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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT(552MG53)
Unit -4: Training and Development
Dr. J.Mexon ,
Department of Management & Commerce,
DMI St. Eugene University.
Talent Acquisition
Talent acquisition is a strategy used in recruitment that
focuses on finding, attracting, hiring, growing, and retaining
top talents inside an organization. Talent acquisition refers to
the process of identifying and acquiring skilled workers to
meet your organizational needs.
The talent acquisition team is responsible for identifying,
acquiring, assessing, and hiring candidates to fill open
positions within a company. In other words, it is a planned and
structured complex of actions the HR department must do to
get the best employees.
Talent Acquisition Process
1. Organizational needs analysis
2. Approval of the job requisition
3. Vacancy intake
4. Determining selection criteria & methods
5. Searching & Attraction
6. Administer selection methods
7. Hiring decision
8. On boarding
9. Evaluation
Talent Acquisition Methods
1. Directly hiring top talent within the industry
2. Referral program
3. Finding talented freelancers
4. Creating an attractive internship program
5. Attracting people from other cities and/or countries
6. Attracting previous employees
7. Attending job fairs, hackathons and different job market
events
8. Spotting internal talent and grooming them for future roles
9. Creating temporary positions for prospective future roles
Training
• Training is concerned with increasing the knowledge and
skills of employees for doing specific jobs, and development
involves the growth of employees in all aspects. Whereas
training increases job skills, development shapes attitudes of
employees.
• “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of
an employee for doing a particular job.” — Edwin B. Flippo
• Training is equally important for the existing as well as the
new employees. It enables the new employees to get
acquainted with their jobs and also increase the job-related
knowledge and skills.
Need and Importance of Training
(i) Higher Productivity:
(ii) Quality Improvement:
(iii) Reduction of Learning Time:
(iv) Industrial Safety:
(iv) Reduction of Turnover and Absenteeism:
(vi) Technology Update:
(vii) Effective Management:
Steps in Training Process
• Step 1: Decide If Training is needed:
• Step 2: Determine What Type of Training is needed:
• Step 3: Identifying Goals and Objectives:
• Step 4: Implementing the Training:
• Step 5: Evaluation Training Program:
Difference between Training and Development
• Training is a learning process for new employees in which
they get to know about the key skills required for the job.
Development is the training process for the existing
employees for their all round development.
• Training is a short-term process i.e. 3 to 6 months, but
development is a continuous process, and so it is for the long
term.
• Training focuses on developing skill and knowledge for the
current job. Unlike, the development which focuses on the
building knowledge, understanding and competencies for
overcoming with future challenges.
• Training has a limited scope; it is specific job oriented. On the
other hand, development is career oriented and hence its
scope is comparatively wider than training.
• In training, the trainees get a trainer who instructs them at
the time of training. In contrast to development, in which the
manager self-directs himself for the future assignments.
• Many individuals collectively attend the training program.
Development is a self-assessment procedure, and hence, one
person himself is responsible for one’s development.
On the Job Training
• On the Job training takes place in a normal working
situation, using actual tools, equipment, documents or
materials that trainees will use when fully trained. This is
the most common method of training in which a trainee is
placed on a specific job and taught the skills and knowledge
necessary to perform it.
• This method of training uses more knowledgeable,
experienced and skilled employees, such as mangers,
supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled,
and experienced employees.
The procedure of formal on the job training program is:
1. The participant observes a more experienced, knowledgeable, and
skilled trainer (employee)
2. The method, process, and techniques are well discussed before,
during and after trainer has explained about performing the tasks
3. When the trainee is prepared, the trainee starts performing on the
work place
4. The trainer provides continuing direction of work and feedback
5. The trainee is given more and more work so that he accomplishes
the job flawlessly
Techniques of On The Job Training
1.) Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a
corrective method for inadequate performance. This method best
suits for the people at the top. It helps in finding out the executive’s
specific developmental needs.
Procedure of the Coaching
1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and
attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation
2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to
be achieved
3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule
4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives,
observe the performance and then provide feedback
5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves
2.) Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior
and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding
of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior
employee.
The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse
mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by
developing management skills and learning how to work with people with
diverse background, culture, and language and personality types.
Some key points on Mentoring
• Mentoring focus on attitude development
• Conducted for management-level employees
• Mentoring is done by someone inside the company
• It is one-to-one interaction
• It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs
improvement
3.) Job Rotation : An organized and helpful way to develop talent for
the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It
is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace
someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the
designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning
of the organization.
