special schools for the award of
merit-cum-means scholarships for
residential schools in the country:
There are so many schools in the country, to
which children from weaker section of society
can be admitted provided they possess the
superior native ability. This can be found with
the help of psychological and standardized
(j) To help in the selection of students for admission
to special institution:
There are number of special institutions as National
Defense Academy, Military Academy, Air force
Academy, Naval Academy etc. in the country. There
are also a number of professional colleges and
institutes. Psychological and standardized
achievements tests are used for admission to these
(k) To help in the
personnel in various
branches of services:
For example, the defense authorities
would like to recruit person for the
Armed Forces who are above average in
intelligence and emotional stability; are
of higher level in mechanical and clerical
aptitudes; are fit and fine physically. Such
person as are perfect from every angle
are not easy to get. Thus the military
psychologist is faced with the problem
to find out the special qualities required
for certain special jobs in army. Psychological tests are needed for
measuring the special qualities or traits so that on the basis of the
scores, the recruits could be sent for special jobs. The person who
obtain high scores on mechanical duties; the person who can work
with speed and accuracy, may be put in charge of the office work.
That way the psychological tests can be of immense use for putting
the right man at the right place.
(l) To help in the
diagnosis of students:
In any school/college system there are a number
of students who have moderate to severe
emotional problems which impair their learning
ability . The estimates of emotional problems
usually run from 8 to 15 percent of almost any
sufficiently large population or group; a school/college setting is no exception.
There is an obvious need for differential diagnosis of these difficulties as a first
step toward appropriate treatment or remediation. A careful analysis of the
student’s intra-psychic balance, or a critical appraisal of the student in relation to
the environmental pressure, is necessary. An identification of learning disabilities
rooted in the student’s past experiences is essential. The pupil can be given a
carefully selected battery of personality tests specifically designed to tap
information about the personality make-up, with increasing emphasis on
psychological dynamics. For example, the examiner may use an individual test
of intelligence, a sentence completion test, a thematic Apperception test and the
Rorschach Ink Bolt test. The results of such testing are essential for decision to
be made about the pupil. The assumption is that the pupils difficulty or emotional
adjustment is of such an order that he cannot make his own decisions.
(m) To help the teachers in
dealing with scholastic and behavioral
For making decisions
regarding pupils facing
problems of conduct or
scholarship, comprehensive measures of
achievement, together with standard
measures of achievement and the school
record itself, provide factual bases of great
importance for reaching a sound clinical
decision regarding any boy or girl.
(n) To identify abnormal patterns in the
personality of the client:
For those students whose personality encumbrances
place them outside the range of normal
behavior, whose past experiences so significantly
influence their present perception that they literally
cannot accurately perceive reality for these
students, accurate appraisal of their personality is
essential. The power and initiative for decisions
cannot be left to the students in the grip of emotional
disturbance. Psychological diagnosis forms the basic
data and the necessary information about the client
which the psychological expert may use as a
legitimate and systematic basis for selecting the
appropriate course of action for the client.
(o) To help in the treatment of
When a patient comes to a
mental hospital or clinic, it is
essential to find out what
type of person he is and how
will he respond to the treatment.
Psychological tests can be helpful in taking this
crucial decision carefully constructed and wisely
administered psychological tests can provide good
measures of the
abilities, aptitudes, interests, attitudes and personality
traits. They can help in diagnosis and prediction
, selection and classification and are of immense use
in many situations and jobs.
Classification of Psychological Test
Typical Performance and Maximum Performance Test
This test is used to know how and employee performs on regular basis. In
test of typical performance individual performance is assessed on given
situation. In this test answers are not right or wrong, but identity
choices, preferences and strengthen of feelings.
This test is designed to access the ways in which people differ in terms of
personality, interest, motivation, styles of learning, believes, attitudes and
Maximum Performance Test Assess:
The individuals Performance effectively under standard conditions.
In maximum performance test questions have correct or incorrect
answers. Scores depends on how many questions the person being tested
Example of maximum performance test are:
Individual Test Group Test
A test can be said individual test in the sense that they can
be administered to only one person at a time.
Many of these tests requires oral responses from the examinee.
Individuals intelligence tests are preferred by psychologist in
clinics, hospital and in others setting where clinical diagnosis are
Group test can be administered to a group of a person at a
time. Group tests were designed as not only to permit the
simultaneous examination of a large group but they also used
simplified instruction and administration procedures.
Individual Test: Wechsler adult intelligence scale
Group Test: OTIS – Lennon School
Ability test (OLSAT)
Paper Pencil Test and Performance
In Paper Pencil Test
The subject is provided with a test form or test booklet which contains all these
items. Responses are written by the subject on either the test form or on a
separate answer sheet.
