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Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
 Is a type of therapy that aims to release pent-up or repressed emotions
and memories in order to lead the client to catharsis, or healing.
 A theory of the mind and its direct connection to a personality or
behavior. The basic premise of psychoanalysis is that the human mind
has an unconscious state.
 A system of psychological theory and therapy investigating the
interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind.
 A method for treating depression and anxiety disorders or mental illness
and also a theory which explains human behavior.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
• He was an Austrian neurologist and is known
as the Father of Psychoanalysis.
• Freud believed that people could be cured by
making conscious their unconscious thoughts
and motivations, thus gaining "insight".
• The aim of Psychoanalysis therapy is to
release repressed emotions and
experiences, i.e. make the unconscious
conscious. To bring what exists at the
unconscious or subconscious level up to
consciousness.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
 Freud developed a personality theory, called
psychosexual development of personality,
which posits that at different stages of
growth; the individual derives pleasure from
different parts of the body- thus the term
psychosexual, relating to pleasure and the
human body.
 An important term in personality theory is
called libido, which is defined as the natural
mental energy that operates the mechanism
of the mind.
Stages of Psychosexual Development of
Personality
1. Oral Stage
Manifest from birth to approximately 18 months.
The child is totally dependent on others to provide for
his/her needs
Pleasure is derived from the use of the mouth in
activities such as sucking, chewing, and biting.
Personality developed in this stage is dependence
Stages of Psychosexual Development of
Personality
2. Anal Stage
 This begins at 18 months and lasts until 3 years when the
child is being toilet trained.
 The child seeks pleasure from the anus (e.g., withholding
and expelling feces)
 The personality developed in this stage is independence,
self-control, orderliness and sense of accomplishment.
Stages of Psychosexual Development of
Personality
3. Phallic Stage
 3-6 years of age
 During this stage the child develops attraction to
their parents of the opposite sex and sees jealous
and rivalrous relationship with his or her parents of
the same sex.
 This is what Freud termed as Oedipus Complex for boy
and the Electra Complex for girls.
 Parents seen as threats
 Wide range of psychological disorders through failure to
resolve this conflict, (unreasonable anxiety, phobias, &
depression)
 Ego developed more, superego starts to develop lately
 the child seeks pleasure from the penis or clitoris (e.g.,
masturbation);
Stages of Psychosexual Development of
Personality
4. Latent Stage
 6-12 years of age
 Personality traits developed in this stage are
associated with social skills and social interactions.
 Pleasure is gained through same sex /peer
friendship
Stages of Psychosexual Development of
Personality
5. Genital Stage
 12 years of age onward or from puberty to
adulthood.
 Seeks marriage partner, preparation for adult life.
 The personality developed in this stage is sexual
maturity.
Key Concepts in Psychoanalysis
• According to Freud the id, ego, and
superego all operate across three levels of
awareness in the human mind. They are
the conscious, unconscious, and
preconscious.
• Freud used the analogy of an iceberg to
describe the three levels of the mind.
• The tip is the conscious level, the part
below the sea line is the preconscious and
the major portion beneath the sea is the
unconscious.
Conscious
• This is where our current thoughts, feelings, and focus live;
the level of the mind is the accessible information, memories
and thoughts that the individual has.
• The conscious consists of what someone is aware of at any
particular point in time.
• It includes what you are thinking about right now, whether it
is in the front of you mind or the back. If you are aware of it
then it is in the conscious mind.
Preconscious
• Preconscious (sometimes called the subconscious).
• This is the home of everything we can recall or retrieve
from our memory; the level where accessible and
retrievable information are situated.
• The preconscious contains information that is just below
the surface of awareness.
Unconscious
• contains thoughts, emotions, feelings, memories and
desire that are inaccessible.
• It resides in the deepest level of our minds that
influence our behavior.
• Even though we are not aware of their existence, they
exert great influence on our behavior.
PSYCHODYNAMICS OF A
PERSON’S PERSONALITY
Freud used the Id, Ego, and Superego to try to
explain how the mind functions and how a personality is
shaped.
ID
• Occupies the unconscious level.
• The primitive and instinctive component of personality.
• It is the immature component of personality; it only seeks pleasure and demands
gratification.
