SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 49
Download to read offline
Process Research With Digital Trace Data: Involving
Artefacts, Involving Context
Cologne Institute for Information Systems | University of Cologne
Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
About my research
 I am primarily a field researcher.
 I am interested in socio-technical phenomena:
I study behaviors of individuals and organizations when dealing
with IT artefacts (such as computer devices, software, digital
information, or even models of information systems).
 Broadly speaking, I often focus on issues of process, design,
and representation, often in combination.
 My research mostly draws on quantitative, qualitative and mixed
field methods.
 My current interests include:
 systems analysis & design practices in the digital age
 digital entrepreneurship and digital venture design
 digital innovation and change in large incumbent organizations
 digitalization of organizational routines and processes
 digital solutions for a sustainable future
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
What is Process Scholarship?
“the dynamic study
of behavior within and between
organizations, focusing on context, activity and outcomes
that unfold over time”.
Pettigrew 2012
Pettigrew, Denyer and Murphy 2017
“Catching Reality in Flight.”
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Questions in Process Scholarship
 Process questioning involves the interrogation of some
phenomena over time using the language of:
 what, who, where, why, when and how?
 Evolution and development
 Sequencing and pace
 Consequence and output
 Context and antecedents
 Dynamics and change
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Processes occur on many levels
Dynamics of large, complex systems change
Strategic leadership change processes
Firm growth
Life event sequences
Career progressions
Development and change of professions
Organizational routines and their dynamics
Patterns of actions
Drift and endogenous change
Modeling of business processes
Re‐Design of business processes
IT‐driven innovations to business processes
Automation of processes
Workflow management technologies
Process mining
Sociological 
focus
Technological 
focus
Processes 
that take 
years
Processes 
that take 
seconds
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Typical process data
 Ethnographic:
 shadowing case workers,
journaling, diary methods
 Qualitative:
 interviews and observations,
longitudinal case studies
 Quantitative:
 system-generated: time-stamped
event logs by process-aware
information systems such as SAP.
Case ID Seq Num Person Action System
A 1 HMD AssignCase Venice
A 2 GLT ReviewCase CitiSmart
A 3 GLT NoteAccountFile CitiSmart
A 4 GLT ResolveCase Venice
A 5 DIK Verify/QC Venice
B 1 HMD AssignCase Venice
B 2 IEV RequestDocs GPS
B 3 IEV ReceiveDocs FILM
B 4 IEV AdjustAcct Customs
B 5 IEV LetterToCust Word
B 6 HYC CheckFinancials Venice
B 7 HYC ResolveCase Venice
B 8 DIK Verify/QC Venice
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
The language of Process scholarship
- Event sequences vs Petri nets
Abbott, A. 1995. 
"Sequence Analysis: 
New Methods for Old 
Ideas," Annual Review 
of Sociology (21:1), pp. 
93‐113.
van der Aalst, W. M. P. 
1998. "The Application 
of Petri Nets to 
Workflow 
Management," The 
Journal of Circuits, 
Systems and 
Computers (8:1), pp. 
21‐66.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
The language of Process scholarship
- Narrative Networks
 Process ~ Graph(Vertices, Edges)
 The lexicon of actions becomes the vertices, V (or nodes)
 Sequentially adjacent pairs of actions become the edges, E (or ties)
Entry
Pentland, Hærem & Hillison
(2010) “Comparing 
Organizational Routines as 
Recurrent Patterns of 
Action,” Organization 
Studies, 31(7), 917‐940.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
The language of Process scholarship
- Process models
Recker, J., Rosemann, M., 
Indulska, M., and Green, 
P. 2009. "Business 
Process Modeling: A 
Comparative Analysis," 
Journal of the 
Association for 
Information Systems 
(10:4), pp. 333‐363.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Traditional process scholarship focus
 Defining features:
 recognizable,
 repetitive,
 patterns of interdependent
actions
 carried out by multiple actors
 Usual Emphasis:
 Context-Process-Outcome
Goh, K. T., and Pentland, B. T. 2020. "From Actions to 
Paths to Patterning: Toward a Dynamic Theory of 
Patterning in Routines," Academy of Management 
Journal (62).
Pettigrew, A. M. 2012. "Context and 
Action in the Transformation of the Firm: 
A Reprise," Journal of Management 
Studies (49:7), pp. 1304‐1328.
Feldman, M. S., and Pentland, B. T. 2003. 
"Reconceptualizing Organizational Routines as a 
Source of Flexibility and Change," Administrative 
Science Quarterly (48:1), pp. 94‐118.
Orlikowski, W.J., and Scott, S.V. "Sociomateriality: Challenging 
the Separation of Technology, Work and Organization," The 
Academy of Management Annals (2:1) 2008, pp 433‐474.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Current phenomena/trends about
processes
 Autonomous tools for procedural work
 Artificial intelligence for performing tasks/processes
 Man-machine collaboration (e.g., in medical diagnostics)
 Robotic process automation
 Process mining and data science
 …
Photo © Hackrod 2018
Procedural Generation in Digital Products
Source: Ubisoft
Seidel, S., Berente, N., Martinez, B., Lindberg, A., 
Nickerson, J. V., & Lyytinen, K. (2018). Succeeding 
with autonomous tools in systems design: 
Reflective practice & ubisoft's ghost recon 
wildlands project. IEEE Computer, 51(10), 16‐23. 
Werder, K., Seidel, S., Recker, J., Berente, N., 
Kundert‐Gibbs, J., Abboud, N., Benzeghadi, Y. 
(2020): Data‐Driven, Data‐Informed, Data‐
Augmented: How Ubisoft’s Ghost Recon Wildlands 
Live Unit Uses Data for Continuous Product 
Innovation. California Management Review, Vol. 
63. 
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
The digitalization of processes presents
both an opportunity and challenge
 Opportunities
 Because processes, practices
and routines increasingly leave
digital traces, new possibilities
emerge to study these
processual phenomena in
context.
 Context matters to theorizing,
context matters to IS
phenomena
 Sociomateriality, ensemble
views, recombination, imbrication
 Challenges
 Process scholarship has
focused on actions first, actors
second, technology… not at all.
 The conceptual lexicon of process
scholarship does not speak to
technology having agency.
 Analyses of process data (or
digital trace data) is not well
suited to explore in situ
phenomena
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Process scholarship literature has been
slow in recognizing either challenge or
opportunity.
Pentland, B.T., Recker, J., and Wyner, G. "Rediscovering Handoffs," Academy of Management
Discoveries (3:3) 2017, doi:amd.2016.0018.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Example: Re-discovering Handoffs
Pentland, B.T., Recker, J., and Wyner, G. "Rediscovering Handoffs," Academy of Management
Discoveries (3:3) 2017, doi:amd.2016.0018.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Challenges of using digital trace data:
The lexica for process analysis do not speak context
Abbott, A. 1995. 
"Sequence Analysis: 
New Methods for Old 
Ideas," Annual Review 
of Sociology (21:1), pp. 
93‐113.
van der Aalst, W. M. P. 
1998. "The Application 
of Petri Nets to 
Workflow 
Management," The 
Journal of Circuits, 
Systems and 
Computers (8:1), pp. 
21‐66.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Entry
Challenges of using digital trace data:
The lexica for process analysis do not speak context
Recker, J., Rosemann, M., Indulska, M., and Green, P. 
2009. "Business Process Modeling: A Comparative 
Analysis," Journal of the Association for Information 
