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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT(552MG53)
Unit -5: Performance Appraisal
Dr. J.Mexon ,
Department of Management & Commerce,
DMI St. Eugene University.
Performance Appraisal
• According to Flippo, a prominent personality in the field of Human
resources, “performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an
impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining
to his present job and his potential for a better job.”
• In the words of Yoder, “Performance appraisal refers to all formal
procedures used in working organizations to evaluate personalities
and contributions and potential of group members.”
• According to International Labour Organization, “A regular and
continuous evaluation of the quality, quantity and style of the
performance along with the assessment of the factors influencing the
performance and behaviour of an individual is called as performance
appraisal.”
Objectives of Performance of Appraisal
1. Salary Increase Decisions:
2. Employee Promotion:
3. Employee Training and Development:
4. Feedback about Employee Status:
5. Better Performance of Employees:
Steps in Performance Appraisal
1. Establish Performance Standards:
2. Communicating the Standards Set for an Employee:
3. Measuring of the Actual Performances:
4. Comparing Actual Performance with Standards Set in
the Beginning:
5. Discussion with the Concerned Employee:
6. Initiate Corrective Action:
Methods of Performance Appraisal
I.) TRADITIONAL METHOD
1. Ranking Method:
2. Paired Comparison:
3. Grading Method:
4. Forced Distribution Method:
5. Forced-choice Method:
6. Check-list Method:
7. Critical Incidents Method:
8. Graphic Scale Method:
9. Essay Method:
10. Field Review Method:
1. Ranking Method: The employee is ranked from
highest to lowest or from worst to best in an
organization. Thus if there are seven employees to be
ranked then there will be seven ranks from 1 to 7.
Rating scales offer the advantages of flexibility
comparatively easy use and low cost. Thus, the greatest
limitation of this method is that differences in ranks do
not indicate how much an employee of rank 1 is better
than the employee whose rank is last.
2. Paired Comparison: In method is comparatively simpler as
compared to ranking method. In this method, the evaluator ranks employees
by comparing one employee with all other employees in the group. The rater
is given slips where, each slip has a pair of names, the rater puts a tick mark
next those employee whom he considers to be the better of the two. This
employee is compared number of times so as to determine the final ranking.
For example, If the following five teachers have to be evaluated by the Vice
Chanceller of a University : Cecilia ( c), Mwansa (M), Robson (R), Vincent (V),
and Bwalya (B). These are;
• CwithM,
• CwithR MwithR
• CwithV MwithV RwithV
• CwithB MwithB RwithB VwithB
3. Grading method: In this method, certain categories
are defined well in advance and employees are put in
particular category depending on their traits and
characteristics. Such categories may be defined as
outstanding, good, average, poor, very poor, or may be
in terms of alphabet like A, B, C, D, etc. where A may
indicate the best and D indicating the worst.
4. Forced Distribution method: This method was evolved to
abolish the trend of rating most of the employees at a higher
end of the scale. The fundamental assumption in this method
is that employees’ performance level conforms to a normal
statistical distribution. For example, 10 per cent employees
may be rated as excellent, 40 per cent as above average, 20
per cent as average, 10 per cent below average, and 20 per
cent as poor. It eliminates or minimizes the favoritism of rating
many employees on a higher side.
5. Forced Choice method : The forced-choice rating method contains a
sequence of question in a statement form with which the rater checks
how effectively the statement describes each individual being
evaluated in the organization. Most common method of forced choice
contains two statements both of which may be positive or negative. It
may be both the statement describes the characteristics of an
employee, but the rater is forced to tick only one i.e the most
appropriate statement which may be more descriptive of the
employee. For example, a rater may be given the following two
statements:
• (i) The employee is smart working.
• (ii) The employee follow instructions given by superiors.
Out of these two statements, only one statement is considered for final
analysis of rating.
6. Checklist method: In this method of evaluation the evaluator is
provided with the appraisal report which consist of series of questions
which is related to the appraise. Such questions are prepared in a
manner that reflects the behaviour of the concerned appraise. Every
question has two alternatives, yes or no, as given below:
• 1. Is he/she respected by his/her subordinates? Yes/No
• 2. Is he/she ready to help other employees? Yes/No
• 3. Does her behaviour remain same for everyone in the organization?