• When the Id has a desire for something, that desire needs to be satisfied at once.
It does not take reality into account as it only demands what it wants without
reason or logic.
• Operates on the “Pleasure Principle” and strives for all urges to be met
immediately
• Id is the selfish side and is the one whom solely cares about themselves and no
one else
• Lustful, impulsive, fun and ignores consequences
EGO
• Resides in the conscious and preconscious level of the mind.
• The ego is the moderator between the id and the superego
• Operates on the “Reality Principle” - tries to satisfy id but in accordance
with the real world. It considers social realities, norms, etiquette, rules, and
customs when it makes a decision on how to behave.
• Considered as the center of logic and reasoning
• The decision maker, it makes the decisions that dictate behavior.
• Conscious part of the mind (Rational Self). Decides what action to take for
positive means and what to do based on what is believed to be the right
thing to do. Aware of reality.
SUPEREGO
• Resides in all three levels of the mind.
• The superego is the portion of the mind in which morality and higher
principles reside, encouraging us to act in socially and morally acceptable
ways.
• It is our morals, ethics and social aspect of personality. It is considered as
a person’s conscience.
• It guides us on what is right and wrong.
• Responsible for society’s rules of behavior (moral standards). Feels guilty
if rules are disobeyed.
• Base on the morality principle, must follow moral standards and rules and
breaking them causes guilt.
Defense Mechanisms
Freud believed that these three parts of the mind are in
constant conflict because each part has a different primary goal.
When the conflict is too much for a person to handle, his or her
ego may engage in one or many defense mechanisms to
protect the individual.
Defense Mechanism
 Refers to processes of self-deception, that protects people from
anxious thoughts or feelings.
 Are thought to safeguard the mind against feelings and thoughts
that are too difficult for the conscious mind to cope with.
 Operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant
feelings (i.e., anxiety) or make good things feel better for the
individual.
 A tactic developed by the ego to protect against anxiety.
Major defense mechanisms include:
1. Denial
 is often used to describe situations in which people seem unable
to face reality or admit an obvious truth. (He’s in denial).
 The ego blocks upsetting or overwhelming experiences from
awareness, causing the individual to refuse to acknowledge or
believe what is happening
 Is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has
occurred or is currently occurring.
 Refusing to organize or acknowledge real facts or experiences
that would lead to anxiety.
2. Displacement
 Redirecting an emotional reaction from the rightful recipient to
another person altogether.
 Involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on
people or objects that are less threatening.
 Displaced aggression - is a common example of defense
mechanism.
 Example: a manager screams at his/her employee, the employee
doesn't scream back- but the employee may yell at her partner
later at night. (e.g., releasing frustration directed toward your boss
on your spouse instead)
3. Repression
acts to keep information out of conscious
awareness. However, these memories don’t just
disappear: they continue to influence our behavior.
The ego pushes disturbing or threatening thoughts
out of one’s consciousness
4. Sublimation
 Similar to displacement, this defense mechanism involves
satisfying an impulse by acting on a substitute but in a socially
acceptable way. It allows us to act on unacceptable impulses by
converting these behaviors into more acceptable forms.
 Example: a person experiencing extreme anger might take up
kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration or channeling
energy into work or a constructive hobby.
Freud believed that sublimation was a sign of maturity that
allows people to function normally in socially acceptable ways.
5. Projection
is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own
unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other
people. Attributing one’s unacceptable feelings or desires to
someone else.
Example: if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might
instead believe that he or she does not like you.
6. Regression
As a defense mechanism, the individual
moves backward in development in order to
cope with stress (e.g., an overwhelmed adult
acting like a child)
IMPORTANT
THEORISTS
Sigmund Freud
He was an Austrian neurologist
known as the Father of
Psychoanalysis. Freud’s theory
states that behavior and personality
are driven by past events, which
are mostly inaccessible to an
individual’s consciousness.
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis involves methods
through which an individual is guided to
understand himself or herself. Through
a treatment called Psychotherapy, the
originating event or circumstance which
hinders an individual to live a healthy
life is brought to the surface of
consciousness.
