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Introduction to psychological testing

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introduction to psychological testing

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Introduction to psychological testing

  1. 1. Introduction to Psychological Testing Prepared by: Mr. Charlie C. Falguera, RN, MAN
  2. 2. Learning Objectives: At the end of discussion, the student will be able to:  Define the basic terms pertaining to psychological & educational tests.  Distinguish between an individual test & a group test.  Define the terms achievement, aptitude, & intelligence and identify a concpt that can encompass all three terms.
  3. 3.  Distinguish between ability tests and personality tests.  Define the term structured personality test.  Explain how structured personality tests differ from projective personality tests.  Explain what a normative or standardization sample is and why such a sample is important.  Identify the major developments in the history of psychological testing.  Explain the relevance of psychological tests in contemporary society.
  4. 4. A car drives into the center ring of a circus and exactly eight clowns – Q, R, S, T, V, W, Y, and Z – get out of the car, one clown at a time. The order in which the clowns get out of the car is consistent with the following conditions:  V gets out at some time before both Y and Q.  Q gets out at some time after Z.  gets out at some time before V but at some time after R.  S gets out at some time after V.  R gets out at some time before W.
  5. 5. Question 1. If Q is the fifth clown to get out of the car, then each of the following could be true EXCEPT: a) Z is the first clown to get out of the car. b) T is the second clown to get out of the car. c) V is the third clown to get out of the car. d) W is the fourth clown to get out of the car. e) Y is the sixth clown to get out the car.
  6. 6. Question 2. If R is the second clown to get out of the car, which of the following must be true? a) S get out of the car at some time before T does. b) T get out of the car at some time before W does. c) W get out of the car at some time before V does. d) Y get out of the car at some time before Q does. e) Z get out of the car at some time before W does.
  7. 7. Standardized PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS 21st Century
  8. 8. A bus is moving along a straight stretch of road. The bus driver, named Ray, has a cup of water resting in a holder on the dashboard. Suddenly Ray has to slam on the brakes. What is most likely to happen in the cup immediately after Ray slams on the brakes? a) The water will stay horizontal. b) The water will spill over side 1. c) The water will spill over side 2. d) The water will spill but you cannot tell if it will spill over side 1 or side 2.
  9. 9. How useful are tests such as the previous? Do they measure anything meaningful? How accurate are they? TO ANSWER THEM, YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING.
  10. 10. BASIC CONCEPTS What a Test is? What are the types of tests?
  11. 11. Test – is a measurement device or technique used to quantify behavior or aid in the understanding and prediction of behavior. - does not fully measure your full understanding of the material. Item – a specific stiumulus to which a person responds overtly; this response can be scored or evaluated.
  12. 12. Psychological test – (educational test) is a set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behavior.  Types of Behaviors:  Overt behavior – individual’s observable activity.  Covert behavior – behaviors that take place within an individual and cannot be directly observed. Scales – relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution.
  13. 13. Test Scores: - Are related to traits of an individual. - Are related to the state, or the specific condition or status of an individual.
  14. 14. Types of Tests: 1. Individual test – test that can be given to only one person at a time.  Test administrator – the person giving the test. 2. Group test – administered to more than one person at a time by a single examiner.  Type of Test According to Type of Behavior: 1. Ability test – contain items that can be scored in terms of speed, accuracy, or both. 2. Personality test – measure typical behavior – traits, temperaments, and dispositions.
  15. 15. Types of Ability Tests: 1. Achievement – measures previous learning. 2. Aptitude test – measures potential for acquiring a specific skill. 3. Intelligence – measures potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, and profit from experiences. Types of Personality Tests: 1. Structured (objective) – provides a self-report statement to which the person responds “true” or “false”, “yes” or “no”. 2. Projective – provides an ambiguous test stimulus, response requirements are unclear.
  16. 16. Psychological Testing – refers to all the possible uses, applications, and underlying concepts of psychological and educational tests.  Main use:  Evaluate individual differences or variations among individuals.
  17. 17. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
  18. 18. EARLY ANTECEDENTS China:  4,000 years ago = sophisticated civil service testing program  206 B.C.E – 220 C.E. (Han Dynasty) = use of Test Batteries (2 or more tests used in conjunction).  1368 – 1644 C.E. (Ming Dynasty) = national multistage testing program involved local & regional testing centers equipped with special testing booths.
  19. 19. EARLY ANTECEDENTS Western:  1832 = English East India Company copied the Chinese system as a method of selecting employees for overseas duty.  1833 = US government established the American Civil Service Commission.
  20. 20. CHARLES DARWIN & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 1859 = published Charle’s Darwin highly influential book, The Origin of Species.  According to Darwin’s theory, higher forms of life evolved partially because of differences among individual forms of life within a species. He also believed that those with the best or most adaptive characteristics survive at the expense of those who are less fit and that the survivors pass their characteristics on to the next generation.
  21. 21. CHARLES DARWIN & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 1869 = Sir Francis Galton published a book Hereditary Genius. He showed that some people possessed characteristics that made them more fit than others. Individual differences exist in human sensory & motor functioning, such as reaction time, visual acuity, & physical strength. 1890 = James McKeen Catell coined the term mental test.
  22. 22. CHARLES DARWIN & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 1859 = published Charle’s Darwin highly influential book, The Origin of Species.  According to Darwin’s theory, higher forms of life evolved partially because of differences among individual forms of life within a species. He also believed that those with the best or most adaptive characteristics survive at the expense of those who are less fit and that the survivors pass their characteristics on to the next generation.

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