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Why does
ice float?
What would the
world be like if
ice had a density
>1.0g/mL
PHASES OF WATER
Different
phases have
different
densities!
4 Phases of
Matter
PHASE
any physically
separate part of a
material
MATERIAL
any specific kind of
matter
4 Phases of Matter
 Solid
 Liquid
 Gas
 Plasma
SOLIDS
• Atoms and/or molecules are
tightly packed and strongly
bonded
• Have definite shape
• Have high density
• Expand slightly when heated
• Almost incompressible
LIQUIDS
• Atoms and/or molecules are
tightly packed BUT bonds
are stretched or broken
• Have definite volume, but take
the shape of their container
• Has ability to flow
• Expand slightly when heated
• Almost incompressible
GASES
• Atoms and/or molecules are
NOT bonded
• Has NO definite shape
• Expand without limit to fill
any space
• Low density
• Very compressible
PLASMA
• Electrically charged
gasses
• Present in the
lightning, the sun,
etc…
Phase
Changes
Phase Change
the change of a
phase to another
phase
(self explanatory)
The Changes
Boiling/Condensation
Melting/Freezing
Sublimation
Boiling/Condensation
 Heat of Vaporization (boiling)
•A Liquid to Gas
Condensation
•A Gas to a Liquid
Water (gas)
Water (liquid)
Melting/Freezing
• Heat of Fusion (melting)
–A Solid to a Liquid
• Freezing
–A Liquid to a Solid
Sublimation
•Sublimation
–A Solid to a Gas
OR
–A Gas to a Solid
DRY ICE!
Solid CO2 
CO2 Gas
THERMAL
EXPANSION
Almost all matter
expands when heated
and contracts when
cooled
Kinetic Theory of
Matter
All atoms are in
constant motion
HEAT OF FUSION
the amount of energy
needed to change a
material from a solid
to a liquid
HEAT OF
VAPORIZATION
the amount of energy
needed to change a
material from a liquid
to a gas
Phase Change Lab
What happens to the
temperature of water
as it changes form a
solid to a liquid to a
gas?
Heat of Fusion
Heat of Vaporization
Difference Between
Diamonds and Graphite
Graphite
Diamond

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Phases of matter & phase changes