Sigmund Freud
The method of Psychotherapy is mostly
interpretative. One technique used in psychotherapy
is called free association, a technique that allows
the patient to have an inner dialogue with one’s self
by saying freely the words that he or she associates
with a thing, person and an event.
Freud relates free association to what is now known
as Freudian slip or slip of the tongue. When an
individual commits a Freudian slip (or intentionally
saying something as opposed to what he or she
wanted to actually say), he or she reveals his or her
innermost thoughts.
Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961
He was a Swiss Psychiatrist and
Psychoanalyst who founded Analytical
Psychology.
It is distinguished by a focus on the role of
symbolic experiences in human life, taking a
prospective approach to the issues
presented in therapy. For Jung, a healthy
mental life is achieved through a balanced
and a well-understood personality.
Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961
Jung’s theory of personality has been
modified and changed over time, but his
concepts of introversion and extroversion
survive over the years. Popular culture
describes an extrovert as a person who
goes to parties or who is more adventurous
while an introvert is a person who chooses
to stay at home, alone and quiet.
Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961
In Jungian Psychology, extroversion is the
personality which is motivated by outside
stimuli or factors. An extrovert relies on
statistical data to come up with analysis and
conclusion. While introversion, on the other
hand is the personality which is motivated by
inner necessity. The focus of the individual
tends towards the self. The introvert person
derives analysis and conclusion upon how
statistical data makes an impression upon
his or her thoughts and ideas.
Activity:
Situation: You are working in a convenience store and you
see Jack, your co-worker, stealing money from the cash
register. He is also your best friend and he's only stealing
100 pesos. Despite the fact that he is your best friend he
has also been flirting with the girl you like – and he knows
that you like her. What would the id, ego, and superego do?
Assessment
1. A technique used in Psychotherapy that allows the patient to
have an inner dialogue with one’s self by saying freely the
words that he or she associates with a thing, person or an
event.
A. Free association B. Freudian slip
C. Analytic Psychology D. Humanistic Psychoanalysis
2. He was an Austrian neurologist and is known as the Father
of Psychoanalysis.
A. Carl Jung B. Jacques Lacan
C. Sigmund Freud D. Eric Fromm
3. A system of Psychological theory and therapy
investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious
elements in the mind.
A. Defense mechanism B. Rational choice theory
C. Analytic theory D. Psychoanalysis
4. Refers to the processes of self-deception that protect
people from anxious thoughts or feelings.
A. Defense mechanism B. Rational choice theory
C. Analytic theory D. Psychoanalysis
5. This personality type tries to meet the desires of the id in
a way that is socially acceptable in the world. It deals with
the reality.
A. Superego B. Ego C. Id D. Conscious level
6. After breaking up with your boyfriend or girlfriend, you
still keep his/her belongings because you are hoping that
he/she will come back is an example of which defense
mechanism?
A. Displacement B. Sublimation
C. Denial D. Regression
7. During this stage, children may develop strong sexual
attachments to the parent of the other gender and begin to
view the parent of the same gender as a rival for the other
parent’s affections.
A. Oral stage B. Genital stage C. Phallic stage D. Anal stage
8. Maria knew that she could steal the supplies from work, and
no one would know about it. However, she knew that stealing
was wrong, so she decided not to take anything, even though
she would probably never get caught. What is this an example
of?
A. Dishonesty B. Id C. Ego D. Superego
9. The part of your subconscious that operates on the morality
principle is called ____.
A. Superego B. Self C. Ego D. Id
10. Ana yells at her little sister when she is actually angry with
her mom. This defense mechanism is called?
A. Regression B. Denial C. Displacement D. Repression
11. Ideas that are not in your awareness now, but you can
recall them easily would be found in which level of
consciousness?
A. Preconscious level B. Unconscious level
C. Conscious level D. Nonconscious level
12.Sucking and biting give the child sexual gratification as well as
nourishment.
A. Anal stage B. Oral stage C. Genital stage D. Phallic stage
13. The part of the subconscious which operates on the pleasure
principle.
A. Superego B. Self C. Ego D. Id
14.He was a Swiss Psychiatrist and Psychoanalyst who founded
Analytical Psychology.
