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| ARCH 120 | April 26, 2014|
PRESEDENCE STUDY
BARCELONA PAVILION
PAGE 1
Less is more
Ludwig van der Rohe
PAGE 2
Overview
 Type Exhibition building
 Architectural style *Modernism
 Location Barcelona, Spain
 Construction started 1928
 Construction system steel frame with glass and polished stone
 Completed 1929
 Inaugurated May 27, 1929
 Demolished 1930 (rebuilt in 1986)
 Client Government of Germany
 Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
*Modern architecture or Modernist architecture is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact
definition and scope varying widely. The term is often applied to modernist movements at the turn of the 20th
PAGE 3
century, with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological
advancement and the modernization of society.
Introduction
Mies van der Rohe’s German Pavilion at the Barcelona Universal Exposition
pf 1992, known simply as the Barcelona Pavilion, was designed and built
some twenty years before his Farnsworth house.
The Barcelona Pavilion is one of the paradigmatic works of twentieth-
century architecture, universally recognized as an all-time masterpiece it
was designed in 1928 by German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
History of the pavilion
On visiting the Mies Van Der Rohe Pavilion, what you are witnessing is not
the original building, rather a re-construction of the one that was first
produced in 1929. However, the fact that the building has been
reconstructed so meticulously is a point of interest in itself.
It was designed as the German national pavilion for the Barcelona
International Exhibition. The German Pavilion was an exposition
showcasing examples of architecture from around the world. The Pavilion's
position was chosen by Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe as it led to the Palace. It
was the official reception place for the arrival of King Alphonso XII to the
exposition.
Mies was offered the commission of this building in 1928 after his successful
administration of the 1927 Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart. The German
Republic entrusted Mies with the artistic management and erection of not
only the Barcelona Pavilion, but for the buildings for all the German sections
at the 1929 International Exhibition. However, Mies had severe time
PAGE 4
constraints—he had to design the Barcelona Pavilion in less than a year—
and was also dealing with uncertain economic conditions.
In the years following World War I, Germany started to turn around. The
economy started to recover after the 1924 Dawes Plan. The pavilion for the
International Exhibition was supposed to represent the new Weimar
Germany: democratic, culturally progressive, prospering, and thoroughly
pacifist; a self-portrait through architecture. The Commissioner, Georg von
Schnitzler said it should give "voice to the spirit of a new era.” This concept
was carried out with the realization of the "Free plan" and the "Floating
room"
The German Pavilion before demolishing
Concept
The main idea or concept Ludwig Mies van der Rohe employed in the
designing of the German Pavilion is “less is more.” This is expressed using
the least amount of components and resources but they emit multiple
PAGE 5
situations, a fluid organizational sequence and functional spaces,
highlighted by sets of orthogonal planes and traditional pure elements.
The pavilion’s design is based on a formulaic grid system developed by Mies
that not only serves as the patterning of the *travertine pavers, but it also
serves as an underlying framework that the wall systems work within. By
raising the pavilion on a plinth in conjunction with the narrow profile of the
site, the Barcelona Pavilion has a low horizontal orientation that is
accentuated by the low flat roof that appears to float over both the interior
as well as the exterior.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe got his idea from the works of Frank Lloyd
Wright which was made earlier twenty years earlier, so he taught of the
rectilinear spaces whose forms were fully defined i.e. the joining of forms (a
rectangle), so that they formed an open plan, which makes the interior and
exterior of the pavilion the same way, thus making it clear to him that less is
more that is the attention to the reductive detail makes the work a fine
finish.
*travertine; a light, porous form of limestone or calcite deposited from solution, and sometimes
quarried for building
Concept of the paviloin
.
PAGE 6
Breakdown of elements in the pavilion
Breakdown of space and functions
PAGE 7
The Building
Mies wanted the pavilion to become "an ideal zone of tranquillity" for the
weary visitor, who should be invited into the pavilion on the way to the next
attraction. Since the pavilion lacked a real exhibition space, the building
itself was to become the exhibit. The pavilion was designed to "block" any
passage through the site, rather, one would have to go through the building.
Visitors would enter by going up a few stairs, and due to the slightly sloped
site, would leave at ground level in the direction of the Poble Espanyol. The
visitors were not meant to be led in a straight line through the pavilion, but
to take continuous turnabouts. The walls did not only create space, but also
directed visitor's movements. This was achieved by wall surfaces being
displaced against each other, running past each other, and creating a space
that became narrower or wider.
Another unique feature of this building is the exotic materials Mies chooses
to use. Plates of high-grade stone materials like veneers of marble and
golden *onyx as well as tinted glass of grey, green and white, as well as
translucent glass, perform exclusively as spatial dividers. Glass, travertine,
marble, onyx and steel were his only few choices. As far as colors selection,
PAGE 8
Van Der Rohe let the natural materials speak for themselves and added only
black rug and red curtains in one area of the pavilion which not only
contrast with one of the yellow walls but has political statement as well
showing German colors and highlighted the unique complexity of the
pavilion.
*Onyx; greyish translucent quartz with alternating black and white bands used in making
engraving or carving in low relief on a stone.
PAGE 9
PAGE 10
Structure
The structure is created with eight steel pillars in a cross holding a flat roof.
Complete the work a relieved from large glass structure and interior walls.
The regular grid system developed by Mies not only serves as a pattern for
laying travertine pavers , but also serves as an underlying framework of
working systems for interior walls.
PAGE 11
Steel column in the pavilion
By raising the flag on a pedestal along with the narrow section of the site, the
horizontality of the building is accentuated. The Barcelona Pavilion has a low
horizontal orientation that is accentuated with too low flat roof that seems to
float both inside and outside. This character is reinforced by the large
overhang of the roof and the lightness of the steel columns that relate these
levels and create an effect of weightlessness. The Pavilion define their spaces
by orthogonal set of offset planes, the walls are arranged so as to generate an
absolute spatial fluidity inside the building. Large windows draw the
continuous outer boundary, thus declaring transparency, the idea of freedom
and progress that reflect the German Republic was seeking at the time.
Section through column in the pavilion
PAGE 12
Roof
Every aspect of the German Pavilion has architectural significance that can
be seen in the advent of modern architecture in the twentieth century,
however, one of the most important aspects of the pavilion is the roof. The
low profile of the cover appears in elevation as a plane floating above the.
Interior volume. The appearance of floating gives the volume a sense of
weightlessness that fluctuates between the housing and the cover.
The roof is supported by eight slender cruciform columns that allow you to
transmit the sensation of floating on the volume while freeing the interior to
allow an open floor plan. Between indoor and projected outward opening
canopy, a blurred spatial demarcation where inside becomes outside and
outside to inside is created.
Materials
For the reconstruction of the pavilion glass, steel , reinforced concrete and
four different types of marble , Roman travertine , green Alpine marble ,
ancient green marble from Greece and doré onyx Atlas in Africa were used ,
all with the same characteristics and provenance, as originally used by Mies.
The stunning piece of golden onyx placed in the main space significantly
more expensive to build, becoming the focus of attention for visitors,
not only for its size and thickness, and also for his colourful drawing.
Marble
PAGE 13
Together with the design, the materials are what give the Pavilion its true
architectural essence and the ethereal and experimental qualities that the
pavilion embodies. The application gives the marble Mies created through
separción process called “pinning " which creates a symmetric partition,
which is already in the material. However, the materials used in this case is
the Italian travertine that wraps the socket and exterior walls near the water
surface. When exposed to the sun, the travertine is illuminated as if it had a
secondary light source that dissolves the natural stone and full of light on
the space. These bright qualities inherent in travertine, and the use of
material without cracks in the outer socket added to the solution of the
territorial demarcation transforming the pavilion into one continuous
volume rather than two separate entities.
The canopy is supported on a base of classical Roman travertine marble, a
material that is repeated throughout the front yard, both on the floor, the
walls and the long bench that runs around the wall parallel to the pond. The
basis of this liquid mirror is covered with boulders.
The glass and steel give frame and cover the walls built with large blocks of
marble, which themselves become the "work of art " pavilion , with its
gorgeous colors and patterns. Almost pure minimalist shapes and design
features available. The eight cruciform pillars are covered in chrome. Flat
cover was made with reinforced concrete.
PAGE 14
The four chairs minimalist interior decorating space resting on a black
carpet that highlights the colours, and are protected by a large red silk
curtain.
Georg Kolbe sculpture
The sculpture decorating the pond located in the backyard of the pavilion is
a bronze reproduction of Georg Kolbe Dawn by contemporary artist to Mies
van der Rohe.
It is brilliantly located at one end of the small pond, at a point where not
only reflected in water but also in marble and crystals, giving the feeling that
is multiplied in space and contrasting curved lines with geometric purity the
building. The image of the statue is projected multiple times on water
reflections, crystal or marble.
Spaces
PAGE 15
The overall impression is of a luxurious space created by perpendicular
planes in three dimensions. Complete the work of Georg Kolbe sculpture ,
consisting of little furniture chairs, with a design by the architect himself ,
called Barcelona chair , an important milestone in the history of twentieth
century design furniture , a red curtain and became black carpet , which
combined with the color beige marble wall , make the colors of the German
flag .
The low rise building close line of sight of the visitor, forcing suit the views
framed by Mies. The interior of the pavilion is composed of places created
by the walls that work together with the low roof planes to stimulate
movement and to turn the architectural promenade Mies, in which framed
views will induce movement through the narrow passage that opens at a
higher volume. This cyclic process of moving through the joint flag starts a
process of discovery and rediscovery during the experience, always offering
new perspectives and details that were previously invisible.
Inside the pavilion can identify three areas:
 The front yard, defined by the area of access and where the water
body is located. Here is an interesting relationship between the
opacity of the walls, the reflection of the water and the transparency
of the glass pavilion, a corner that marks the entrance to the site is
created. In the opposite corner is a small enclosure services.
 The built kernel, determined by the planes of the walls built with
different materials, while maintaining control of the view through the
management of the opacities, transparencies and empty.
 The backyard. This enclosed by walls and the presence, again, of a
body of water on which the statue Alba, by Georg Kolbe is.
The pavilion is designed as a proportional composition in which the interior
water two juxtaposed mirrors. The mirror over pequeñao water just behind
the interior space allowing light to filter through the interior volume,
illuminating the marble and travertine pavers. The mirror largest surface
water to supplement the volume, and extending through the rest of the
plane outside. Its sleek lines establish a place of solitude and reflection.
PAGE 16
Glass, steel and four different types of marble (Roman travertine, green
marble from the Alps, ancient green marble from Greece and onyx doré
Atlas) were the materials used in reconstruction. All of the same
characteristics and origin as those used initially in 1929.
Barcelona chair
Although many architects and furniture designers of the Bauhaus era were
intent on providing well-designed homes and impeccably manufactured
furnishings for the "common man," the Barcelona chair was an exception. It
was designed for the Spanish Royalty to oversee the opening ceremonies of
the exhibition.The form is thought to be extrapolated from Roman folding
chairs known as the Curule chair – upholstered stools used by Roman
aristocracy. And despite the industrial appearance the Barcelona chair
requires much hand craftsmanship.
The Barcelona chair is a chair designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and
Lilly Reich. It was originally designed for the German Pavilion, that
country's entry for the International Exposition of 1929, which was hosted by
Barcelona, Spain. It was first used in Villa Tugendhat, a masterpiece of Mies
van den Rohe in the City of Brno (Czech Republic).
The frame was initially designed to be bolted together, but was redesigned
in 1950 using stainless steel, which allowed the frame to be formed by a
seamless piece of metal, giving it a smoother appearance. Bovine leather
replaced the ivory-colored pigskin which was used for the original pieces.
The Barcelona chair was manufactured in the US and Europe in limited
production from the 1930s to the 1950s. In 1953, six years after Reich's death,
van der Rohe ceded his rights and his name on the design to Knoll, knowing
that his design patents were expired. This collaboration then renewed
popularity in the design.
Knoll claims to be the current licensed manufacturer and holder of all
trademark rights to the design.
PAGE 17
Artist impression of the Barcelona chair
Natural lighting
The building is open plan and minimal in design, composed of horizontal
planes that appear to float and divided by vertical planes of marble and glass
that seem almost free-standing.
The juxtaposition of natural marble and man-made materials means it’s not
only a great feat of design, but also a master class in defining space through
the medium of light. Due to high specular reflectance, the solid marble often
appear transparent, while the shallow pools merge the building with its
natural surroundings.
At night, a large light box that forms part of the external glazing lights the
space. Formed of two layers of milky-white glass, with fluorescent light
between, it produces a mystical luminous wall. Mies's creation can be
described as a harmonious play of light, integrating all forms of light
propagation-reflection, transmission, diffusion, emission and refraction.
PAGE 18
The Barcelona Pavilion shows how to define space through light
Circulation
Even though it’s visually a simple floor plan its complexity comes from the
strategic layout of walls. Unforced direction of visitor’s movements
throughout the space happens naturally without clear knowledge of the
visitor. Walls are not there as bare structural support but rather spatial
dividers and “directors” of the space.
Circulation (routing) in the pavilion
PAGE 19
Hierarchy
The hierarchy shows the main roof to be the highest part of the building
adding to the dominance that the roof provides to the pavilion.
Balance and symmetry
The pavilion is both almost completely symmetrical in its overall layout. The
symmetry lies upon the center of the plan and helps to accent the
rectangular layout and how it is balance on both sides of that center by the
use of seating area that is an additional outcrop of the building (the
positive) and the empty space that leads you up the stairs to the pavilion
( the negative). If you were to fill in or take away one of these elements the
pavilion would lose its sense of balance.
PAGE 20
The only part of the building that would be considered asymmetrical is the
placement of the walls that break up the interior of the pavilion.
Balance
Form (additive and subtractive)
The additive and subtractive shows another state of balance within the
pavilion, the roof structure is the addictive part of the whole of the pavilion
while the reflecting pools are the subtractive part that counterbalances the
additive parts. However, even with this balance the pavilion feels more
additive than subtractive due to the addition and importance the roof plays
to the structure.
PAGE 21
Subtractive pool of the pavilion
Additive roof of the pavilion
PAGE 22
Parti
PAGE 23
About the Architect
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Born
Maria Ludwig Michael Mies
March 27, 1886
Aachen, Kingdom of Prussia, German
Empire
Died
August 17, 1969 (aged 83)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Nationality German (1886–1944), American (1944–1969)
Awards
Order Pour le Mérite (1959)
Royal Gold Medal (1959)
PAGE 24
AIA Gold Medal (1960)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (1963)
Buildings
Barcelona Pavilion
Tugendhat House
Crown Hall
Farnsworth House
860–880 Lake Shore Drive
Seagram Building
New National Gallery
Toronto-Dominion Centre
Westmount Square

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Precedence study: Barcelona Pavilion

  • 1. | ARCH 120 | April 26, 2014| PRESEDENCE STUDY BARCELONA PAVILION
  • 2. PAGE 1 Less is more Ludwig van der Rohe
  • 3. PAGE 2 Overview  Type Exhibition building  Architectural style *Modernism  Location Barcelona, Spain  Construction started 1928  Construction system steel frame with glass and polished stone  Completed 1929  Inaugurated May 27, 1929  Demolished 1930 (rebuilt in 1986)  Client Government of Germany  Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe *Modern architecture or Modernist architecture is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely. The term is often applied to modernist movements at the turn of the 20th
  • 4. PAGE 3 century, with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. Introduction Mies van der Rohe’s German Pavilion at the Barcelona Universal Exposition pf 1992, known simply as the Barcelona Pavilion, was designed and built some twenty years before his Farnsworth house. The Barcelona Pavilion is one of the paradigmatic works of twentieth- century architecture, universally recognized as an all-time masterpiece it was designed in 1928 by German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. History of the pavilion On visiting the Mies Van Der Rohe Pavilion, what you are witnessing is not the original building, rather a re-construction of the one that was first produced in 1929. However, the fact that the building has been reconstructed so meticulously is a point of interest in itself. It was designed as the German national pavilion for the Barcelona International Exhibition. The German Pavilion was an exposition showcasing examples of architecture from around the world. The Pavilion's position was chosen by Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe as it led to the Palace. It was the official reception place for the arrival of King Alphonso XII to the exposition. Mies was offered the commission of this building in 1928 after his successful administration of the 1927 Werkbund exhibition in Stuttgart. The German Republic entrusted Mies with the artistic management and erection of not only the Barcelona Pavilion, but for the buildings for all the German sections at the 1929 International Exhibition. However, Mies had severe time
  • 5. PAGE 4 constraints—he had to design the Barcelona Pavilion in less than a year— and was also dealing with uncertain economic conditions. In the years following World War I, Germany started to turn around. The economy started to recover after the 1924 Dawes Plan. The pavilion for the International Exhibition was supposed to represent the new Weimar Germany: democratic, culturally progressive, prospering, and thoroughly pacifist; a self-portrait through architecture. The Commissioner, Georg von Schnitzler said it should give "voice to the spirit of a new era.” This concept was carried out with the realization of the "Free plan" and the "Floating room" The German Pavilion before demolishing Concept The main idea or concept Ludwig Mies van der Rohe employed in the designing of the German Pavilion is “less is more.” This is expressed using the least amount of components and resources but they emit multiple
  • 6. PAGE 5 situations, a fluid organizational sequence and functional spaces, highlighted by sets of orthogonal planes and traditional pure elements. The pavilion’s design is based on a formulaic grid system developed by Mies that not only serves as the patterning of the *travertine pavers, but it also serves as an underlying framework that the wall systems work within. By raising the pavilion on a plinth in conjunction with the narrow profile of the site, the Barcelona Pavilion has a low horizontal orientation that is accentuated by the low flat roof that appears to float over both the interior as well as the exterior. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe got his idea from the works of Frank Lloyd Wright which was made earlier twenty years earlier, so he taught of the rectilinear spaces whose forms were fully defined i.e. the joining of forms (a rectangle), so that they formed an open plan, which makes the interior and exterior of the pavilion the same way, thus making it clear to him that less is more that is the attention to the reductive detail makes the work a fine finish. *travertine; a light, porous form of limestone or calcite deposited from solution, and sometimes quarried for building Concept of the paviloin .
  • 7. PAGE 6 Breakdown of elements in the pavilion Breakdown of space and functions
  • 8. PAGE 7 The Building Mies wanted the pavilion to become "an ideal zone of tranquillity" for the weary visitor, who should be invited into the pavilion on the way to the next attraction. Since the pavilion lacked a real exhibition space, the building itself was to become the exhibit. The pavilion was designed to "block" any passage through the site, rather, one would have to go through the building. Visitors would enter by going up a few stairs, and due to the slightly sloped site, would leave at ground level in the direction of the Poble Espanyol. The visitors were not meant to be led in a straight line through the pavilion, but to take continuous turnabouts. The walls did not only create space, but also directed visitor's movements. This was achieved by wall surfaces being displaced against each other, running past each other, and creating a space that became narrower or wider. Another unique feature of this building is the exotic materials Mies chooses to use. Plates of high-grade stone materials like veneers of marble and golden *onyx as well as tinted glass of grey, green and white, as well as translucent glass, perform exclusively as spatial dividers. Glass, travertine, marble, onyx and steel were his only few choices. As far as colors selection,
  • 9. PAGE 8 Van Der Rohe let the natural materials speak for themselves and added only black rug and red curtains in one area of the pavilion which not only contrast with one of the yellow walls but has political statement as well showing German colors and highlighted the unique complexity of the pavilion. *Onyx; greyish translucent quartz with alternating black and white bands used in making engraving or carving in low relief on a stone.
  • 11. PAGE 10 Structure The structure is created with eight steel pillars in a cross holding a flat roof. Complete the work a relieved from large glass structure and interior walls. The regular grid system developed by Mies not only serves as a pattern for laying travertine pavers , but also serves as an underlying framework of working systems for interior walls.
  • 12. PAGE 11 Steel column in the pavilion By raising the flag on a pedestal along with the narrow section of the site, the horizontality of the building is accentuated. The Barcelona Pavilion has a low horizontal orientation that is accentuated with too low flat roof that seems to float both inside and outside. This character is reinforced by the large overhang of the roof and the lightness of the steel columns that relate these levels and create an effect of weightlessness. The Pavilion define their spaces by orthogonal set of offset planes, the walls are arranged so as to generate an absolute spatial fluidity inside the building. Large windows draw the continuous outer boundary, thus declaring transparency, the idea of freedom and progress that reflect the German Republic was seeking at the time. Section through column in the pavilion
  • 13. PAGE 12 Roof Every aspect of the German Pavilion has architectural significance that can be seen in the advent of modern architecture in the twentieth century, however, one of the most important aspects of the pavilion is the roof. The low profile of the cover appears in elevation as a plane floating above the. Interior volume. The appearance of floating gives the volume a sense of weightlessness that fluctuates between the housing and the cover. The roof is supported by eight slender cruciform columns that allow you to transmit the sensation of floating on the volume while freeing the interior to allow an open floor plan. Between indoor and projected outward opening canopy, a blurred spatial demarcation where inside becomes outside and outside to inside is created. Materials For the reconstruction of the pavilion glass, steel , reinforced concrete and four different types of marble , Roman travertine , green Alpine marble , ancient green marble from Greece and doré onyx Atlas in Africa were used , all with the same characteristics and provenance, as originally used by Mies. The stunning piece of golden onyx placed in the main space significantly more expensive to build, becoming the focus of attention for visitors, not only for its size and thickness, and also for his colourful drawing. Marble
  • 14. PAGE 13 Together with the design, the materials are what give the Pavilion its true architectural essence and the ethereal and experimental qualities that the pavilion embodies. The application gives the marble Mies created through separción process called “pinning " which creates a symmetric partition, which is already in the material. However, the materials used in this case is the Italian travertine that wraps the socket and exterior walls near the water surface. When exposed to the sun, the travertine is illuminated as if it had a secondary light source that dissolves the natural stone and full of light on the space. These bright qualities inherent in travertine, and the use of material without cracks in the outer socket added to the solution of the territorial demarcation transforming the pavilion into one continuous volume rather than two separate entities. The canopy is supported on a base of classical Roman travertine marble, a material that is repeated throughout the front yard, both on the floor, the walls and the long bench that runs around the wall parallel to the pond. The basis of this liquid mirror is covered with boulders. The glass and steel give frame and cover the walls built with large blocks of marble, which themselves become the "work of art " pavilion , with its gorgeous colors and patterns. Almost pure minimalist shapes and design features available. The eight cruciform pillars are covered in chrome. Flat cover was made with reinforced concrete.
  • 15. PAGE 14 The four chairs minimalist interior decorating space resting on a black carpet that highlights the colours, and are protected by a large red silk curtain. Georg Kolbe sculpture The sculpture decorating the pond located in the backyard of the pavilion is a bronze reproduction of Georg Kolbe Dawn by contemporary artist to Mies van der Rohe. It is brilliantly located at one end of the small pond, at a point where not only reflected in water but also in marble and crystals, giving the feeling that is multiplied in space and contrasting curved lines with geometric purity the building. The image of the statue is projected multiple times on water reflections, crystal or marble. Spaces
  • 16. PAGE 15 The overall impression is of a luxurious space created by perpendicular planes in three dimensions. Complete the work of Georg Kolbe sculpture , consisting of little furniture chairs, with a design by the architect himself , called Barcelona chair , an important milestone in the history of twentieth century design furniture , a red curtain and became black carpet , which combined with the color beige marble wall , make the colors of the German flag . The low rise building close line of sight of the visitor, forcing suit the views framed by Mies. The interior of the pavilion is composed of places created by the walls that work together with the low roof planes to stimulate movement and to turn the architectural promenade Mies, in which framed views will induce movement through the narrow passage that opens at a higher volume. This cyclic process of moving through the joint flag starts a process of discovery and rediscovery during the experience, always offering new perspectives and details that were previously invisible. Inside the pavilion can identify three areas:  The front yard, defined by the area of access and where the water body is located. Here is an interesting relationship between the opacity of the walls, the reflection of the water and the transparency of the glass pavilion, a corner that marks the entrance to the site is created. In the opposite corner is a small enclosure services.  The built kernel, determined by the planes of the walls built with different materials, while maintaining control of the view through the management of the opacities, transparencies and empty.  The backyard. This enclosed by walls and the presence, again, of a body of water on which the statue Alba, by Georg Kolbe is. The pavilion is designed as a proportional composition in which the interior water two juxtaposed mirrors. The mirror over pequeñao water just behind the interior space allowing light to filter through the interior volume, illuminating the marble and travertine pavers. The mirror largest surface water to supplement the volume, and extending through the rest of the plane outside. Its sleek lines establish a place of solitude and reflection.
