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Stefan Kasberger
@stefankasberger
OPEN SCIENCE
Free Science for a free Society
Go to https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ for
licence details.
What is Open Science?
Problem!
Research
Question
Methods
Hypothesis
Test
Hypothesis
Experiments
Case Studies
Publish
Peer Review
„Science is a systematic
enterprise that builds and
organizes knowledge in the form
of testable explanations and
predictions about the universe.“
– Wikipedia
Science
Open Definition:
“A piece of data or content is open if anyone is
free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject
only, at most, to the requirement to attribute
and/or share-alike.”
Openness
by
Attribution
nd
No Derivations
nc
Non-Commercial
sa
Sharealike
Open Definition compatible:
●
Creative Commons by
●
Creative Commons by-sa
●
Creative Commons Zero (Public Domain)
by
Attribution
sa
Sharealike
Pillars of Open Science
Research
4 pillars, as defined by Kraker et al. (2011):
●
Open Data
●
Open Source
●
Open Access
●
Open Methodology
●
+ Open Peer Review
Education
●
Open Educational Resources
Open Data
●
Data: files and databases
●
Corporations, Administration
●
Science: raw data, processed data, Linked
Open Data
●
Problem: Privacy
data.gv.at
Free & Open Source
●
Free & Open: source code and file formats
●
Licenses: GPLv3 & Free-BSD
●
Science: utilize software and write source
code
reputation→
●
Pioneering in collaborative working,
versioning, agile project management
Open Methodology
●
Science as a Practice
●
Open Culture and open licenses: Get out of the ivory
tower
●
Science: process of open innovation, gets attention,
early feedback mistakes can be recognized and→
corrected earlier
●
Problems: effort, no standards, process varies
depending on discipline
Open Methodology
Data Code
Inquiry PublishResearch
Content
HypothesisProblem Paper Publikation
Content Content
Experiments
Case-Studies
etc.
Review
Typesetting
literature
Methods
Open Peer Review
●
Ensure quality of scientific work
●
Blinded / Unblinded
●
Staged?
1.Editors
2.Comments
3.Web
●
Altmetrics
Open Access
Publications
●
Free
●
Machine readable
●
Online
●
Immediately
arXiv.org
Open Access
Research
Financed publicly
Scientific publication
Proporty of publisher
Library
Financed publicly
public
„The 15 year old pupil Jack
Andraka invented a new method
for early diagnosis of cancer:
26.000 times cheaper, 90 percent
more efficient and 168 times faster
than any other method.“
– Welt
Open Access
●
Gold Way: primary
publication
●
Green Way: parallel
publication (embargo?)
or self-archiving
Developments
●
In recent years: enormous increase in turnover of
publishers, e.g.: Elsevier, Nature, Springer
2012 & 2013
●
The Cost of Knowledge by Tim Gowers
●
Institutes: Harvard, TU München
●
Governments: USA, UK, EU (Horizon2020)
Open Access Austria
●
FWF: Open Access Policy
●
OANA: Open Access Network Austria
2 top-ranked Journals are Open Access
●
Viennna Yearbook of Population Research
●
Living Review in European Governance
Open Educational
Resources
●
Free teaching and learning materials: books, images,
web, software, data, operating systems, etc.
●
TU Graz: OER Strategy
We need free people &
technologies for the
future!
Why Open Science?
Reproducibility
Reinhart & Rogoff
●
Excel-Sheet error
● 3 countries not included in
model
„A Bayer Healthcare team
published work showing that only
25% of the academic studies they
examined could be replicated.
(Prinz et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.
10, 712, 2011)“
– Forbes
Efficiency
● Minimize redundancies
● Re-usability of data, code and content
● More innovation
● Faster dissemination
"However, several critics emphasize that one person can
never possess enough knowledge in order to judge
complex situations expediently, and that it may be more
appropriate to use the collective wisdom of crowds."