A. Carl Jung B. Erich Fromm
C. Jacques Lacan D. Sigmund Freud
15.Sally was thirsty. However, she knew that her server
would be back soon to refill her water glass, so she waited
until then to get a drink, even though she really just wanted
to drink from Mr. Smith’s glass. What is this an example of?
A. Self- control B. Id
C. Ego D. Superego

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Psychoanalysis.pptx

  • 2. Psychoanalysis  Is a type of therapy that aims to release pent-up or repressed emotions and memories in order to lead the client to catharsis, or healing.  A theory of the mind and its direct connection to a personality or behavior. The basic premise of psychoanalysis is that the human mind has an unconscious state.  A system of psychological theory and therapy investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind.  A method for treating depression and anxiety disorders or mental illness and also a theory which explains human behavior.
  • 3. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • He was an Austrian neurologist and is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis. • Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining "insight". • The aim of Psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious. To bring what exists at the unconscious or subconscious level up to consciousness.
  • 4. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  Freud developed a personality theory, called psychosexual development of personality, which posits that at different stages of growth; the individual derives pleasure from different parts of the body- thus the term psychosexual, relating to pleasure and the human body.  An important term in personality theory is called libido, which is defined as the natural mental energy that operates the mechanism of the mind.
  • 5. Stages of Psychosexual Development of Personality 1. Oral Stage Manifest from birth to approximately 18 months. The child is totally dependent on others to provide for his/her needs Pleasure is derived from the use of the mouth in activities such as sucking, chewing, and biting. Personality developed in this stage is dependence
  • 6. Stages of Psychosexual Development of Personality 2. Anal Stage  This begins at 18 months and lasts until 3 years when the child is being toilet trained.  The child seeks pleasure from the anus (e.g., withholding and expelling feces)  The personality developed in this stage is independence, self-control, orderliness and sense of accomplishment.
  • 7. Stages of Psychosexual Development of Personality 3. Phallic Stage  3-6 years of age  During this stage the child develops attraction to their parents of the opposite sex and sees jealous and rivalrous relationship with his or her parents of the same sex.
  • 8.  This is what Freud termed as Oedipus Complex for boy and the Electra Complex for girls.  Parents seen as threats  Wide range of psychological disorders through failure to resolve this conflict, (unreasonable anxiety, phobias, & depression)  Ego developed more, superego starts to develop lately  the child seeks pleasure from the penis or clitoris (e.g., masturbation);
  • 9. Stages of Psychosexual Development of Personality 4. Latent Stage  6-12 years of age  Personality traits developed in this stage are associated with social skills and social interactions.  Pleasure is gained through same sex /peer friendship
  • 10. Stages of Psychosexual Development of Personality 5. Genital Stage  12 years of age onward or from puberty to adulthood.  Seeks marriage partner, preparation for adult life.  The personality developed in this stage is sexual maturity.
  • 11. Key Concepts in Psychoanalysis • According to Freud the id, ego, and superego all operate across three levels of awareness in the human mind. They are the conscious, unconscious, and preconscious. • Freud used the analogy of an iceberg to describe the three levels of the mind. • The tip is the conscious level, the part below the sea line is the preconscious and the major portion beneath the sea is the unconscious.
  • 12. Conscious • This is where our current thoughts, feelings, and focus live; the level of the mind is the accessible information, memories and thoughts that the individual has. • The conscious consists of what someone is aware of at any particular point in time. • It includes what you are thinking about right now, whether it is in the front of you mind or the back. If you are aware of it then it is in the conscious mind.
  • 13. Preconscious • Preconscious (sometimes called the subconscious). • This is the home of everything we can recall or retrieve from our memory; the level where accessible and retrievable information are situated. • The preconscious contains information that is just below the surface of awareness.
  • 14. Unconscious • contains thoughts, emotions, feelings, memories and desire that are inaccessible. • It resides in the deepest level of our minds that influence our behavior. • Even though we are not aware of their existence, they exert great influence on our behavior.
  • 15. PSYCHODYNAMICS OF A PERSON’S PERSONALITY Freud used the Id, Ego, and Superego to try to explain how the mind functions and how a personality is shaped.