Yes/No
The concerned rater/evaluator has to tick appropriate answers relevant
to the appraises. When the check-list is finished, it is sent to the
personnel department to prepare the final scores for all appraises
based on all questions based on yes or no.
7. Critical Incidents method: This method is very useful for finding out those
employees who have the highest potential to work in a critical situation.
Such an incidence is very important for organization as they get a sense, how
a supervisor has handled a situation in the case of sudden trouble in an
organization, which gives an idea about his leadership qualities and handling
of situation.
• This method is categorized in three steps. First, a list of notable (good or
bad) on-the-job behaviour of specific incidents. Second, selected experts
would then assign weightage or score to these incidents according to how
serious a particular incident is and their degree of willingness to perform a
job. Third, finally a check-list indicating incidents that illustrate workers as
good or “bad” is formed. Then, the checklist is given to the rater for
evaluating the workers.
• The strong point of critical incident method is that it focuses on behaviours
and, thus, judge’s performance rather than personalities.
8. Graphic Scale method: In graphic rating scale the printed appraisal
form is used to appraise each employee. Such forms contain a number
of objectives, and trait qualities and characters to be rated like quality
of work and amount of work, job knowhow dependability, initiative,
attitude, leadership quality and emotional stability.
• The rater gives an estimate the extent to which subordinates possess
each quality. The extent to which quality is possessed is measured on
a scale which can vary from three points to several points. In general
practice five-point scales is used. Thus numbers like 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1
may denote points for various degrees of excellent-poor, high-low, or
good-bad, and so on.
• Graphic scale method is good for measuring various job behaviours
of an employee. But, it is bound to limitations of rater’s bias while
rating employee’s behaviour at job.
9. Essay method : In this method, the rater writes a
detailed description on an employee’s characteristics
and behaviour, Knowledge about organizational
policies, procedures and rules, Knowledge about the
job, Training and development needs of the employee,
strengths, weakness, past performance, potential and
suggestions for improvement. It is said to be the
encouraging and simple method to use. It does not
need difficult formats and specific training to complete
it.
10. Field review method: In this method of appraisal direct
superior is not going to appraise an employee but appraised
by another person, usually, from personnel department. The
rater, in such a case, appraises the employee on the basis of
his past records of productivity and other information such as
absenteeism, late corning, etc. It is more suitable in a situation
where an organization wants to provide promotion to an
employee. It also gives information for comparing employees
from different locations and units. It reduces partiality to
some extent as personnel department person is supposed to
be trained in appraisal mechanism.
II. NON-TRADITIONAL/MODERN METHODS
1. Management by Objectives (MB0):
2. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales:
3. Assessment Centres:
4. 360 Degree Performance Appraisals:
5. Cost Accounting Method:
1. Management by Objectives: It is a process where the
employees and the superiors come together to identify some goals
which are common to them, the employees set their own goals to be
achieved, the benchmark is taken as the criteria for measuring their
performances and their involvement is there in deciding the course of
action to be followed.
• The basic nature of MBO is participative, setting their goals, selecting
a course of actions to achieve goals and then taking decision. The
most important aspect of MBO is measuring the actual performances
of the employee with the standards set by them. It is also said to be a
process that integrates organizational objectives into individual
objectives.
• Entire program me of MBO is divided in four major steps i.e setting up
of goal, action planning, comparison and timely review.
2. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale : This method is a
combination of traditional rating scales and critical incidents methods.
It consists of preset critical areas of job performance or sets of
behavioural statements which describes the important job
performance qualities as good or bad (for e.g. the qualities like inter
personal relationships, flexibility and consistency, job knowledge etc).
These statements are developed from critical incidents.
These behavioural examples are then again translated into appropriate
performance dimensions. Those that are selected into the dimension
are retained. The final groups of behaviour incidents are then scaled
numerically to a level of performance that is perceived to represent. A
rater must indicate which behaviour on each scale best describes an
employee’s performance.
3. Assessment Centres: This is a system of assessment where
individual employee is assessed by many experts by using different
technique of performance appraisal. The techniques which may be
used are role playing, case studies, simulation exercises, transactional
analysis etc.
In this method employees from different departments are brought
together for an assignment which they are supposed to perform in a
group, as if they are working for a higher post or promoted. Each
employee is ranked by the observer on the basis of merit. The basic
purpose behind assessment is to recognize whether a particular
employee can be promoted, or is there any need for training or
development.
4. 360 Degree Performance Appraisal : This method is also known as
‘multi-rater feedback’, it is the appraisal in a wider perspective where the
comment about the employees’ performance comes from all the possible
sources that are directly or indirectly related with the employee on his job. In
360 degree performance appraisal an employee can be appraised by his
peers, managers (i.e. superior), subordinates, team members, customers,
suppliers/ vendors - anyone who comes into direct or indirect contact with
the employee and can provide necessary information or feedback regarding
performance of the employee the “on-the-job”. The four major component
of 360 degree performance appraisal are
• 1. Employees Self Appraisal
• 2. Appraisal by Superior
• 3. Appraisal by Subordinate
• 4. Peer Appraisal.
5. Cost Accounting method: In this method performance of an
employee is evaluated on the basis of monetary returns the employee
gives to his or her organization. A relationship is recognized between
the cost included in keeping the employee in an organization and the
benefit the organization gets from him or her. The following factors are
considered while evaluating an employee’s performance:
1. Interpersonal relationship with others.
2. Quality of product produced or service given to the organization.
3. Wastage, damage, accidents caused by the employee.
4. Average value of production or service by an employee.
5. Overhead cost incurred.
Factors affecting Performance Appraisal
1. Value System of Evaluator:
2. Dominant Work Orientation:
3. Loyalty:
4. Level of Achievement:
5. Factors Hindering Objective Assessment:
Career Management
• Career management is conscious planning of one’s activities and
engagements in the jobs one undertakes in the course of his life for
better fulfilment, growth and financial stability. It is a sequential
process that starts from an understanding of oneself and
encompasses occupational awareness.
• The burden of career management is more on the individual self
than the employer. Ensuring personal development in terms of skills,
competencies, change in attitude with time are things one may need
to take care of on one’s own. Short term goals need to met and
evaluated. The long term career goals need to be revised with the
change in employment scenario and self; organisations may or may
not be concerned in a big way or aligned to your priorities in career
and life.
Career Management Process
1. Self-awareness ( What are your interests, what is essential for you,
what are the things you value, what are the things you like, what are your
unique skills etc. )
2. Career exploration/career development planning
• Career values –
• Work preferences –
• Strengths –
• Weakness –
3. Lifelong learning ( Adapt to the ongoing innovations and devices by
updating your skills and know-how regularly. )
4. Networking ( Develop and hone your ability to connect and interact
with important people. )
Components of Career Development System
•Self Assessment Tools:
•Career Planning Workshops:
•Individual Counselling:
•Organizational Assessment Programs:
•Developmental Programs:
Team Management
• The individuals forming a team should ideally think more or less on
the same lines and should have similar interests and objective.
Every team is formed to achieve a predefined goal and it is the
responsibility of each and every member to contribute his level best
and accomplish the assigned task within the stipulated time frame.
The team members must complement each other and come to each
other’s help whenever required.
• Team management refers to the various activities which bind a
team together by bringing the team members closer to achieve the
set targets. For the team members, their team must be their priority
and everything else should take a back seat. They should be very
focused on their goals.
Types of Teams
1. Permanent teams-
2. Temporary teams -
3. Task Force -
4. Committee -
5. Organization/Work Force -
6. Self Managed Teams -
7. Cross Functional Team -
8. Virtual Teams -
Employee Motivation
• Employee motivation is defined as the enthusiasm, energy level,
commitment and the amount of creativity that an employee brings to
the organization on a daily basis.
• Employee motivation is all about how engaged an employee feels in
tandem to the organization’s goals and how empowered he/she feels.
Motivation is of two types:
• Intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic motivation means that an individual is
motivated from within. He/she has the desire to perform well at the
workplace because the results are in accordance with his/her belief
system.
• Extrinsic motivation: Extrinsic motivation means an individual’s
motivation is stimulated by external factors- rewards and recognition.
Some people may never be motivated internally and only external
motivation would work with them to get the tasks done.
Ways to Motivate Employees
1. Make your business a pleasant place to be.
2. Be a respectful, honest and supportive manager.
3. Offer employee rewards.
4. Give them room to grow.
5. Share positive feedback.
6. Be transparent.
7. Offer flexible scheduling.
8. Recognise their achievements.
9. Ask them what they want.
Grievance
• A grievance is any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice having
connection with one’s employment situation which is brought to the
attention of management. Speaking broadly, a grievance is any
dissatisfaction that adversely affects organizational relations and
productivity.
• According to Dale S. Beach, “Grievance is any dissatisfaction or
feeling of injustice in connection with one’s employment situation
that is brought to the attention of management.”
• In short, grievance is a state of dissatisfaction, expressed or
unexpressed, written or unwritten, justified or unjustified, having
connection with employment situation.
Causes of Grievance
1. Economic:
2. Work environment:
3. Supervision:
4. Organizational change:
5. Employee relations:
6. Miscellaneous:
Steps in Grievances
Step – I : Defining and describing the nature of grievance as clearly
as possible
Step – II : Collect all facts that help to explain how, when, where,
why and to whom the grievance occurred
Step – III : Establishing tentative solution of the grievance
Step – IV : Collect additional information to check the validity of
tentative solution
Step – V : Applying the solution
Step – VI Follow up
Discipline
• In an industrial organization, discipline means the situation
in which all the workers and employees follow the rules,
regulations and procedure of the organization. A disciplined
work force can meet the challenges of the organizations and
contribute to the organizational objectives in a better way.
Discipline can pave the way for co-operation among the task
force and result in good human relations.
• According to the Richard D. Calthoon, “Discipline may be
considered as force that prompts individuals or groups to
observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are
deemed to be necessary for the effective functioning of an
organization.”
Nature/ Characteristics/ Features of Discipline
• Discipline does not merely mean a strict and technical observance of
rigid, inflexible rules and regulations.
• Discipline simply means working cooperatively, and behaving in an
orderly and normal way, as any responsible person would expect an
employee to do.
• Discipline requires punishment or chastisement.
• Discipline is the training that correct, moulds, strengths or perfects.
• Discipline means orderliness: - the opposite of confusion and chaos.
• Discipline is the control gained by enforcing obedience.

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Performance Appraisal - Dr. J.Mexon

  • 1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT(552MG53) Unit -5: Performance Appraisal Dr. J.Mexon , Department of Management & Commerce, DMI St. Eugene University.
  • 2. Performance Appraisal • According to Flippo, a prominent personality in the field of Human resources, “performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job.” • In the words of Yoder, “Performance appraisal refers to all formal procedures used in working organizations to evaluate personalities and contributions and potential of group members.” • According to International Labour Organization, “A regular and continuous evaluation of the quality, quantity and style of the performance along with the assessment of the factors influencing the performance and behaviour of an individual is called as performance appraisal.”
  • 3. Objectives of Performance of Appraisal 1. Salary Increase Decisions: 2. Employee Promotion: 3. Employee Training and Development: 4. Feedback about Employee Status: 5. Better Performance of Employees:
  • 4. Steps in Performance Appraisal 1. Establish Performance Standards: 2. Communicating the Standards Set for an Employee: 3. Measuring of the Actual Performances: 4. Comparing Actual Performance with Standards Set in the Beginning: 5. Discussion with the Concerned Employee: 6. Initiate Corrective Action:
  • 5. Methods of Performance Appraisal I.) TRADITIONAL METHOD 1. Ranking Method: 2. Paired Comparison: 3. Grading Method: 4. Forced Distribution Method: 5. Forced-choice Method: 6. Check-list Method: 7. Critical Incidents Method: 8. Graphic Scale Method: 9. Essay Method: 10. Field Review Method:
  • 6. 1. Ranking Method: The employee is ranked from highest to lowest or from worst to best in an organization. Thus if there are seven employees to be ranked then there will be seven ranks from 1 to 7. Rating scales offer the advantages of flexibility comparatively easy use and low cost. Thus, the greatest limitation of this method is that differences in ranks do not indicate how much an employee of rank 1 is better than the employee whose rank is last.
  • 7. 2. Paired Comparison: In method is comparatively simpler as compared to ranking method. In this method, the evaluator ranks employees by comparing one employee with all other employees in the group. The rater is given slips where, each slip has a pair of names, the rater puts a tick mark next those employee whom he considers to be the better of the two. This employee is compared number of times so as to determine the final ranking. For example, If the following five teachers have to be evaluated by the Vice Chanceller of a University : Cecilia ( c), Mwansa (M), Robson (R), Vincent (V), and Bwalya (B). These are; • CwithM, • CwithR MwithR • CwithV MwithV RwithV • CwithB MwithB RwithB VwithB
  • 8. 3. Grading method: In this method, certain categories are defined well in advance and employees are put in particular category depending on their traits and characteristics. Such categories may be defined as outstanding, good, average, poor, very poor, or may be in terms of alphabet like A, B, C, D, etc. where A may indicate the best and D indicating the worst.
  • 9. 4. Forced Distribution method: This method was evolved to abolish the trend of rating most of the employees at a higher end of the scale. The fundamental assumption in this method is that employees’ performance level conforms to a normal statistical distribution. For example, 10 per cent employees may be rated as excellent, 40 per cent as above average, 20 per cent as average, 10 per cent below average, and 20 per cent as poor. It eliminates or minimizes the favoritism of rating many employees on a higher side.
  • 10. 5. Forced Choice method : The forced-choice rating method contains a sequence of question in a statement form with which the rater checks how effectively the statement describes each individual being evaluated in the organization. Most common method of forced choice contains two statements both of which may be positive or negative. It may be both the statement describes the characteristics of an employee, but the rater is forced to tick only one i.e the most appropriate statement which may be more descriptive of the employee. For example, a rater may be given the following two statements: • (i) The employee is smart working. • (ii) The employee follow instructions given by superiors. Out of these two statements, only one statement is considered for final analysis of rating.
  • 11. 6. Checklist method: In this method of evaluation the evaluator is provided with the appraisal report which consist of series of questions which is related to the appraise. Such questions are prepared in a manner that reflects the behaviour of the concerned appraise. Every question has two alternatives, yes or no, as given below: • 1. Is he/she respected by his/her subordinates? Yes/No • 2. Is he/she ready to help other employees? Yes/No • 3. Does her behaviour remain same for everyone in the organization? Yes/No The concerned rater/evaluator has to tick appropriate answers relevant to the appraises. When the check-list is finished, it is sent to the personnel department to prepare the final scores for all appraises based on all questions based on yes or no.
  • 12. 7. Critical Incidents method: This method is very useful for finding out those employees who have the highest potential to work in a critical situation. Such an incidence is very important for organization as they get a sense, how a supervisor has handled a situation in the case of sudden trouble in an organization, which gives an idea about his leadership qualities and handling of situation. • This method is categorized in three steps. First, a list of notable (good or bad) on-the-job behaviour of specific incidents. Second, selected experts would then assign weightage or score to these incidents according to how serious a particular incident is and their degree of willingness to perform a job. Third, finally a check-list indicating incidents that illustrate workers as good or “bad” is formed. Then, the checklist is given to the rater for evaluating the workers. • The strong point of critical incident method is that it focuses on behaviours and, thus, judge’s performance rather than personalities.
  • 13. 8. Graphic Scale method: In graphic rating scale the printed appraisal form is used to appraise each employee. Such forms contain a number of objectives, and trait qualities and characters to be rated like quality of work and amount of work, job knowhow dependability, initiative, attitude, leadership quality and emotional stability. • The rater gives an estimate the extent to which subordinates possess each quality. The extent to which quality is possessed is measured on a scale which can vary from three points to several points. In general practice five-point scales is used. Thus numbers like 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 may denote points for various degrees of excellent-poor, high-low, or good-bad, and so on. • Graphic scale method is good for measuring various job behaviours of an employee. But, it is bound to limitations of rater’s bias while rating employee’s behaviour at job.
  • 14. 9. Essay method : In this method, the rater writes a detailed description on an employee’s characteristics and behaviour, Knowledge about organizational policies, procedures and rules, Knowledge about the job, Training and development needs of the employee, strengths, weakness, past performance, potential and suggestions for improvement. It is said to be the encouraging and simple method to use. It does not need difficult formats and specific training to complete it.