  • 17. PAGE 16 Glass, steel and four different types of marble (Roman travertine, green marble from the Alps, ancient green marble from Greece and onyx doré Atlas) were the materials used in reconstruction. All of the same characteristics and origin as those used initially in 1929. Barcelona chair Although many architects and furniture designers of the Bauhaus era were intent on providing well-designed homes and impeccably manufactured furnishings for the "common man," the Barcelona chair was an exception. It was designed for the Spanish Royalty to oversee the opening ceremonies of the exhibition.The form is thought to be extrapolated from Roman folding chairs known as the Curule chair – upholstered stools used by Roman aristocracy. And despite the industrial appearance the Barcelona chair requires much hand craftsmanship. The Barcelona chair is a chair designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Lilly Reich. It was originally designed for the German Pavilion, that country's entry for the International Exposition of 1929, which was hosted by Barcelona, Spain. It was first used in Villa Tugendhat, a masterpiece of Mies van den Rohe in the City of Brno (Czech Republic). The frame was initially designed to be bolted together, but was redesigned in 1950 using stainless steel, which allowed the frame to be formed by a seamless piece of metal, giving it a smoother appearance. Bovine leather replaced the ivory-colored pigskin which was used for the original pieces. The Barcelona chair was manufactured in the US and Europe in limited production from the 1930s to the 1950s. In 1953, six years after Reich's death, van der Rohe ceded his rights and his name on the design to Knoll, knowing that his design patents were expired. This collaboration then renewed popularity in the design. Knoll claims to be the current licensed manufacturer and holder of all trademark rights to the design.
  • 18. PAGE 17 Artist impression of the Barcelona chair Natural lighting The building is open plan and minimal in design, composed of horizontal planes that appear to float and divided by vertical planes of marble and glass that seem almost free-standing. The juxtaposition of natural marble and man-made materials means it’s not only a great feat of design, but also a master class in defining space through the medium of light. Due to high specular reflectance, the solid marble often appear transparent, while the shallow pools merge the building with its natural surroundings. At night, a large light box that forms part of the external glazing lights the space. Formed of two layers of milky-white glass, with fluorescent light between, it produces a mystical luminous wall. Mies's creation can be described as a harmonious play of light, integrating all forms of light propagation-reflection, transmission, diffusion, emission and refraction.
  • 19. PAGE 18 The Barcelona Pavilion shows how to define space through light Circulation Even though it’s visually a simple floor plan its complexity comes from the strategic layout of walls. Unforced direction of visitor’s movements throughout the space happens naturally without clear knowledge of the visitor. Walls are not there as bare structural support but rather spatial dividers and “directors” of the space. Circulation (routing) in the pavilion
  • 20. PAGE 19 Hierarchy The hierarchy shows the main roof to be the highest part of the building adding to the dominance that the roof provides to the pavilion. Balance and symmetry The pavilion is both almost completely symmetrical in its overall layout. The symmetry lies upon the center of the plan and helps to accent the rectangular layout and how it is balance on both sides of that center by the use of seating area that is an additional outcrop of the building (the positive) and the empty space that leads you up the stairs to the pavilion ( the negative). If you were to fill in or take away one of these elements the pavilion would lose its sense of balance.
  • 21. PAGE 20 The only part of the building that would be considered asymmetrical is the placement of the walls that break up the interior of the pavilion. Balance Form (additive and subtractive) The additive and subtractive shows another state of balance within the pavilion, the roof structure is the addictive part of the whole of the pavilion while the reflecting pools are the subtractive part that counterbalances the additive parts. However, even with this balance the pavilion feels more additive than subtractive due to the addition and importance the roof plays to the structure.
  • 22. PAGE 21 Subtractive pool of the pavilion Additive roof of the pavilion
  • 24. PAGE 23 About the Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies March 27, 1886 Aachen, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire Died August 17, 1969 (aged 83) Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Nationality German (1886–1944), American (1944–1969) Awards Order Pour le Mérite (1959) Royal Gold Medal (1959)
  • 25. PAGE 24 AIA Gold Medal (1960) Presidential Medal of Freedom (1963) Buildings Barcelona Pavilion Tugendhat House Crown Hall Farnsworth House 860–880 Lake Shore Drive Seagram Building New National Gallery Toronto-Dominion Centre Westmount Square