This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and
understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a
corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study
indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s
achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments,
business units, cities, and countries.
4. Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on
knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.
• Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done
because the trainer and the trainee must understand that
documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work.
Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures
that all the points are covered in the training program. The second
step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should
focus on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere
for the trainees.
• Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while
presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When
the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and
why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually
demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and
safety instructions.
• Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee
tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant
feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of
instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may
be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee
to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then
helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct
procedure.
• Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job
frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work
habits from developing. There are various methods of training, which
can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need
to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on
trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving
training.
Off The Job Training
Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work
situations — implying that the employee does not count as
a directly productive worker while such training takes place.
Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people
to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on
the training itself. This type of training has proven more
effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. The methods of
training which are adopted for the development of
employees away from the field of the job are known as off-
the-job methods.
Methods of Off The Job Training
1.) Sensitivity Training is about making people understand about
themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in
them social sensitivity and behavioural flexibility. Social sensitivity in
one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others
feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioural flexibility is
ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. Sensitivity Training
Program requires three steps:
• Unfreezing the Old Values
• Development of New Values
• Refreezing the new ones
2.) Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful
method for analyzing and understanding the behaviour of others. In
every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person
and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This
motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction.
Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual.
An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of
behaviours. There are basically three ego states:
• Child:
• Parent:
• Adult:
3.) Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to
enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect
of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the
trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda,
processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the
trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training
without lecture format. Some of the main features of lecture method
are:
• Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings
• Less expensive
• Can be reached large number of people at once
• Knowledge building exercise
• Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee
inactivity
4.) Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that
are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes
as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from
work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances,
processes that take place in trainees’ job.
A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees
compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Training
games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because
its key components are:
• Challenge
• Rules
• Interactivity
These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning.
Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a
controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or
can find out concepts that will improve their performance.
Evaluation of Training Effectiveness
1. The Kirkpatrick Taxonomy Model:
This framework offers a comprehensive four-level strategy to evaluate
the effectiveness of any training course or program.
• Level 1: Reaction: This is the level where you gauge how the
participants responded to the training given to them.
• Level 2: Learning: In the second stage, the idea is to understand what
the participants learned from the training.
• Level 3: Behaviour: In this stage, you try to assess whether the
participants actually put what they learned into practice in their job
roles.
• Level 4: Results: In the last stage, you need to evaluate whether the
training met the stakeholders’ expectations by determining the return
on the expectations.
2. The Phillips ROI Model:
Phillips ROI model has evaluate the program’s return on investment
(ROI) by measuring the difference between training cost and training
results. Here is the step by step procedure to calculate ROI as per this
method –
• Collect the pre-training data
• Collect the post-training data
• Isolate the effects of a training program
• Convert the data to monetary gains
• Calculate the return
3. Summative and Formative Evaluation:
Assess a training program both while it’s being developed (formative evaluation), and after
it has been delivered. (summative evaluation)
How to Conduct a Formative Evaluation?
• Reviewing the training materials with one or a group of trainees
• Using the material in a situation similar to that of an actual training program to see the
impact of the material
• Holding group discussions with the trainees to gain feedback
• Assessing the material with managers and supervisors who oversee trainees
How to Conduct a Summative Evaluation?
• Testing trainees on how well they grasped the information provided
• Asking trainees for their opinion about the training program after it has been delivered
• Measuring changes in production and quality of work that accomplished post-training
• Conducting surveys or interviews with each trainer to gain a better understanding
4. Kaufman's Five Levels of Evaluation:
Kaufman’s Levels of Learning Evaluation is one of the other popular types of
training evaluation methods that build on or reacts to Kirkpatrick’s model.
The levels and considerations of this method are as below –
• Input – Kind of resources and learning materials that training teams have
at their disposal that they can use to support the learning experience.
• Process– Focuses on the delivery of the learning experience in terms of its
acceptance and how people are responding to it.
• Micro-level results– Takes into account if the learner or the learning group
acquired the knowledge and applied it to their respective jobs.
• Macro-level results– Takes into account if the performance improvements
due to the learning and application of new skills in the workplace and what
kind of benefits participants get from the learning on an organizational
level.
• Mega level impact– Considers the kind of impact that the learning has on
society or larger external stakeholder groups.
5. Anderson's Model of Learning Evaluation:
Anderson model, helps businesses to keep their business strategy a
priority. There are three stages to the Anderson Model –
• Stage 1: Evaluating your current training programs against the
business’ strategic priorities.
• Stage 2: The stage of measuring the contribution of training to
strategic business results.
• Stage 3: At this stage, you find the most relevant approaches for your
company and decide whether the ROI is worthwhile.
• If you’re not satisfied with the results of ROI measurement in stage 3,
it’s time to make improvements to your training programs.
Competency Model
• A competency model is a guideline developed by a Human Resource
department that sets out the specific skills, knowledge and behavioural
requirements that enable an employee to perform their job successfully.
• Competency models define what performance success should look like
within the organization for each individual job. The model is applied to
recruitment practices, talent management, training and performance
assessment.
• There is no standard list of competencies for any given job. The type of
competency that feeds into a competency model depends on the specific
needs of the job. Competencies can be broken down into helpful categories
to better understand the type of information that might be included, such
as:
1. Core competencies
2. Functional competencies
3. Leadership competencies
Stages of Competency Model
1. Determine what kind of process works for your
organization
2. Research available competency information
3. Interview relevant business units and executives
4. Establish the core competencies
5. Establish job-specific competencies
6. Establish leadership competencies, where needed
7. Finalize the competency list
Coaching
• Coaching is a capacity development process, in which an individual or
a group learns to improve their performances through workshops,
seminars, and other similar activities. In this process, an expert is
provided to the learners who may be a senior employee or an
external brought to the organization, to give training to the
employees and analyze their performances and other job behaviors
for the purpose of increasing efficiency and identifying training needs
for further improvement. Coaching is time bound and well planned.
• The person who directs or instructs is known as coach while the
person who is being directed is known as coachee. Coaching helps in
uncovering their professional capabilities of an employee,
understanding their strengths and weaknesses, knowing their
potential, building key skills, etc. which are helpful for the
accomplishment of the organizational goals.
Mentoring
• Mentoring is a human development activity, in which a person known
as a mentor, possesses good knowledge and experience shares it with
another person called mentee who is having less knowledge and
expertise to help him out in the development of his career, improving
his self-esteem, enhancing productivity, etc. It is all about general
development and psychological well-being of a person. Mentoring can
be provided either by a person outside the organization or an
individual who is within the organization.
• It provides encouragement, insight, and counseling to the protege for
the development of his career. The relationship between the parties
is considered as mentorship, which is a long-term informal one. The
main purpose behind mentoring is to provide open and face to face
communication between the mentor and mentee to help an
employee to attain social & emotional maturity and effectiveness.
Difference between Coaching and Mentoring
• Coaching is defined as a help given by an expert to an individual for the
improvement of his performance. Mentoring refers to an activity where
a person guides a less experienced person.
• Coaching is task oriented, but Mentoring is relationship driven.
• Coaching is for a short term. Unlike Mentoring, which lasts for a longer
duration.
• Coaching is well planned and structured while Mentoring is an informal
one.
• Coach imparts coaching, but a mentor provides mentoring.
• Coach is an expert in the concerned field whereas mentor possesses high
knowledge and experience.
• Coaching aims at improving the performance of an employee. As opposed
to Mentoring, which concentrates on career and all round development of
the employee.

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Training and Development - J.Mexon

  • 1. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT(552MG53) Unit -4: Training and Development Dr. J.Mexon , Department of Management & Commerce, DMI St. Eugene University.
  • 2. Talent Acquisition Talent acquisition is a strategy used in recruitment that focuses on finding, attracting, hiring, growing, and retaining top talents inside an organization. Talent acquisition refers to the process of identifying and acquiring skilled workers to meet your organizational needs. The talent acquisition team is responsible for identifying, acquiring, assessing, and hiring candidates to fill open positions within a company. In other words, it is a planned and structured complex of actions the HR department must do to get the best employees.
  • 3. Talent Acquisition Process 1. Organizational needs analysis 2. Approval of the job requisition 3. Vacancy intake 4. Determining selection criteria & methods 5. Searching & Attraction 6. Administer selection methods 7. Hiring decision 8. On boarding 9. Evaluation
  • 4. Talent Acquisition Methods 1. Directly hiring top talent within the industry 2. Referral program 3. Finding talented freelancers 4. Creating an attractive internship program 5. Attracting people from other cities and/or countries 6. Attracting previous employees 7. Attending job fairs, hackathons and different job market events 8. Spotting internal talent and grooming them for future roles 9. Creating temporary positions for prospective future roles
  • 5. Training • Training is concerned with increasing the knowledge and skills of employees for doing specific jobs, and development involves the growth of employees in all aspects. Whereas training increases job skills, development shapes attitudes of employees. • “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.” — Edwin B. Flippo • Training is equally important for the existing as well as the new employees. It enables the new employees to get acquainted with their jobs and also increase the job-related knowledge and skills.
  • 6. Need and Importance of Training (i) Higher Productivity: (ii) Quality Improvement: (iii) Reduction of Learning Time: (iv) Industrial Safety: (iv) Reduction of Turnover and Absenteeism: (vi) Technology Update: (vii) Effective Management:
  • 7. Steps in Training Process • Step 1: Decide If Training is needed: • Step 2: Determine What Type of Training is needed: • Step 3: Identifying Goals and Objectives: • Step 4: Implementing the Training: • Step 5: Evaluation Training Program:
  • 8. Difference between Training and Development • Training is a learning process for new employees in which they get to know about the key skills required for the job. Development is the training process for the existing employees for their all round development. • Training is a short-term process i.e. 3 to 6 months, but development is a continuous process, and so it is for the long term. • Training focuses on developing skill and knowledge for the current job. Unlike, the development which focuses on the building knowledge, understanding and competencies for overcoming with future challenges.
  • 9. • Training has a limited scope; it is specific job oriented. On the other hand, development is career oriented and hence its scope is comparatively wider than training. • In training, the trainees get a trainer who instructs them at the time of training. In contrast to development, in which the manager self-directs himself for the future assignments. • Many individuals collectively attend the training program. Development is a self-assessment procedure, and hence, one person himself is responsible for one’s development.
  • 10. On the Job Training • On the Job training takes place in a normal working situation, using actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. This is the most common method of training in which a trainee is placed on a specific job and taught the skills and knowledge necessary to perform it. • This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees.
  • 11. The procedure of formal on the job training program is: 1. The participant observes a more experienced, knowledgeable, and skilled trainer (employee) 2. The method, process, and techniques are well discussed before, during and after trainer has explained about performing the tasks 3. When the trainee is prepared, the trainee starts performing on the work place 4. The trainer provides continuing direction of work and feedback 5. The trainee is given more and more work so that he accomplishes the job flawlessly
  • 12. Techniques of On The Job Training 1.) Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance. This method best suits for the people at the top. It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. Procedure of the Coaching 1. Understand the participant’s job, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation 2. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5. Repeat step 4 until performance improves
  • 13. 2.) Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types. Some key points on Mentoring • Mentoring focus on attitude development • Conducted for management-level employees • Mentoring is done by someone inside the company • It is one-to-one interaction • It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
  • 14. 3.) Job Rotation : An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries.
  • 15. 4. Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development. • Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees. • Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions.
  • 16. • Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. • Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.
  • 17. Off The Job Training Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas. The methods of training which are adopted for the development of employees away from the field of the job are known as off- the-job methods.
  • 18. Methods of Off The Job Training 1.) Sensitivity Training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioural flexibility. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioural flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding. Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps: • Unfreezing the Old Values • Development of New Values • Refreezing the new ones
  • 19. 2.) Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behaviour of others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviours. There are basically three ego states: • Child: • Parent: • Adult:
  • 20. 3.) Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. Some of the main features of lecture method are: • Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings • Less expensive • Can be reached large number of people at once • Knowledge building exercise • Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
  • 21. 4.) Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees’ job. A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are: • Challenge • Rules • Interactivity These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance.
  • 22. Evaluation of Training Effectiveness 1. The Kirkpatrick Taxonomy Model: This framework offers a comprehensive four-level strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of any training course or program. • Level 1: Reaction: This is the level where you gauge how the participants responded to the training given to them. • Level 2: Learning: In the second stage, the idea is to understand what the participants learned from the training. • Level 3: Behaviour: In this stage, you try to assess whether the participants actually put what they learned into practice in their job roles. • Level 4: Results: In the last stage, you need to evaluate whether the training met the stakeholders’ expectations by determining the return on the expectations.