  • 15. 10. Field review method: In this method of appraisal direct superior is not going to appraise an employee but appraised by another person, usually, from personnel department. The rater, in such a case, appraises the employee on the basis of his past records of productivity and other information such as absenteeism, late corning, etc. It is more suitable in a situation where an organization wants to provide promotion to an employee. It also gives information for comparing employees from different locations and units. It reduces partiality to some extent as personnel department person is supposed to be trained in appraisal mechanism.
  • 16. II. NON-TRADITIONAL/MODERN METHODS 1. Management by Objectives (MB0): 2. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales: 3. Assessment Centres: 4. 360 Degree Performance Appraisals: 5. Cost Accounting Method:
  • 17. 1. Management by Objectives: It is a process where the employees and the superiors come together to identify some goals which are common to them, the employees set their own goals to be achieved, the benchmark is taken as the criteria for measuring their performances and their involvement is there in deciding the course of action to be followed. • The basic nature of MBO is participative, setting their goals, selecting a course of actions to achieve goals and then taking decision. The most important aspect of MBO is measuring the actual performances of the employee with the standards set by them. It is also said to be a process that integrates organizational objectives into individual objectives. • Entire program me of MBO is divided in four major steps i.e setting up of goal, action planning, comparison and timely review.
  • 18. 2. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale : This method is a combination of traditional rating scales and critical incidents methods. It consists of preset critical areas of job performance or sets of behavioural statements which describes the important job performance qualities as good or bad (for e.g. the qualities like inter personal relationships, flexibility and consistency, job knowledge etc). These statements are developed from critical incidents. These behavioural examples are then again translated into appropriate performance dimensions. Those that are selected into the dimension are retained. The final groups of behaviour incidents are then scaled numerically to a level of performance that is perceived to represent. A rater must indicate which behaviour on each scale best describes an employee’s performance.
  • 19. 3. Assessment Centres: This is a system of assessment where individual employee is assessed by many experts by using different technique of performance appraisal. The techniques which may be used are role playing, case studies, simulation exercises, transactional analysis etc. In this method employees from different departments are brought together for an assignment which they are supposed to perform in a group, as if they are working for a higher post or promoted. Each employee is ranked by the observer on the basis of merit. The basic purpose behind assessment is to recognize whether a particular employee can be promoted, or is there any need for training or development.
  • 20. 4. 360 Degree Performance Appraisal : This method is also known as ‘multi-rater feedback’, it is the appraisal in a wider perspective where the comment about the employees’ performance comes from all the possible sources that are directly or indirectly related with the employee on his job. In 360 degree performance appraisal an employee can be appraised by his peers, managers (i.e. superior), subordinates, team members, customers, suppliers/ vendors - anyone who comes into direct or indirect contact with the employee and can provide necessary information or feedback regarding performance of the employee the “on-the-job”. The four major component of 360 degree performance appraisal are • 1. Employees Self Appraisal • 2. Appraisal by Superior • 3. Appraisal by Subordinate • 4. Peer Appraisal.
  • 21. 5. Cost Accounting method: In this method performance of an employee is evaluated on the basis of monetary returns the employee gives to his or her organization. A relationship is recognized between the cost included in keeping the employee in an organization and the benefit the organization gets from him or her. The following factors are considered while evaluating an employee’s performance: 1. Interpersonal relationship with others. 2. Quality of product produced or service given to the organization. 3. Wastage, damage, accidents caused by the employee. 4. Average value of production or service by an employee. 5. Overhead cost incurred.
  • 22. Factors affecting Performance Appraisal 1. Value System of Evaluator: 2. Dominant Work Orientation: 3. Loyalty: 4. Level of Achievement: 5. Factors Hindering Objective Assessment:
  • 23. Career Management • Career management is conscious planning of one’s activities and engagements in the jobs one undertakes in the course of his life for better fulfilment, growth and financial stability. It is a sequential process that starts from an understanding of oneself and encompasses occupational awareness. • The burden of career management is more on the individual self than the employer. Ensuring personal development in terms of skills, competencies, change in attitude with time are things one may need to take care of on one’s own. Short term goals need to met and evaluated. The long term career goals need to be revised with the change in employment scenario and self; organisations may or may not be concerned in a big way or aligned to your priorities in career and life.
  • 24. Career Management Process 1. Self-awareness ( What are your interests, what is essential for you, what are the things you value, what are the things you like, what are your unique skills etc. ) 2. Career exploration/career development planning • Career values – • Work preferences – • Strengths – • Weakness – 3. Lifelong learning ( Adapt to the ongoing innovations and devices by updating your skills and know-how regularly. ) 4. Networking ( Develop and hone your ability to connect and interact with important people. )
  • 25. Components of Career Development System •Self Assessment Tools: •Career Planning Workshops: •Individual Counselling: •Organizational Assessment Programs: •Developmental Programs:
  • 26. Team Management • The individuals forming a team should ideally think more or less on the same lines and should have similar interests and objective. Every team is formed to achieve a predefined goal and it is the responsibility of each and every member to contribute his level best and accomplish the assigned task within the stipulated time frame. The team members must complement each other and come to each other’s help whenever required. • Team management refers to the various activities which bind a team together by bringing the team members closer to achieve the set targets. For the team members, their team must be their priority and everything else should take a back seat. They should be very focused on their goals.
  • 27. Types of Teams 1. Permanent teams- 2. Temporary teams - 3. Task Force - 4. Committee - 5. Organization/Work Force - 6. Self Managed Teams - 7. Cross Functional Team - 8. Virtual Teams -
  • 28. Employee Motivation • Employee motivation is defined as the enthusiasm, energy level, commitment and the amount of creativity that an employee brings to the organization on a daily basis. • Employee motivation is all about how engaged an employee feels in tandem to the organization’s goals and how empowered he/she feels. Motivation is of two types: • Intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic motivation means that an individual is motivated from within. He/she has the desire to perform well at the workplace because the results are in accordance with his/her belief system. • Extrinsic motivation: Extrinsic motivation means an individual’s motivation is stimulated by external factors- rewards and recognition. Some people may never be motivated internally and only external motivation would work with them to get the tasks done.
  • 29. Ways to Motivate Employees 1. Make your business a pleasant place to be. 2. Be a respectful, honest and supportive manager. 3. Offer employee rewards. 4. Give them room to grow. 5. Share positive feedback. 6. Be transparent. 7. Offer flexible scheduling. 8. Recognise their achievements. 9. Ask them what they want.
  • 30. Grievance • A grievance is any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice having connection with one’s employment situation which is brought to the attention of management. Speaking broadly, a grievance is any dissatisfaction that adversely affects organizational relations and productivity. • According to Dale S. Beach, “Grievance is any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice in connection with one’s employment situation that is brought to the attention of management.” • In short, grievance is a state of dissatisfaction, expressed or unexpressed, written or unwritten, justified or unjustified, having connection with employment situation.
  • 31. Causes of Grievance 1. Economic: 2. Work environment: 3. Supervision: 4. Organizational change: 5. Employee relations: 6. Miscellaneous:
  • 32. Steps in Grievances Step – I : Defining and describing the nature of grievance as clearly as possible Step – II : Collect all facts that help to explain how, when, where, why and to whom the grievance occurred Step – III : Establishing tentative solution of the grievance Step – IV : Collect additional information to check the validity of tentative solution Step – V : Applying the solution Step – VI Follow up
  • 33. Discipline • In an industrial organization, discipline means the situation in which all the workers and employees follow the rules, regulations and procedure of the organization. A disciplined work force can meet the challenges of the organizations and contribute to the organizational objectives in a better way. Discipline can pave the way for co-operation among the task force and result in good human relations. • According to the Richard D. Calthoon, “Discipline may be considered as force that prompts individuals or groups to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary for the effective functioning of an organization.”
  • 34. Nature/ Characteristics/ Features of Discipline • Discipline does not merely mean a strict and technical observance of rigid, inflexible rules and regulations. • Discipline simply means working cooperatively, and behaving in an orderly and normal way, as any responsible person would expect an employee to do. • Discipline requires punishment or chastisement. • Discipline is the training that correct, moulds, strengths or perfects. • Discipline means orderliness: - the opposite of confusion and chaos. • Discipline is the control gained by enforcing obedience.