Raven’s progressive matrices test of intelligence.
Differential aptitude test Battery are some of the example of Paper-
Require motor or manual response on the examine part generally but not
always, involving manipulation of concrete equipment or materials.
Performance test are specially useful for:
o Deaf testers
o Testes with speech defects
o Illiterate testees
o Foreign testees
Language and Non-Language Tests
In a paper-pencil language test, the test content generally contains of
pictures, diagrams and non linguistic symbols and the subject is required to
respond by making relatively simple marks. Instructions are given by
gestures, pantomimes and demonstrations involving charts and diagrams.
In non-language tests language, neither written nor spoken, in neither the
instructions nor the test items is required. Non-language tests areas
specially designed for testees who are illiterate, unfamiliar with the native
language, can either be a performance or a paper-pencil test.
Verbal and Non-Verbal Tests
They can be designed as reading and non-reading tests. In the former
reading and writing are required, in the latter neither reading nor writing is
required but these tests make extensive use of oral instructions and
communication on the part of time examiner. Such tests frequently measure
verbal comprehension, such as vocabulary and the understanding with oral
instructions to accompany each item. Unlike t] non-language tests, they are
unsuited for foreign language speaking or deaf testees.
Criterion-referenced And Norm-referenced
(a) In criterion-reference test the specific criteria
is specified by authority. In such type of test
the performance of every individual is
compared with specific criteria
For clerical aptitude test the criteria is specified that
typing sixty words in a minute.
(b) In Norm-reference test No criteria is specified and the
performance of every individual is compared with
The typing speed of roll no.3 is faster than whole class.
Informal Tests and Standardized Test
Informal Tests are constructed by class-room teacher. These tests are developed by
class-teacher in order to assess the achievements of students in particular subject.
Achievement test in the subject of Biology for class 9th.
These tests are useful for evaluating the learning outcomes and day –to-day progress of students.
Standardized tests are designed by test specialists, tried out experimentally (Pre-tested)
standardized tests are scored and inter- preted under standard conditions. Standardized tests
are used to evaluate complex learning outcomes.
Speed and Power Tests
A speed test is one in which individual differences depend upon speed of performance.
The item included in such tests have low difficulty level. The time limit is so short that no one can
finish all the item. The individual’s score reflects only the speed with which he works. The test is
intended to measure the speed of Response.
Clerical speed and accuracy in differential aptitude test battery is an
example of speed test.
A power test has time limit long enough to permit every one to attempt all items. The
item included in such tests have high difficulty level. The test includes some items too
difficult for any one to solve so that no body can get a perfect score.
These tests are language-free. They also attempt to eliminate skills and
feelings that vary from one culture to another.
A classic example of such type of tests is the good enough draw person
tests, which require only knowledge of human body.
Tests Measuring Traits in Different Areas
Psychological test have been constructed for measuring traits in different areas
intelligence, aptitudes, interests, attitudes and personality etc.
On this basis the tests can be classified into three categories.
o Tests of general intelligence
o Tests of special aptitudes
o Tests for measuring personality
Tests of General Intelligence:
These tests are used to assess the general learning ability, ability to grasp
instructions and underlying principles. Vocabulary, Arithmetic Reasoning and the
Dimensional space are examples of General intelligence test.
Tests of Special Aptitudes:
These tests are concentrates on ability in particular area. They reveal aptitude in specific area.
These tests are most often used for vocational guidance. Mechanical Aptitude Test, Musical
Aptitude Tests are examples of special Aptitude Tests.
Tests for Measuring Personality:
Personality is composite of mental abilities, attitudes, interests, thoughts, feeling and behavior etc.
Personality measuring tests are used to assess these reactions to the environments.
Many techniques are used to assess the personality:
o Check lists
o Projective Techniques
o Personality Inventories
o Rating Scales
Test for Special Use
Psychological test can also be classified on the basis of the
use to which they are put. Thus, There are tests for a
comprehensive assessment of mentally retarded, and Tests
for persons with diverse sensory and motor handicaps.
Counselor’s use of Psychological test:
The counselor may use the tests to:
1. Keep the record of each student’s needs, interests, abilities and
adjustment problems in regards of guiding them according to their
2. Know the student’s weaknesses and strengths properly that is helpful
in guiding them accordingly.
3. Predict the future success and failure of students on the basis of
results of these tests.
4. Help students in their carrier selection.
5. Help students in choosing suitable vocation and professions
according to their talents.
6. Help in diagnosing students problems like social adjustment, and
7. Evaluate the effectiveness of guidance and counseling program and
also recommend the further improvement plans.