Systems (10:4), pp. 333‐363.
Pentland, Hærem & Hillison
(2010) “Comparing 
Organizational Routines as 
Recurrent Patterns of 
Action,” Organization 
Studies, 31(7), 917‐940.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
ACTION ACTOR
OTHER 
ACTORS
LOCATION BELIEFS INTENT
LEGAL 
SYSTEM
TOOLS
INPUTS/ 
OUTPUTS …
ACTION ACTOR
OTHER 
ACTORS
LOCATION BELIEFS INTENT
LEGAL 
SYSTEM
TOOLS
INPUTS/ 
OUTPUTS …
The possibility of digital trace data:
Capturing context of situated actions
ACTION ACTOR
TECHNOL
OGY
LOCATION BELIEFS INTENT
LEGAL 
SYSTEM
TOOLS
INPUTS/ 
OUTPUTS …
The significance of any action or event…
… depends on the context
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Physician
LPN
Clin Tech
Admin
Staff
Resident
One day at the U. of Rochester dermatology clinic
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
One day at the U. of Rochester
dermatology clinic
Clock time
Event time
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
How might we visualize and analyze this
data?
Social Network
(relationships between involved actors)
Narrative Network / Process model 
(relationships between involved actions)
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
How might we visualize and analyze this
data? Contextualized Narrative Network
(actions carried out by actors using technologies)
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Contextualizing events in different ways changes the
structure of the process; it helps disentangling what‘s
going on. Absence highlights presence.
(a) Narrative network (b) Narrative network incorporating “location”
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
The possibility of digital trace data:
Understanding generativity of digital innovations
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
New technology is routine capability.
“Technology only comes alive in the world to the extent that it is
used in a routine (“technology-in-use”).”
Burt Swanson, 2019
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Affordances are a relational concept that
bridges actor-centric with artifact-centric
work
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Basic idea:
Describe nodes in process graphs in more detail
Processes are not just patterns of action over time.
Actors and artifacts are always present  
Context always matters.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Sequences of affordances allow you to understand
why some technologies have been so „innovative“
Mobile phone Smartphone
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
What we can learn about technology
innovation
 Technology can add/remove nodes.
 Technology cannot directly add/remove edges but it can
influence them.
 Technology is more generative if it creates more paths.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Challenges of using digital trace data:
We need richer data that we could use.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Challenges of using digital trace data:
We need more flexible analysis tools
Threadnet
‐ A tool for analyzing and visualizing patterns in processual phenomena
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
ThreadNet weaves threads into Networks
- http://routines.broad.msu.edu/ThreadNet/
 Trace along each thread to identify adjacent pairs of events
 Sequentially adjacent pairs are the edges in the network
1, 3, 6, 4 ThreadNet
Coded performance 
fragment
Narrative Network
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
ThreadNet weaves Threads into
Networks
With increasing amounts of digital trace data, it can be a big help…
1,3,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9
1,3,5,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9
1,3,6,7,4,5,2,3,2,5,4,8,9
1,2,3,6,4,7,2,4,3,5,4,8,9
1,3,6,5,4,3,5,4,7,8,9
1,3,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9
1,3,5,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9
1,3,6,7,4,5,2,3,2,5,4,8,9
1,2,3,6,4,7,2,4,3,5,4,8,9
1,3,6,5,2,3,5,4,7,8,9
ThreadNet
Coded performances Narrative Network
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Challenges of digital trace data:
Process data is not process.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
The Paradox
“The analysis of digital trace data for developing process theory
is mostly devoid of the context that is so paramount to the
unfolding and situatedness of the processes that scholars seek to
explain.”
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Challenges of using digital trace data:
Approaches for handling digital traces cannot handle
context well.
 When confronted with digital trace data, qualitative scholars tend to
become overwhelmed by the sheer size of these datasets. Ethnographic
fieldwork allows researchers to access context through immersion or
embeddedness - but it is ill-equipped to handle the large volume of data
traces now collected and stored on digital platforms.
 Digital trace data is organic, not designed, meaning it is inherently
susceptible to validity issues.
 Digital trace data can be both heterogeneous and unstructured,
making it difficult to analyze and confront the meaning of digital trace data
as a conceptualization of the events and mechanisms it records.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Challenges of using digital trace data:
Approaches for handling digital traces cannot handle
context well.
 Computational social science
 has the difficulty of analyzing complex and messy social phenomena,
and the tendency of researchers to oversimplify (naturalize) these
complex relationships, thereby curtailing the search for meaning
 Blended methods
 complement computational analyses of digital trace data with deep
qualitative inquiry to account for, and understand, the context(s) in
which that data is generated
 Or, make computational tools conceptually more flexible to let context
“come into” the data.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Brief Conclusion
1. Analysis or theory starts with language: process scholarship
needs more expressive grammars to describe process
phenomena.
2. Both empirical and computational methods are limited;
research designs need to mitigate the different biases.
3. Digital trace data is process data and it is not. We need pay
more attention to the separation of phenomena, data, and
model.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Pitching our idea of narrative networks
and the tool Threadnet
 Contextualized process graphs involving technology on an
equal footing provides a processual, relational language that
speaks directly to Digitalization phenomena
 Generativity
 Multiplicity
 Possibility for action, possibility for change
 Relationality
 Material agency
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Papers and Work-in-Progress
 Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., Wyner, G., and Ryan-Wolfe, J. 2020 “Incorporating context
into the analysis of processual phenomena with digital trace data," Journal of the
Association for Information Systems, In Press.
 Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., and Wyner, G. 2017. "Rediscovering Handoffs," Academy of
Management Discoveries (3:3), pp. 284-301.
 Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., and Kim, I. 2017. "Capturing Reality in Flight? Empirical Tools
for Strong Process Theory," in: 38th International Conference on Information Systems.
Seoul, Republic of Korea: Association for Information Systems.
 Pentland, B. T., Yoo Y., Recker, J., and Kim, I. "Towards a dynamic network theory of
organizing and emerging technology," Organization Science, under review.
Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
Prof. Dr. Jan Recker, PhD
Chaired Professor for Information Systems and Systems
Development
Cologne Institute for Information Systems
University of Cologne
email jan.recker@wiso.uni-koeln.de
web www.janrecker.com, www.is4.uni-koeln.de
twitter janrecker