– Hayek, F. von: Die Anmaßung von Wissen
Complexity /
Interdisciplinarity
"It‘s always the other
author(s) who
publishes too much
and “pollutes“,
“floods”, “eutroficates”
the literature, never
me." (Braun and
Zsindely 1985)
Technology
Do It Yourself
→ Open Science as basis
Crowdsourcing
●
GalaxyZoo
●
Crowdfunding
●
Sciencestarter
Citizen Science
Do Open Science on your
own
Research
●
Publish papers, dissertation, etc.
●
Release data and source code
Academia: course works, bachelor and master theses
Workshops & Hackathons
Politically: universities, student unions, departments,
etc.
→ Open Science Projekt & OKFN Österreich
Open Science Working
Group @ OKFN Austria
●
Today: meeting of working group 6pm
Wissensturm Linz
●
Focus 2013: Open Access
●
Open Science Manifesto
●
Hackathons
●
MeetUp's : every four weeks
●
okfn.at/arbeitsgruppen/open-science-austria/
●
Open Science Mailingliste!
https://github.com/skasberger/
OpenScience-presentations
Knowledge is shareable!
All trademarks and product names mentioned in this presentation are
registered trademarks of the particular producer respectively
corporation.
Slide 1: Open Science Logo
●
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Science_Logo.jpg
●
Author: G.emmerich
●
license: CC BY-SA unported
Slide 3: Quote Science @ Wikipedia
●
Source: Wikipedia
●
URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science
Slide 4: Quote Open Definition
●
Source: OKFN
●
URL: http://opendefinition.org/
Slide 4: Tin Can Bild
●
Source: http://www.goldenswamp.com/2008/08/21/science-online-and-open-begins-to-replace-crazy-old-model/
●
Author: Golden Swamp
●
License: CC BY US
Slide7: 4 Pillars of Open Science by Kraker et. al (2011)
●
Source: The case for an open science in technology enhanced learning; Kraker; Derick Leony; Wolfgang Reinhardt; Günter
Beham; International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (IJTEL), Vol. 3, No. 6, 2011
●
URL: http://know-center.tugraz.at/download_extern/papers/open_science.pdf
Sources & References
Slide 8: Linzer Harbor (background)
●
Data Source: CC-BY-AT-3.0: Stadt Linz - data.linz.gv.at
Slide 9: Linux Tux Logo
●
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tux.svg
●
Author: Larry Ewing, Simon Budig, Anja Gerwinski
●
License: The copyright holder of this file allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is
properly attributed. Redistribution, derivative work, commercial use, and all other use is permitted.
Slide 9: Quantum GIS Logo
●
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:QGis_Logo.png
●
Author: Anita Graser
●
License: CC BY-SA unported
Slide 9: Open Source Logo
●
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opensource.svg
●
Author: Converted from file at http://opensource.org/trademarks by en:User:Brighterorange
●
License: CC BY 2.5 Generic
Slide 14: Quote Jack Andraka
●
Source: Die Welt
●
URL: http://www.welt.de/gesundheit/article113630589/15-jaehriger-Schueler-revolutioniert-die-Krebsmedizin.html
Slide 18: Open Educational Resources Logo
●
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Global_Open_Educational_Resources_Logo.svg
●
Author: Jonathasmello
●
License: CC BY 3.0 unported
Slide 20: Quote Forbes
●
Source: Forbes
●
URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/brucebooth/2012/09/26/scientific-reproducibility-begleys-six-rules/
Slide 20: Photo Carmen M. Reinhart
●
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carmen_M._Reinhart_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2011.jpg
●
Author: World Economic Forum
●
License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic
Slide 20: Research Cycle
●
Source: http://ency.cl/File:Research_cycle.png
●
Author: Cameron Neylon
●
License: CC BY 2.0 Generic
Slide 21: Plasma Lamp (background)
●
Source: http://opencage.info/pics.e/large_9892.asp
●
Author: opencage.info
●
License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic
Slide 22: Linked Open Data Graph
●
Source: https://secure.flickr.com/photos/okfn/5684212276
●
Author: OKFN
●
License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic
Slide 23: IBM Blue Gene Supercomputer
●
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_Blue_Gene_P_supercomputer.jpg
●
Author: Argonne National Laboratory's Flickr page
●
License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic

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Open Science - Free Science for a free Society

  • 1. Stefan Kasberger @stefankasberger OPEN SCIENCE Free Science for a free Society Go to https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ for licence details.
