MATTER Matter is everything that has mass and occupies a place in spaceIf the matter has mass and occupies a place in space means that it is quantifiable, i.e. it can be measured.
• Everything we can imagine, from a book, a car, a computer and even the chair that sat and the water we drink, or even something intangible as the air we breathe, is made of matter.• The planets of the universe, living beings like insects and inanimate objects like rocks, are also made of matter.
MASS• The amount of matter in a body is given by its mass, which is normally measured in kilograms or in multiple units or submultiple of it (often measured in grams).
VOLUME• Volume of a body is the place or space it occupies. There are many different sizes. To express the volume of a body is the cubic metre (m³) and other multiples and submultiples.
ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES• Substances that make up matter can be classified into elements, compounds and mixtures.
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS• Elements are substances which are formed by atoms equal, that is of the same nature. For example: iron, gold, silver, calcium, etc.• Compounds are composed of different atoms.
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS• Water and hydrogen are examples of pure substances. Water is a compound while the hydrogen is an element. The water is only made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen and hydrogen by two hydrogen atoms.• If water changes state, its composition does not vary because it is a pure substance, but if it undergoes chemical changes water can be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen atoms.• With the hydrogen cannot be the same. If you are subjected to heat, the molecule will continue to be constituted by hydrogen atoms. If you try to separate by chemical means it always will be hydrogen.
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS• There are over 100 known chemical elements (see table periodic items) and more than one million compounds in nature.
MIXTURES• The mixtures are obtained from the combination of two or more substances that can be elements or compounds.• In mixtures not laying down chemical bonds between the components of the mixture.• Mixtures can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES• Homogeneous mixtures are those in which all its components are distributed uniformly, i.e. the concentration is the same in all the mix, in other words in the mix there is a single phase.• Examples of homogeneous mixtures are the lemonade, salt dissolved in water, etc. This type of mixture is called solution or dissolution.
HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES• Heterogeneous mixtures are those in which its components are not distributed evenly in the mix, i.e., there is more than one phase; each of them retains its features.• Example of this type of mixture is the water with oil, sand dissolved in water, etc; both examples shows that as much as try to dissolve a substance in another always last a certain time they separate and each retains its features.
PROPERTIES OF MATTER• Matter properties correspond to specific characteristics by which a particular substance can be distinguished from another.• These properties can be classified into two groups:• Physical properties: depend essentially of the same substance. Can be cited as an example: the colour, the smell, the texture, the taste, etc.• Chemical properties: depend on the behaviour of matter from other substances. For example, the oxidation of a nail (consists of iron).
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES• Physical properties can be classified in turn into two groups:• Extensive physical properties: depend on the amount of material present. They correspond to the mass, volume, length.• Intensive physical properties: depend only on the material, regardless of the amount you have, the volume deal with, etc. For example, a litre of water has the same density than one hundred litres of water
PHYSICAL STATES OF MATTER• In conditions not extreme temperature, matter can occur in three different physical States: solid, liquid and gaseous state.
THE SOLIDS• The solids have own form as a result of its rigidity and its resistance to any deformation.• The density of the solids is in general very little more than the liquid, so not you can think that such rigidity characteristic of solids is attributable to greater proximity of its molecules. In addition, there are even solids as the ice which is less dense than the liquid from which they come.• They also occupy a given volume and are dilated to increase the temperature.
THE FLUIDS• Fluids are characterized by having an own volume, adapt to the shape of the vessel in which they are contained, power flow, be very compressible and move to the State of steam at any temperature.• They are little compressible under pressure, because, unlike what happens in the case of gases, liquids in the average distance between molecules is very small, and thus if it shrinks further, originate intense repulsive forces between molecules of the liquid.
THE GASES• Gases are characterized because they completely fill the space in which they are locked.• If the container increases volume gas immediately takes the new space, and this is possible only because there is a force directed from within the gas towards the walls of the container that contains.• The pressure is the force per unit area.• The gases are easily compressible and able to expand indefinitely.
• The bodies can change from State to vary the pressure and temperature.• In nature water changes state to modify the temperature; it occurs in solid state, such as snow or ice, as liquid and gaseous vapour of water (clouds).
LIVING AND INERT MATTER• The Earth is home to many living things, such as plants and animals.• A butterfly seems something very different from a stone; however, both are composed of atoms, but they are combined differently in one case.• Most of the area is inanimate; i.e., it does not grow, reproduces, or moves by itself. Good examples of inanimate matter are the rocks that make up the Earth.
CHANGES OF MATTER• Changes that may experience matter can be grouped in two fields:• Chemical changes• Physical changes
PHYSICAL CHANGES• Physical changes are those where there is not any alteration or change in the composition of the substance.• Include physical changes state (melting, evaporation, sublimation, etc.) changes, and changes in size or shape.• For example, when a piece of silver has been transformed into a ring, a fortune cookie, pair of earrings, there have been physical changes because the silver maintains its properties in different objects.• In general, the physical changes are reversible, i.e., you can return to obtain the substance in its initial form
CHEMICAL CHANGES• Chemical changes are transformations experienced by a substance when its structure and composition vary, giving rise to the formation of one or more new substances.• The substance is transformed into one or more other substances different from the original.• These chemical bonds will determine the properties of the new substance or substances.
• The majority of chemical changes are irreversible.• Examples: to burn a role we cannot get it again from the ashes and gases released in combustion.• However, there are other chemical changes that the addition of another substance causes the obtaining of the original substance and in this case it is a reversible chemical change.• Thus, to trigger a reversible chemical change should lead to other chemical change.
CHANGES OF PHYSICAL SATATES MATTER• Changes of fitness as apply you heat or apply you cold. When heat is applied to the bodies it speaks of progressive changes of State of matter. When bodies are frozen talks about regressive state changes.
PROGRESSIVE CHANGES IN STATE• 1. Sublimation: this change occurs when a body passes from the solid state to the gaseous directly. The gradual sublimation occurs only in some substances such as iodine and naphthalene.• 2 Merger. It is the passage of a substance from the solid state to the liquid by the action of heat. The temperature at which melting occurs is characteristic of each substance. For example the temperature which occurs the melting ice is or ° C while the iron is 1,525 ° c. Constant temperature which occurs the fusion is known as melting point.• 3 Evaporation. It is the passage of a substance from the liquid to the gaseous. This change of State occurs normally at room temperature, and without having to apply heat. Under these conditions, only the surface of the liquid particles will pass to a gaseous state, while those which are below will remain in the initial state.
REGRESSIVE CHANGES IN STATE• 1. Solidification. It is the passage of a substance from the liquid to the solid. This process occurs at a typical temperature for every substance called point of solidification and agreed with its melting point.• 2. Condensation. It is the state change that occurs in a substance from the gaseous state to the liquid state. The temperature to which this transformation occurs is called dew point and corresponds to the boiling point of that substance. This change of State is one of the most exploited by man in the fractional distillation of oil derivatives such as paraffin, gas station and gas pipeline are obtained by means of which.