More Related Content

What's hot

Dagstuhl14 intro-v1
Dagstuhl14 intro-v1Dagstuhl14 intro-v1
Dagstuhl14 intro-v1
CS, NcState
 
accelerating-data-driven
accelerating-data-drivenaccelerating-data-driven
accelerating-data-driven
Joshua Chudy
 
Information Systems design science writing articles
Information Systems design science writing articlesInformation Systems design science writing articles
Information Systems design science writing articles
Raimo Halinen
 
Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?
Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?
Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?
Jan Aerts
 

What's hot (15)

A Pragmatic Perspective on Software Visualization
A Pragmatic Perspective on Software VisualizationA Pragmatic Perspective on Software Visualization
A Pragmatic Perspective on Software Visualization
 
Dagstuhl14 intro-v1
Dagstuhl14 intro-v1Dagstuhl14 intro-v1
Dagstuhl14 intro-v1
 
accelerating-data-driven
accelerating-data-drivenaccelerating-data-driven
accelerating-data-driven
 
Information Systems design science writing articles
Information Systems design science writing articlesInformation Systems design science writing articles
Information Systems design science writing articles
 
DEALING CRISIS MANAGEMENT USING AI
DEALING CRISIS MANAGEMENT USING AIDEALING CRISIS MANAGEMENT USING AI
DEALING CRISIS MANAGEMENT USING AI
 
A Survey of Building Robust Business Models in Pervasive Computing
A Survey of Building Robust Business Models in Pervasive ComputingA Survey of Building Robust Business Models in Pervasive Computing
A Survey of Building Robust Business Models in Pervasive Computing
 
Lecture #02
Lecture #02 Lecture #02
Lecture #02
 
Secured Scheduling Technique of Network Resource Management in Vehicular Comm...
Secured Scheduling Technique of Network Resource Management in Vehicular Comm...Secured Scheduling Technique of Network Resource Management in Vehicular Comm...
Secured Scheduling Technique of Network Resource Management in Vehicular Comm...
 
Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?
Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?
Visual Analytics in Omics - why, what, how?
 
CSCWD 2017 Keynote: The Complexities of Sustainability and Design
CSCWD 2017 Keynote: The Complexities of Sustainability and DesignCSCWD 2017 Keynote: The Complexities of Sustainability and Design
CSCWD 2017 Keynote: The Complexities of Sustainability and Design
 
Lecture #03
Lecture #03Lecture #03
Lecture #03
 
DSSG Speaker Series: Paco Nathan
DSSG Speaker Series: Paco NathanDSSG Speaker Series: Paco Nathan
DSSG Speaker Series: Paco Nathan
 
Visual Analytics in Omics: why, what, how?
Visual Analytics in Omics: why, what, how?Visual Analytics in Omics: why, what, how?
Visual Analytics in Omics: why, what, how?
 
Don't look at me that way! - Understanding User Attitudes Towards Data Glasse...
Don't look at me that way! - Understanding User Attitudes Towards Data Glasse...Don't look at me that way! - Understanding User Attitudes Towards Data Glasse...
Don't look at me that way! - Understanding User Attitudes Towards Data Glasse...
 
NLP & ML Webinar
NLP & ML WebinarNLP & ML Webinar
NLP & ML Webinar
 

Similar to Process Research With Digital Trace Data

Goal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to Implementation
Goal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to ImplementationGoal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to Implementation
Goal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to Implementation
Amjad Adib
 
How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes km me...
How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes   km me...How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes   km me...
How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes km me...
Martin Sumner-Smith
 
Data Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical University
Data Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical UniversityData Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical University
Data Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical University
butest
 
Computer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devices
Computer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devicesComputer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devices
Computer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devices
Arti Arora
 
Adomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docx
Adomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docxAdomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docx
Adomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docx
daniahendric
 
Making an impact with data science
Making an impact  with data scienceMaking an impact  with data science
Making an impact with data science
Jordan Engbers
 

Similar to Process Research With Digital Trace Data (20)

Goal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to Implementation
Goal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to ImplementationGoal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to Implementation
Goal Dynamics_From System Dynamics to Implementation
 
How to make impact with journal publications on Software Process ImprovementH...
How to make impact with journal publications on Software Process ImprovementH...How to make impact with journal publications on Software Process ImprovementH...
How to make impact with journal publications on Software Process ImprovementH...
 
How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes km me...
How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes   km me...How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes   km me...
How do social technologies change knowledge worker business processes km me...
 
Evidence-based Semantic Web Just a Dream or the Way to Go?
Evidence-based Semantic WebJust a Dream or the Way to Go?Evidence-based Semantic WebJust a Dream or the Way to Go?
Evidence-based Semantic Web Just a Dream or the Way to Go?
 
Data Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical University
Data Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical UniversityData Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical University
Data Mining Xuequn Shang NorthWestern Polytechnical University
 
Ecosystems in Management Research
Ecosystems in Management Research Ecosystems in Management Research
Ecosystems in Management Research
 
Planning and persuading: the organizational implications
Planning and persuading: the organizational implicationsPlanning and persuading: the organizational implications
Planning and persuading: the organizational implications
 
System Based Mining for Discovering Human Interaction in Meetings
System Based Mining for Discovering Human Interaction in MeetingsSystem Based Mining for Discovering Human Interaction in Meetings
System Based Mining for Discovering Human Interaction in Meetings
 
What is data science artical
What is data science articalWhat is data science artical
What is data science artical
 
Information entanglement
Information entanglementInformation entanglement
Information entanglement
 
Data Science Demystified_ Journeying Through Insights and Innovations
Data Science Demystified_ Journeying Through Insights and InnovationsData Science Demystified_ Journeying Through Insights and Innovations
Data Science Demystified_ Journeying Through Insights and Innovations
 
informatics_future.pdf
informatics_future.pdfinformatics_future.pdf
informatics_future.pdf
 
Situation Awareness In A Complex World
Situation Awareness In A Complex WorldSituation Awareness In A Complex World
Situation Awareness In A Complex World
 
Supervised Multi Attribute Gene Manipulation For Cancer
Supervised Multi Attribute Gene Manipulation For CancerSupervised Multi Attribute Gene Manipulation For Cancer
Supervised Multi Attribute Gene Manipulation For Cancer
 
Strategic Management of S&T Information for Innovation Promotion
Strategic Management of S&T Information for Innovation PromotionStrategic Management of S&T Information for Innovation Promotion
Strategic Management of S&T Information for Innovation Promotion
 
Computer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devices
Computer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devicesComputer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devices
Computer is an electronic device or combination of electronic devices
 
27 LIMITATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN WEB INFORMA...
27 LIMITATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN WEB INFORMA...27 LIMITATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN WEB INFORMA...
27 LIMITATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODS IN WEB INFORMA...
 
Adomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docx
Adomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docxAdomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docx
Adomavicius et al.Technology Trends in the IT LandscapeSP.docx
 
Making an impact with data science
Making an impact  with data scienceMaking an impact  with data science
Making an impact with data science
 
Knowledge Engineering, Electronic Government and the applications to Scientom...
Knowledge Engineering, Electronic Government and the applications to Scientom...Knowledge Engineering, Electronic Government and the applications to Scientom...
Knowledge Engineering, Electronic Government and the applications to Scientom...
 

More from Jan Recker @ University of Hamburg

Presentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organization
Presentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organizationPresentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organization
Presentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organization
Jan Recker @ University of Hamburg
 

More from Jan Recker @ University of Hamburg (16)

Building a digitally-enabled circular economy
Building a digitally-enabled circular economyBuilding a digitally-enabled circular economy
Building a digitally-enabled circular economy
 
Digitalisierung und Nachhaltigkeit – geht eigentlich beides?
Digitalisierung und Nachhaltigkeit – geht eigentlich beides?Digitalisierung und Nachhaltigkeit – geht eigentlich beides?
Digitalisierung und Nachhaltigkeit – geht eigentlich beides?
 
Leonardo Da Vinci, Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, Fitbit and Alexa? Why Digital P...
Leonardo Da Vinci, Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, Fitbit and Alexa? Why Digital P...Leonardo Da Vinci, Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, Fitbit and Alexa? Why Digital P...
Leonardo Da Vinci, Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, Fitbit and Alexa? Why Digital P...
 
The Delicate Tension of Digital Technology
The Delicate Tension of Digital TechnologyThe Delicate Tension of Digital Technology
The Delicate Tension of Digital Technology
 
The Theory, Science and Technology of Innovation: The Good, the Bad and the U...
The Theory, Science and Technology of Innovation: The Good, the Bad and the U...The Theory, Science and Technology of Innovation: The Good, the Bad and the U...
The Theory, Science and Technology of Innovation: The Good, the Bad and the U...
 
ICIS 2014 DC Keynote Jan Recker
ICIS 2014 DC Keynote Jan ReckerICIS 2014 DC Keynote Jan Recker
ICIS 2014 DC Keynote Jan Recker
 
Jan recker bpm talk
Jan recker bpm talkJan recker bpm talk
Jan recker bpm talk
 
Get Innovative: Traits of Successful Innovators
Get Innovative: Traits of Successful InnovatorsGet Innovative: Traits of Successful Innovators
Get Innovative: Traits of Successful Innovators
 
Process Deviance: Process Improvement from within
Process Deviance: Process Improvement from withinProcess Deviance: Process Improvement from within
Process Deviance: Process Improvement from within
 
Collaborating for Innovation Success through Research-as-a-Service
Collaborating for Innovation Success through Research-as-a-ServiceCollaborating for Innovation Success through Research-as-a-Service
Collaborating for Innovation Success through Research-as-a-Service
 
Writing Scientific Research Papers
Writing Scientific Research PapersWriting Scientific Research Papers
Writing Scientific Research Papers
 
The Evidence-Based Organization: A Platform for Innovation
The Evidence-Based Organization: A Platform for InnovationThe Evidence-Based Organization: A Platform for Innovation
The Evidence-Based Organization: A Platform for Innovation
 
Innovation through connectedness
Innovation through connectednessInnovation through connectedness
Innovation through connectedness
 
Presentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organization
Presentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organizationPresentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organization
Presentation at Hargraves CONNECT: The evidence-based organization
 
BPMN2012 Keynote Slides by Jan Recker
BPMN2012 Keynote Slides by Jan ReckerBPMN2012 Keynote Slides by Jan Recker
BPMN2012 Keynote Slides by Jan Recker
 
How Novices Model Business Processes @BPM2010
How Novices Model Business Processes @BPM2010How Novices Model Business Processes @BPM2010
How Novices Model Business Processes @BPM2010
 

Recently uploaded

HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPTHIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPT

Recently uploaded (20)

GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolationGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
 
MSCII_ FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdf
MSCII_              FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdfMSCII_              FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdf
MSCII_ FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdf
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 3) Metabolism
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 3) MetabolismGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 3) Metabolism
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 3) Metabolism
 
Costs to heap leach gold ore tailings in Karamoja region of Uganda
Costs to heap leach gold ore tailings in Karamoja region of UgandaCosts to heap leach gold ore tailings in Karamoja region of Uganda
Costs to heap leach gold ore tailings in Karamoja region of Uganda
 
Taphonomy and Quality of the Fossil Record
Taphonomy and Quality of the  Fossil RecordTaphonomy and Quality of the  Fossil Record
Taphonomy and Quality of the Fossil Record
 
ANITINUTRITION FACTOR GYLCOSIDES SAPONINS CYANODENS
ANITINUTRITION FACTOR GYLCOSIDES SAPONINS CYANODENSANITINUTRITION FACTOR GYLCOSIDES SAPONINS CYANODENS
ANITINUTRITION FACTOR GYLCOSIDES SAPONINS CYANODENS
 
Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic LakeWaterConditionsinGale...
Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic  LakeWaterConditionsinGale...Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic  LakeWaterConditionsinGale...
Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic LakeWaterConditionsinGale...
 
