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Heaven for grumblers or the road to better
public services? A study of critical reports
from a Swiss citizen co-production system
Presentation at the XXI. International Research Society for Public
Management (IRSPM) Annual Conference in Budapest (Hungary),
Corvinus University, April 19-21, 2017
Matthias Stürmer, Oliver Neumann, Tim Loosli
Research Center for Digital Sustainability
Institute of Information Systems
University of Bern | www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch
UK platform FixMyStreet.com
2
Open source project FixMyStreet.org
3
Other cities using FixMyStreet.org
4
Züri wie neu («Zurich as good as new»)
5
Example report
6
Example report
7
Example report
8
9
Research questions
1. How can the value of reports by a
citizen-sourcing system such as
FixMyStreet be measured?
2. What is the role of an information
system regarding the value of such
reports?
10
Literature review
> Involving citizens in public service
— Citizen co-production (Pestoff 2008, Johnston and Hansen 2011)
— Citizen-sourcing (Linders 2012, Nam 2012, Schmidthuber and Hilgers 2017)
— Open government collaboration (Lee and Kwak 2012)
> Measuring quality in crowdsourcing initiatives
— Wikipedia (Kittur and Kraut 2008)
— OpenStreetMap (Haklay 2010)
> Measuring the value of reports
— Triage in war medicine (Blagg 2004, Falzone et al. 2017)
— Assessing programming errors (Peng and Wallace 1993)
> Information systems (IS)
— IS success model (DeLone and McLean 1992, 2003)
11
DeLone and McLean IS Success Model
12
Delone, William H., and Ephraim R. McLean. "The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success:
a ten-year update." Journal of management information systems 19.4 (2003): 9-30.
Measuring the value of a report
Rating Severity Range Quality
1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality
2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality
3 Intermediary threat
Intermediary number of
people affected
Satisfactory quality
4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality
5 Serious threat
Very large number of
people affected
Maximum quality
13
Measuring the value of a report
Rating Severity Range Quality
1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality
2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality
3 Intermediary threat
Intermediary number of
people affected
Satisfactory quality
4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality
5 Serious threat
Very large number of
people affected
Maximum quality
14
Measuring the value of a report
Rating Severity Range Quality
1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality
2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality
3 Intermediary threat
Intermediary number of
people affected
Satisfactory quality
4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality
5 Serious threat
Very large number of
people affected
Maximum quality
15
Measuring the value of a report
Rating Severity Range Quality
1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality
2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality
3 Medium threat
Medium number of
people affected
Satisfactory quality
4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality
5 Serious threat
Very large number of
people affected
Maximum quality
16
17
18
Student rating
Severity: 4
Range: 3.5
Quality: 4
19
Student rating
Severity: 1
Range: 1
Quality: 5
20
Student rating
Severity: 4
Range: 5
Quality: 4
Descriptive statistics of the data set
Description Value
Interval of reports From 31 May 2013 until 13 June 2016
Total number of reports 7501 reports
Distinct citizens creating reports 2658 persons
Sample of reports for manual coding 990 reports
Distinct citizens of the sample reports 400 persons
Average severity 3.09 out of 5
Average range 2.91 out of 5
Average quality 2.68 out of 5
21
Hypothesis
22
Linear OLS Regression Models
Model 1:
Severity
Model 2:
Range
Model 3:
Quality
a) System quality 0.088401 -0.054025 0.167109 **
b) Information quality -0.273306 * -0.194604 -0.145850
c) Service quality 0.073678 -0.309793 ** -0.052500
d) User satisfaction 0.115979 0.440310 *** 0.073312
Control variables (excerpt)
23
Linear OLS Regression Models
Model 1:
Severity
Model 2:
Range
Model 3:
Quality
Sex (female) 0.092765 -0.062642 -0.110503
Age (in years) -0.003669 -0.003053 -0.006557 *
Living in Zürich -0.057820 -0.080970 -0.075354
Education level -0.043854 -0.026397 0.006815
Currently not employed -0.010545 -0.277074 -0.407320 *
Employed in NPO sector -0.041190 -0.502277 * 0.271671
Discussion of preliminary results
1. Severity of reports is negatively related to information quality: The
better citizens understand the information and trust the quality of “Züri wie
neu”, the less severe are the reports they submit.
2. Range of reports is negatively related to service quality:
Citizens who are happy with the service provided by the city of Zürich, are
more likely to report issues that concern only a few people.
3. Range of reports is positively related to user satisfaction:
People who are convinced that the city administration efficiently processes
the reports and acts according to the reported issues, these citizens are
more likely to report problems relevant to many others.
4. Quality of reports is positively related to system quality:
If someone is content with the tool, he or she is more likely to create a high
quality report.
24
Next steps with our paper
> Elaborate theory on co-producton, citizen-sourcing, and IS success model
> Deepen theoretical foundation of the value of reports
> Clarify coding schema of severity, range, and quality
> Increase number of manual report codings
> Improve statistical models regarding control variables etc.