  • 16. ID • Occupies the unconscious level. • The primitive and instinctive component of personality. • It is the immature component of personality; it only seeks pleasure and demands gratification. • When the Id has a desire for something, that desire needs to be satisfied at once. It does not take reality into account as it only demands what it wants without reason or logic. • Operates on the “Pleasure Principle” and strives for all urges to be met immediately • Id is the selfish side and is the one whom solely cares about themselves and no one else • Lustful, impulsive, fun and ignores consequences
  • 17. EGO • Resides in the conscious and preconscious level of the mind. • The ego is the moderator between the id and the superego • Operates on the “Reality Principle” - tries to satisfy id but in accordance with the real world. It considers social realities, norms, etiquette, rules, and customs when it makes a decision on how to behave. • Considered as the center of logic and reasoning • The decision maker, it makes the decisions that dictate behavior. • Conscious part of the mind (Rational Self). Decides what action to take for positive means and what to do based on what is believed to be the right thing to do. Aware of reality.
  • 18. SUPEREGO • Resides in all three levels of the mind. • The superego is the portion of the mind in which morality and higher principles reside, encouraging us to act in socially and morally acceptable ways. • It is our morals, ethics and social aspect of personality. It is considered as a person’s conscience. • It guides us on what is right and wrong. • Responsible for society’s rules of behavior (moral standards). Feels guilty if rules are disobeyed. • Base on the morality principle, must follow moral standards and rules and breaking them causes guilt.
  • 19. Defense Mechanisms Freud believed that these three parts of the mind are in constant conflict because each part has a different primary goal. When the conflict is too much for a person to handle, his or her ego may engage in one or many defense mechanisms to protect the individual.
  • 20. Defense Mechanism  Refers to processes of self-deception, that protects people from anxious thoughts or feelings.  Are thought to safeguard the mind against feelings and thoughts that are too difficult for the conscious mind to cope with.  Operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant feelings (i.e., anxiety) or make good things feel better for the individual.  A tactic developed by the ego to protect against anxiety.
  • 21. Major defense mechanisms include: 1. Denial  is often used to describe situations in which people seem unable to face reality or admit an obvious truth. (He’s in denial).  The ego blocks upsetting or overwhelming experiences from awareness, causing the individual to refuse to acknowledge or believe what is happening  Is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring.  Refusing to organize or acknowledge real facts or experiences that would lead to anxiety.
  • 22. 2. Displacement  Redirecting an emotional reaction from the rightful recipient to another person altogether.  Involves taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening.  Displaced aggression - is a common example of defense mechanism.  Example: a manager screams at his/her employee, the employee doesn't scream back- but the employee may yell at her partner later at night. (e.g., releasing frustration directed toward your boss on your spouse instead)
  • 23. 3. Repression acts to keep information out of conscious awareness. However, these memories don’t just disappear: they continue to influence our behavior. The ego pushes disturbing or threatening thoughts out of one’s consciousness
  • 24. 4. Sublimation  Similar to displacement, this defense mechanism involves satisfying an impulse by acting on a substitute but in a socially acceptable way. It allows us to act on unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into more acceptable forms.  Example: a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration or channeling energy into work or a constructive hobby. Freud believed that sublimation was a sign of maturity that allows people to function normally in socially acceptable ways.
  • 25. 5. Projection is a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. Attributing one’s unacceptable feelings or desires to someone else. Example: if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you.
  • 26. 6. Regression As a defense mechanism, the individual moves backward in development in order to cope with stress (e.g., an overwhelmed adult acting like a child)
  • 28. Sigmund Freud He was an Austrian neurologist known as the Father of Psychoanalysis. Freud’s theory states that behavior and personality are driven by past events, which are mostly inaccessible to an individual’s consciousness.
  • 29. Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis involves methods through which an individual is guided to understand himself or herself. Through a treatment called Psychotherapy, the originating event or circumstance which hinders an individual to live a healthy life is brought to the surface of consciousness.
  • 30. Sigmund Freud The method of Psychotherapy is mostly interpretative. One technique used in psychotherapy is called free association, a technique that allows the patient to have an inner dialogue with one’s self by saying freely the words that he or she associates with a thing, person and an event. Freud relates free association to what is now known as Freudian slip or slip of the tongue. When an individual commits a Freudian slip (or intentionally saying something as opposed to what he or she wanted to actually say), he or she reveals his or her innermost thoughts.