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed RahimoonVital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
 
X-rays from a Central “Exhaust Vent” of the Galactic Center Chimney
X-rays from a Central “Exhaust Vent” of the Galactic Center ChimneyX-rays from a Central “Exhaust Vent” of the Galactic Center Chimney
X-rays from a Central “Exhaust Vent” of the Galactic Center Chimney
 
Information science research with large language models: between science and ...
Information science research with large language models: between science and ...Information science research with large language models: between science and ...
Information science research with large language models: between science and ...
 
ABHISHEK ANTIBIOTICS PPT MICROBIOLOGY // USES OF ANTIOBIOTICS TYPES OF ANTIB...
ABHISHEK ANTIBIOTICS PPT MICROBIOLOGY  // USES OF ANTIOBIOTICS TYPES OF ANTIB...ABHISHEK ANTIBIOTICS PPT MICROBIOLOGY  // USES OF ANTIOBIOTICS TYPES OF ANTIB...
ABHISHEK ANTIBIOTICS PPT MICROBIOLOGY // USES OF ANTIOBIOTICS TYPES OF ANTIB...
 
THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE CLASS IX.ppt
THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE CLASS IX.pptTHE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE CLASS IX.ppt
THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE CLASS IX.ppt
 
TransientOffsetin14CAftertheCarringtonEventRecordedbyPolarTreeRings
TransientOffsetin14CAftertheCarringtonEventRecordedbyPolarTreeRingsTransientOffsetin14CAftertheCarringtonEventRecordedbyPolarTreeRings
TransientOffsetin14CAftertheCarringtonEventRecordedbyPolarTreeRings
 
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed RahimoonVital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
 
Precision Farming in Fruit Crops presentation
Precision Farming in Fruit Crops presentationPrecision Farming in Fruit Crops presentation
Precision Farming in Fruit Crops presentation
 
EU START PROJECT. START-Newsletter_Issue_4.pdf
EU START PROJECT. START-Newsletter_Issue_4.pdfEU START PROJECT. START-Newsletter_Issue_4.pdf
EU START PROJECT. START-Newsletter_Issue_4.pdf
 
Towards a revolution in the social sciences FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Towards a revolution in the social sciences FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdfTowards a revolution in the social sciences FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
Towards a revolution in the social sciences FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL.pdf
 
A Scientific PowerPoint on Albert Einstein
A Scientific PowerPoint on Albert EinsteinA Scientific PowerPoint on Albert Einstein
A Scientific PowerPoint on Albert Einstein
 
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary GlandFactor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
 
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPTHIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
 