> Verify the findings within the data
25
What else should
we improve in
your view?

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Presentation at IRSPM: Heaven for grumblers or the road to better public services?

  • 1. Heaven for grumblers or the road to better public services? A study of critical reports from a Swiss citizen co-production system Presentation at the XXI. International Research Society for Public Management (IRSPM) Annual Conference in Budapest (Hungary), Corvinus University, April 19-21, 2017 Matthias Stürmer, Oliver Neumann, Tim Loosli Research Center for Digital Sustainability Institute of Information Systems University of Bern | www.digitale-nachhaltigkeit.unibe.ch
  • 3. Open source project FixMyStreet.org 3
  • 4. Other cities using FixMyStreet.org 4
  • 5. Züri wie neu («Zurich as good as new») 5
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  • 10. Research questions 1. How can the value of reports by a citizen-sourcing system such as FixMyStreet be measured? 2. What is the role of an information system regarding the value of such reports? 10
  • 11. Literature review > Involving citizens in public service — Citizen co-production (Pestoff 2008, Johnston and Hansen 2011) — Citizen-sourcing (Linders 2012, Nam 2012, Schmidthuber and Hilgers 2017) — Open government collaboration (Lee and Kwak 2012) > Measuring quality in crowdsourcing initiatives — Wikipedia (Kittur and Kraut 2008) — OpenStreetMap (Haklay 2010) > Measuring the value of reports — Triage in war medicine (Blagg 2004, Falzone et al. 2017) — Assessing programming errors (Peng and Wallace 1993) > Information systems (IS) — IS success model (DeLone and McLean 1992, 2003) 11
  • 12. DeLone and McLean IS Success Model 12 Delone, William H., and Ephraim R. McLean. "The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success: a ten-year update." Journal of management information systems 19.4 (2003): 9-30.
  • 13. Measuring the value of a report Rating Severity Range Quality 1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality 2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality 3 Intermediary threat Intermediary number of people affected Satisfactory quality 4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality 5 Serious threat Very large number of people affected Maximum quality 13
  • 14. Measuring the value of a report Rating Severity Range Quality 1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality 2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality 3 Intermediary threat Intermediary number of people affected Satisfactory quality 4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality 5 Serious threat Very large number of people affected Maximum quality 14
  • 15. Measuring the value of a report Rating Severity Range Quality 1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality 2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality 3 Intermediary threat Intermediary number of people affected Satisfactory quality 4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality 5 Serious threat Very large number of people affected Maximum quality 15
  • 16. Measuring the value of a report Rating Severity Range Quality 1 No threat Very few people affected Insufficient quality 2 Little threat Few people affected Low quality 3 Medium threat Medium number of people affected Satisfactory quality 4 Substantial threat Many people affected High quality 5 Serious threat Very large number of people affected Maximum quality 16
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  • 21. Descriptive statistics of the data set Description Value Interval of reports From 31 May 2013 until 13 June 2016 Total number of reports 7501 reports Distinct citizens creating reports 2658 persons Sample of reports for manual coding 990 reports Distinct citizens of the sample reports 400 persons Average severity 3.09 out of 5 Average range 2.91 out of 5 Average quality 2.68 out of 5 21
  • 22. Hypothesis 22 Linear OLS Regression Models Model 1: Severity Model 2: Range Model 3: Quality a) System quality 0.088401 -0.054025 0.167109 ** b) Information quality -0.273306 * -0.194604 -0.145850 c) Service quality 0.073678 -0.309793 ** -0.052500 d) User satisfaction 0.115979 0.440310 *** 0.073312
  • 23. Control variables (excerpt) 23 Linear OLS Regression Models Model 1: Severity Model 2: Range Model 3: Quality Sex (female) 0.092765 -0.062642 -0.110503 Age (in years) -0.003669 -0.003053 -0.006557 * Living in Zürich -0.057820 -0.080970 -0.075354 Education level -0.043854 -0.026397 0.006815 Currently not employed -0.010545 -0.277074 -0.407320 * Employed in NPO sector -0.041190 -0.502277 * 0.271671
  • 24. Discussion of preliminary results 1. Severity of reports is negatively related to information quality: The better citizens understand the information and trust the quality of “Züri wie neu”, the less severe are the reports they submit. 2. Range of reports is negatively related to service quality: Citizens who are happy with the service provided by the city of Zürich, are more likely to report issues that concern only a few people. 3. Range of reports is positively related to user satisfaction: People who are convinced that the city administration efficiently processes the reports and acts according to the reported issues, these citizens are more likely to report problems relevant to many others. 4. Quality of reports is positively related to system quality: If someone is content with the tool, he or she is more likely to create a high quality report. 24
  • 25. Next steps with our paper > Elaborate theory on co-producton, citizen-sourcing, and IS success model > Deepen theoretical foundation of the value of reports > Clarify coding schema of severity, range, and quality > Increase number of manual report codings > Improve statistical models regarding control variables etc. > Verify the findings within the data 25 What else should we improve in your view?