  • 23. 2. The Phillips ROI Model: Phillips ROI model has evaluate the program’s return on investment (ROI) by measuring the difference between training cost and training results. Here is the step by step procedure to calculate ROI as per this method – • Collect the pre-training data • Collect the post-training data • Isolate the effects of a training program • Convert the data to monetary gains • Calculate the return
  • 24. 3. Summative and Formative Evaluation: Assess a training program both while it’s being developed (formative evaluation), and after it has been delivered. (summative evaluation) How to Conduct a Formative Evaluation? • Reviewing the training materials with one or a group of trainees • Using the material in a situation similar to that of an actual training program to see the impact of the material • Holding group discussions with the trainees to gain feedback • Assessing the material with managers and supervisors who oversee trainees How to Conduct a Summative Evaluation? • Testing trainees on how well they grasped the information provided • Asking trainees for their opinion about the training program after it has been delivered • Measuring changes in production and quality of work that accomplished post-training • Conducting surveys or interviews with each trainer to gain a better understanding
  • 25. 4. Kaufman's Five Levels of Evaluation: Kaufman’s Levels of Learning Evaluation is one of the other popular types of training evaluation methods that build on or reacts to Kirkpatrick’s model. The levels and considerations of this method are as below – • Input – Kind of resources and learning materials that training teams have at their disposal that they can use to support the learning experience. • Process– Focuses on the delivery of the learning experience in terms of its acceptance and how people are responding to it. • Micro-level results– Takes into account if the learner or the learning group acquired the knowledge and applied it to their respective jobs. • Macro-level results– Takes into account if the performance improvements due to the learning and application of new skills in the workplace and what kind of benefits participants get from the learning on an organizational level. • Mega level impact– Considers the kind of impact that the learning has on society or larger external stakeholder groups.
  • 26. 5. Anderson's Model of Learning Evaluation: Anderson model, helps businesses to keep their business strategy a priority. There are three stages to the Anderson Model – • Stage 1: Evaluating your current training programs against the business’ strategic priorities. • Stage 2: The stage of measuring the contribution of training to strategic business results. • Stage 3: At this stage, you find the most relevant approaches for your company and decide whether the ROI is worthwhile. • If you’re not satisfied with the results of ROI measurement in stage 3, it’s time to make improvements to your training programs.
  • 27. Competency Model • A competency model is a guideline developed by a Human Resource department that sets out the specific skills, knowledge and behavioural requirements that enable an employee to perform their job successfully. • Competency models define what performance success should look like within the organization for each individual job. The model is applied to recruitment practices, talent management, training and performance assessment. • There is no standard list of competencies for any given job. The type of competency that feeds into a competency model depends on the specific needs of the job. Competencies can be broken down into helpful categories to better understand the type of information that might be included, such as: 1. Core competencies 2. Functional competencies 3. Leadership competencies
  • 28. Stages of Competency Model 1. Determine what kind of process works for your organization 2. Research available competency information 3. Interview relevant business units and executives 4. Establish the core competencies 5. Establish job-specific competencies 6. Establish leadership competencies, where needed 7. Finalize the competency list
  • 29. Coaching • Coaching is a capacity development process, in which an individual or a group learns to improve their performances through workshops, seminars, and other similar activities. In this process, an expert is provided to the learners who may be a senior employee or an external brought to the organization, to give training to the employees and analyze their performances and other job behaviors for the purpose of increasing efficiency and identifying training needs for further improvement. Coaching is time bound and well planned. • The person who directs or instructs is known as coach while the person who is being directed is known as coachee. Coaching helps in uncovering their professional capabilities of an employee, understanding their strengths and weaknesses, knowing their potential, building key skills, etc. which are helpful for the accomplishment of the organizational goals.
  • 30. Mentoring • Mentoring is a human development activity, in which a person known as a mentor, possesses good knowledge and experience shares it with another person called mentee who is having less knowledge and expertise to help him out in the development of his career, improving his self-esteem, enhancing productivity, etc. It is all about general development and psychological well-being of a person. Mentoring can be provided either by a person outside the organization or an individual who is within the organization. • It provides encouragement, insight, and counseling to the protege for the development of his career. The relationship between the parties is considered as mentorship, which is a long-term informal one. The main purpose behind mentoring is to provide open and face to face communication between the mentor and mentee to help an employee to attain social & emotional maturity and effectiveness.
  • 31. Difference between Coaching and Mentoring • Coaching is defined as a help given by an expert to an individual for the improvement of his performance. Mentoring refers to an activity where a person guides a less experienced person. • Coaching is task oriented, but Mentoring is relationship driven. • Coaching is for a short term. Unlike Mentoring, which lasts for a longer duration. • Coaching is well planned and structured while Mentoring is an informal one. • Coach imparts coaching, but a mentor provides mentoring. • Coach is an expert in the concerned field whereas mentor possesses high knowledge and experience. • Coaching aims at improving the performance of an employee. As opposed to Mentoring, which concentrates on career and all round development of the employee.