Process Research With Digital Trace Data

  • 1. Process Research With Digital Trace Data: Involving Artefacts, Involving Context Cologne Institute for Information Systems | University of Cologne Prof. Dr. Jan Recker
  • 2. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker About my research  I am primarily a field researcher.  I am interested in socio-technical phenomena: I study behaviors of individuals and organizations when dealing with IT artefacts (such as computer devices, software, digital information, or even models of information systems).  Broadly speaking, I often focus on issues of process, design, and representation, often in combination.  My research mostly draws on quantitative, qualitative and mixed field methods.  My current interests include:  systems analysis & design practices in the digital age  digital entrepreneurship and digital venture design  digital innovation and change in large incumbent organizations  digitalization of organizational routines and processes  digital solutions for a sustainable future
  • 3. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker What is Process Scholarship? “the dynamic study of behavior within and between organizations, focusing on context, activity and outcomes that unfold over time”. Pettigrew 2012 Pettigrew, Denyer and Murphy 2017 “Catching Reality in Flight.”
  • 4. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Questions in Process Scholarship  Process questioning involves the interrogation of some phenomena over time using the language of:  what, who, where, why, when and how?  Evolution and development  Sequencing and pace  Consequence and output  Context and antecedents  Dynamics and change
  • 5. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Processes occur on many levels Dynamics of large, complex systems change Strategic leadership change processes Firm growth Life event sequences Career progressions Development and change of professions Organizational routines and their dynamics Patterns of actions Drift and endogenous change Modeling of business processes Re‐Design of business processes IT‐driven innovations to business processes Automation of processes Workflow management technologies Process mining Sociological  focus Technological  focus Processes  that take  years Processes  that take  seconds
  • 6. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Typical process data  Ethnographic:  shadowing case workers, journaling, diary methods  Qualitative:  interviews and observations, longitudinal case studies  Quantitative:  system-generated: time-stamped event logs by process-aware information systems such as SAP. Case ID Seq Num Person Action System A 1 HMD AssignCase Venice A 2 GLT ReviewCase CitiSmart A 3 GLT NoteAccountFile CitiSmart A 4 GLT ResolveCase Venice A 5 DIK Verify/QC Venice B 1 HMD AssignCase Venice B 2 IEV RequestDocs GPS B 3 IEV ReceiveDocs FILM B 4 IEV AdjustAcct Customs B 5 IEV LetterToCust Word B 6 HYC CheckFinancials Venice B 7 HYC ResolveCase Venice B 8 DIK Verify/QC Venice
  • 7. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker The language of Process scholarship - Event sequences vs Petri nets Abbott, A. 1995.  "Sequence Analysis:  New Methods for Old  Ideas," Annual Review  of Sociology (21:1), pp.  93‐113. van der Aalst, W. M. P.  1998. "The Application  of Petri Nets to  Workflow  Management," The  Journal of Circuits,  Systems and  Computers (8:1), pp.  21‐66.
  • 8. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker The language of Process scholarship - Narrative Networks  Process ~ Graph(Vertices, Edges)  The lexicon of actions becomes the vertices, V (or nodes)  Sequentially adjacent pairs of actions become the edges, E (or ties) Entry Pentland, Hærem & Hillison (2010) “Comparing  Organizational Routines as  Recurrent Patterns of  Action,” Organization  Studies, 31(7), 917‐940.
  • 9. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker The language of Process scholarship - Process models Recker, J., Rosemann, M.,  Indulska, M., and Green,  P. 2009. "Business  Process Modeling: A  Comparative Analysis,"  Journal of the  Association for  Information Systems  (10:4), pp. 333‐363.
  • 10. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Traditional process scholarship focus  Defining features:  recognizable,  repetitive,  patterns of interdependent actions  carried out by multiple actors  Usual Emphasis:  Context-Process-Outcome Goh, K. T., and Pentland, B. T. 2020. "From Actions to  Paths to Patterning: Toward a Dynamic Theory of  Patterning in Routines," Academy of Management  Journal (62). Pettigrew, A. M. 2012. "Context and  Action in the Transformation of the Firm:  A Reprise," Journal of Management  Studies (49:7), pp. 1304‐1328. Feldman, M. S., and Pentland, B. T. 2003.  "Reconceptualizing Organizational Routines as a  Source of Flexibility and Change," Administrative  Science Quarterly (48:1), pp. 94‐118.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Current phenomena/trends about processes  Autonomous tools for procedural work  Artificial intelligence for performing tasks/processes  Man-machine collaboration (e.g., in medical diagnostics)  Robotic process automation  Process mining and data science  …
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker The digitalization of processes presents both an opportunity and challenge  Opportunities  Because processes, practices and routines increasingly leave digital traces, new possibilities emerge to study these processual phenomena in context.  Context matters to theorizing, context matters to IS phenomena  Sociomateriality, ensemble views, recombination, imbrication  Challenges  Process scholarship has focused on actions first, actors second, technology… not at all.  The conceptual lexicon of process scholarship does not speak to technology having agency.  Analyses of process data (or digital trace data) is not well suited to explore in situ phenomena
  • 21. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Process scholarship literature has been slow in recognizing either challenge or opportunity. Pentland, B.T., Recker, J., and Wyner, G. "Rediscovering Handoffs," Academy of Management Discoveries (3:3) 2017, doi:amd.2016.0018.
  • 22.
  • 23. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Example: Re-discovering Handoffs Pentland, B.T., Recker, J., and Wyner, G. "Rediscovering Handoffs," Academy of Management Discoveries (3:3) 2017, doi:amd.2016.0018.
  • 24. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Challenges of using digital trace data: The lexica for process analysis do not speak context Abbott, A. 1995.  "Sequence Analysis:  New Methods for Old  Ideas," Annual Review  of Sociology (21:1), pp.  93‐113. van der Aalst, W. M. P.  1998. "The Application  of Petri Nets to  Workflow  Management," The  Journal of Circuits,  Systems and  Computers (8:1), pp.  21‐66.
  • 25. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Entry Challenges of using digital trace data: The lexica for process analysis do not speak context Recker, J., Rosemann, M., Indulska, M., and Green, P.  2009. "Business Process Modeling: A Comparative  Analysis," Journal of the Association for Information  Systems (10:4), pp. 333‐363. Pentland, Hærem & Hillison (2010) “Comparing  Organizational Routines as  Recurrent Patterns of  Action,” Organization  Studies, 31(7), 917‐940.
  • 26. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker ACTION ACTOR OTHER  ACTORS LOCATION BELIEFS INTENT LEGAL  SYSTEM TOOLS INPUTS/  OUTPUTS … ACTION ACTOR OTHER  ACTORS LOCATION BELIEFS INTENT LEGAL  SYSTEM TOOLS INPUTS/  OUTPUTS … The possibility of digital trace data: Capturing context of situated actions ACTION ACTOR TECHNOL OGY LOCATION BELIEFS INTENT LEGAL  SYSTEM TOOLS INPUTS/  OUTPUTS … The significance of any action or event… … depends on the context