  • 2. What is Open Science?
  • 3. Problem! Research Question Methods Hypothesis Test Hypothesis Experiments Case Studies Publish Peer Review „Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.“ – Wikipedia Science
  • 4. Open Definition: “A piece of data or content is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.” Openness
  • 6. Open Definition compatible: ● Creative Commons by ● Creative Commons by-sa ● Creative Commons Zero (Public Domain) by Attribution sa Sharealike
  • 7. Pillars of Open Science Research 4 pillars, as defined by Kraker et al. (2011): ● Open Data ● Open Source ● Open Access ● Open Methodology ● + Open Peer Review Education ● Open Educational Resources
  • 8. Open Data ● Data: files and databases ● Corporations, Administration ● Science: raw data, processed data, Linked Open Data ● Problem: Privacy data.gv.at
  • 9. Free & Open Source ● Free & Open: source code and file formats ● Licenses: GPLv3 & Free-BSD ● Science: utilize software and write source code reputation→ ● Pioneering in collaborative working, versioning, agile project management
  • 10. Open Methodology ● Science as a Practice ● Open Culture and open licenses: Get out of the ivory tower ● Science: process of open innovation, gets attention, early feedback mistakes can be recognized and→ corrected earlier ● Problems: effort, no standards, process varies depending on discipline
  • 11. Open Methodology Data Code Inquiry PublishResearch Content HypothesisProblem Paper Publikation Content Content Experiments Case-Studies etc. Review Typesetting literature Methods
  • 12. Open Peer Review ● Ensure quality of scientific work ● Blinded / Unblinded ● Staged? 1.Editors 2.Comments 3.Web ● Altmetrics
  • 14. Open Access Research Financed publicly Scientific publication Proporty of publisher Library Financed publicly public „The 15 year old pupil Jack Andraka invented a new method for early diagnosis of cancer: 26.000 times cheaper, 90 percent more efficient and 168 times faster than any other method.“ – Welt
  • 15. Open Access ● Gold Way: primary publication ● Green Way: parallel publication (embargo?) or self-archiving
  • 16. Developments ● In recent years: enormous increase in turnover of publishers, e.g.: Elsevier, Nature, Springer 2012 & 2013 ● The Cost of Knowledge by Tim Gowers ● Institutes: Harvard, TU München ● Governments: USA, UK, EU (Horizon2020)
  • 17. Open Access Austria ● FWF: Open Access Policy ● OANA: Open Access Network Austria 2 top-ranked Journals are Open Access ● Viennna Yearbook of Population Research ● Living Review in European Governance
  • 18. Open Educational Resources ● Free teaching and learning materials: books, images, web, software, data, operating systems, etc. ● TU Graz: OER Strategy We need free people & technologies for the future!