  • 31. Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961 He was a Swiss Psychiatrist and Psychoanalyst who founded Analytical Psychology. It is distinguished by a focus on the role of symbolic experiences in human life, taking a prospective approach to the issues presented in therapy. For Jung, a healthy mental life is achieved through a balanced and a well-understood personality.
  • 32. Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961 Jung’s theory of personality has been modified and changed over time, but his concepts of introversion and extroversion survive over the years. Popular culture describes an extrovert as a person who goes to parties or who is more adventurous while an introvert is a person who chooses to stay at home, alone and quiet.
  • 33. Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961 In Jungian Psychology, extroversion is the personality which is motivated by outside stimuli or factors. An extrovert relies on statistical data to come up with analysis and conclusion. While introversion, on the other hand is the personality which is motivated by inner necessity. The focus of the individual tends towards the self. The introvert person derives analysis and conclusion upon how statistical data makes an impression upon his or her thoughts and ideas.
  • 34. Activity: Situation: You are working in a convenience store and you see Jack, your co-worker, stealing money from the cash register. He is also your best friend and he's only stealing 100 pesos. Despite the fact that he is your best friend he has also been flirting with the girl you like – and he knows that you like her. What would the id, ego, and superego do?
  • 35. Assessment 1. A technique used in Psychotherapy that allows the patient to have an inner dialogue with one’s self by saying freely the words that he or she associates with a thing, person or an event. A. Free association B. Freudian slip C. Analytic Psychology D. Humanistic Psychoanalysis 2. He was an Austrian neurologist and is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis. A. Carl Jung B. Jacques Lacan C. Sigmund Freud D. Eric Fromm
  • 36. 3. A system of Psychological theory and therapy investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind. A. Defense mechanism B. Rational choice theory C. Analytic theory D. Psychoanalysis 4. Refers to the processes of self-deception that protect people from anxious thoughts or feelings. A. Defense mechanism B. Rational choice theory C. Analytic theory D. Psychoanalysis
  • 37. 5. This personality type tries to meet the desires of the id in a way that is socially acceptable in the world. It deals with the reality. A. Superego B. Ego C. Id D. Conscious level 6. After breaking up with your boyfriend or girlfriend, you still keep his/her belongings because you are hoping that he/she will come back is an example of which defense mechanism? A. Displacement B. Sublimation C. Denial D. Regression
  • 38. 7. During this stage, children may develop strong sexual attachments to the parent of the other gender and begin to view the parent of the same gender as a rival for the other parent’s affections. A. Oral stage B. Genital stage C. Phallic stage D. Anal stage 8. Maria knew that she could steal the supplies from work, and no one would know about it. However, she knew that stealing was wrong, so she decided not to take anything, even though she would probably never get caught. What is this an example of? A. Dishonesty B. Id C. Ego D. Superego
  • 39. 9. The part of your subconscious that operates on the morality principle is called ____. A. Superego B. Self C. Ego D. Id 10. Ana yells at her little sister when she is actually angry with her mom. This defense mechanism is called? A. Regression B. Denial C. Displacement D. Repression 11. Ideas that are not in your awareness now, but you can recall them easily would be found in which level of consciousness? A. Preconscious level B. Unconscious level C. Conscious level D. Nonconscious level
  • 40. 12.Sucking and biting give the child sexual gratification as well as nourishment. A. Anal stage B. Oral stage C. Genital stage D. Phallic stage 13. The part of the subconscious which operates on the pleasure principle. A. Superego B. Self C. Ego D. Id 14.He was a Swiss Psychiatrist and Psychoanalyst who founded Analytical Psychology. A. Carl Jung B. Erich Fromm C. Jacques Lacan D. Sigmund Freud
  • 41. 15.Sally was thirsty. However, she knew that her server would be back soon to refill her water glass, so she waited until then to get a drink, even though she really just wanted to drink from Mr. Smith’s glass. What is this an example of? A. Self- control B. Id C. Ego D. Superego

Editor's Notes

  1. We use defense mechanisms to protect ourselves from feelings of anxiety or guilt, which arise because we feel threatened, or because our id or superego becomes too demanding.