  • 27. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Physician LPN Clin Tech Admin Staff Resident One day at the U. of Rochester dermatology clinic
  • 28. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker One day at the U. of Rochester dermatology clinic Clock time Event time
  • 29. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker How might we visualize and analyze this data? Social Network (relationships between involved actors) Narrative Network / Process model  (relationships between involved actions)
  • 30. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker How might we visualize and analyze this data? Contextualized Narrative Network (actions carried out by actors using technologies)
  • 31. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Contextualizing events in different ways changes the structure of the process; it helps disentangling what‘s going on. Absence highlights presence. (a) Narrative network (b) Narrative network incorporating “location”
  • 32. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker The possibility of digital trace data: Understanding generativity of digital innovations
  • 33. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker New technology is routine capability. “Technology only comes alive in the world to the extent that it is used in a routine (“technology-in-use”).” Burt Swanson, 2019
  • 34. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Affordances are a relational concept that bridges actor-centric with artifact-centric work
  • 35. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Basic idea: Describe nodes in process graphs in more detail Processes are not just patterns of action over time. Actors and artifacts are always present   Context always matters.
  • 36. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Sequences of affordances allow you to understand why some technologies have been so „innovative“ Mobile phone Smartphone
  • 37. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker What we can learn about technology innovation  Technology can add/remove nodes.  Technology cannot directly add/remove edges but it can influence them.  Technology is more generative if it creates more paths.
  • 38. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Challenges of using digital trace data: We need richer data that we could use.
  • 39. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Challenges of using digital trace data: We need more flexible analysis tools Threadnet ‐ A tool for analyzing and visualizing patterns in processual phenomena
  • 40. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker ThreadNet weaves threads into Networks - http://routines.broad.msu.edu/ThreadNet/  Trace along each thread to identify adjacent pairs of events  Sequentially adjacent pairs are the edges in the network 1, 3, 6, 4 ThreadNet Coded performance  fragment Narrative Network
  • 41. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker ThreadNet weaves Threads into Networks With increasing amounts of digital trace data, it can be a big help… 1,3,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9 1,3,5,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9 1,3,6,7,4,5,2,3,2,5,4,8,9 1,2,3,6,4,7,2,4,3,5,4,8,9 1,3,6,5,4,3,5,4,7,8,9 1,3,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9 1,3,5,6,4,7,2,3,5,4,8,9 1,3,6,7,4,5,2,3,2,5,4,8,9 1,2,3,6,4,7,2,4,3,5,4,8,9 1,3,6,5,2,3,5,4,7,8,9 ThreadNet Coded performances Narrative Network
  • 42. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Challenges of digital trace data: Process data is not process.
  • 43. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker The Paradox “The analysis of digital trace data for developing process theory is mostly devoid of the context that is so paramount to the unfolding and situatedness of the processes that scholars seek to explain.”
  • 44. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Challenges of using digital trace data: Approaches for handling digital traces cannot handle context well.  When confronted with digital trace data, qualitative scholars tend to become overwhelmed by the sheer size of these datasets. Ethnographic fieldwork allows researchers to access context through immersion or embeddedness - but it is ill-equipped to handle the large volume of data traces now collected and stored on digital platforms.  Digital trace data is organic, not designed, meaning it is inherently susceptible to validity issues.  Digital trace data can be both heterogeneous and unstructured, making it difficult to analyze and confront the meaning of digital trace data as a conceptualization of the events and mechanisms it records.
  • 45. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Challenges of using digital trace data: Approaches for handling digital traces cannot handle context well.  Computational social science  has the difficulty of analyzing complex and messy social phenomena, and the tendency of researchers to oversimplify (naturalize) these complex relationships, thereby curtailing the search for meaning  Blended methods  complement computational analyses of digital trace data with deep qualitative inquiry to account for, and understand, the context(s) in which that data is generated  Or, make computational tools conceptually more flexible to let context “come into” the data.
  • 46. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Brief Conclusion 1. Analysis or theory starts with language: process scholarship needs more expressive grammars to describe process phenomena. 2. Both empirical and computational methods are limited; research designs need to mitigate the different biases. 3. Digital trace data is process data and it is not. We need pay more attention to the separation of phenomena, data, and model.
  • 47. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Pitching our idea of narrative networks and the tool Threadnet  Contextualized process graphs involving technology on an equal footing provides a processual, relational language that speaks directly to Digitalization phenomena  Generativity  Multiplicity  Possibility for action, possibility for change  Relationality  Material agency
  • 48. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Papers and Work-in-Progress  Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., Wyner, G., and Ryan-Wolfe, J. 2020 “Incorporating context into the analysis of processual phenomena with digital trace data," Journal of the Association for Information Systems, In Press.  Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., and Wyner, G. 2017. "Rediscovering Handoffs," Academy of Management Discoveries (3:3), pp. 284-301.  Pentland, B. T., Recker, J., and Kim, I. 2017. "Capturing Reality in Flight? Empirical Tools for Strong Process Theory," in: 38th International Conference on Information Systems. Seoul, Republic of Korea: Association for Information Systems.  Pentland, B. T., Yoo Y., Recker, J., and Kim, I. "Towards a dynamic network theory of organizing and emerging technology," Organization Science, under review.
  • 49. Institute for Information Systems | Chair for Information Systems and Systems Development | Prof. Dr. Jan Recker Prof. Dr. Jan Recker, PhD Chaired Professor for Information Systems and Systems Development Cologne Institute for Information Systems University of Cologne email jan.recker@wiso.uni-koeln.de web www.janrecker.com, www.is4.uni-koeln.de twitter janrecker