  • 20. Reproducibility Reinhart & Rogoff ● Excel-Sheet error ● 3 countries not included in model „A Bayer Healthcare team published work showing that only 25% of the academic studies they examined could be replicated. (Prinz et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10, 712, 2011)“ – Forbes
  • 21. Efficiency ● Minimize redundancies ● Re-usability of data, code and content ● More innovation ● Faster dissemination
  • 22. "However, several critics emphasize that one person can never possess enough knowledge in order to judge complex situations expediently, and that it may be more appropriate to use the collective wisdom of crowds." – Hayek, F. von: Die Anmaßung von Wissen Complexity / Interdisciplinarity
  • 23. "It‘s always the other author(s) who publishes too much and “pollutes“, “floods”, “eutroficates” the literature, never me." (Braun and Zsindely 1985) Technology
  • 25. → Open Science as basis Crowdsourcing ● GalaxyZoo ● Crowdfunding ● Sciencestarter Citizen Science
  • 26. Do Open Science on your own Research ● Publish papers, dissertation, etc. ● Release data and source code Academia: course works, bachelor and master theses Workshops & Hackathons Politically: universities, student unions, departments, etc. → Open Science Projekt & OKFN Österreich
  • 27. Open Science Working Group @ OKFN Austria ● Today: meeting of working group 6pm Wissensturm Linz ● Focus 2013: Open Access ● Open Science Manifesto ● Hackathons ● MeetUp's : every four weeks ● okfn.at/arbeitsgruppen/open-science-austria/ ● Open Science Mailingliste!
  • 29. All trademarks and product names mentioned in this presentation are registered trademarks of the particular producer respectively corporation. Slide 1: Open Science Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Science_Logo.jpg ● Author: G.emmerich ● license: CC BY-SA unported Slide 3: Quote Science @ Wikipedia ● Source: Wikipedia ● URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science Slide 4: Quote Open Definition ● Source: OKFN ● URL: http://opendefinition.org/ Slide 4: Tin Can Bild ● Source: http://www.goldenswamp.com/2008/08/21/science-online-and-open-begins-to-replace-crazy-old-model/ ● Author: Golden Swamp ● License: CC BY US Slide7: 4 Pillars of Open Science by Kraker et. al (2011) ● Source: The case for an open science in technology enhanced learning; Kraker; Derick Leony; Wolfgang Reinhardt; Günter Beham; International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (IJTEL), Vol. 3, No. 6, 2011 ● URL: http://know-center.tugraz.at/download_extern/papers/open_science.pdf Sources & References
  • 30. Slide 8: Linzer Harbor (background) ● Data Source: CC-BY-AT-3.0: Stadt Linz - data.linz.gv.at Slide 9: Linux Tux Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tux.svg ● Author: Larry Ewing, Simon Budig, Anja Gerwinski ● License: The copyright holder of this file allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed. Redistribution, derivative work, commercial use, and all other use is permitted. Slide 9: Quantum GIS Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:QGis_Logo.png ● Author: Anita Graser ● License: CC BY-SA unported Slide 9: Open Source Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opensource.svg ● Author: Converted from file at http://opensource.org/trademarks by en:User:Brighterorange ● License: CC BY 2.5 Generic Slide 14: Quote Jack Andraka ● Source: Die Welt ● URL: http://www.welt.de/gesundheit/article113630589/15-jaehriger-Schueler-revolutioniert-die-Krebsmedizin.html Slide 18: Open Educational Resources Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Global_Open_Educational_Resources_Logo.svg ● Author: Jonathasmello ● License: CC BY 3.0 unported Slide 20: Quote Forbes ● Source: Forbes ● URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/brucebooth/2012/09/26/scientific-reproducibility-begleys-six-rules/ Slide 20: Photo Carmen M. Reinhart ● Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carmen_M._Reinhart_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2011.jpg ● Author: World Economic Forum ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Slide 20: Research Cycle ● Source: http://ency.cl/File:Research_cycle.png ● Author: Cameron Neylon ● License: CC BY 2.0 Generic
  • 31. Slide 21: Plasma Lamp (background) ● Source: http://opencage.info/pics.e/large_9892.asp ● Author: opencage.info ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Slide 22: Linked Open Data Graph ● Source: https://secure.flickr.com/photos/okfn/5684212276 ● Author: OKFN ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Slide 23: IBM Blue Gene Supercomputer ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_Blue_Gene_P_supercomputer.jpg ● Author: Argonne National Laboratory's Flickr page ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic