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Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Patterns of Kanban
Appropriate designs for your level of
organizational maturity
Presenter:
David J. Anderson
Lean Kanban North
America
San Diego
May 2016
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
The Kanban Method
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
The Kanban Method
Simple Underlying Principles
1. Intangible Goods (professional services)
businesses can be managed like physical,
tangible goods businesses
2. Represent intangible goods with tangible
artifacts
3. Make invisible work & workflows visible
4. Control & limit inventory of intangible goods
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
The Kanban Method
Service Delivery Principles
1. Understand and focus on your customers’
needs and expectations
2. Manage the work, let people self-organize
around it
3. Evolve your management policies to improve
customer & business outcomes
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Seeing Services
Learn to view what you do now as a set of services. Don’t reorg,
just see things differently!
Examples:
HR provides services throughout the organization, but they
also need services from IT
Marketing provides services to product development but they
need services from Sales and from IT
IT provides services to Customer Support. There is an
interdependency between Customer Support, QA, and IT
Engineering.
Different feature teams or product teams may have
dependencies on each other
Many groups are dependent upon specialist individuals
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
F
F
O
M
N
K
J
I
Pull
For each service implement a Kanban “pull” system
Ideas
D
Dev
Ready
G
5
Ongoing
Development Testing
Done
3 3
Test
Ready
5
F
B
CPull
Pull
*
There is capacity here
UAT
Release
Ready
∞ ∞
Pulling work from development will
create capacity here too –
the pull signals move upstream!
Now we have capacity
to replenish our ready
buffer
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Commitment is deferred
E
D
Commitment point
F
F
FF
F
F F
G
Pull
Wish to avoid aborting after commitment
Ideas
Dev
Ready
5
Ongoing
Development Testing
Done
3 3
Test
Ready
5
UAT
Release
Ready
∞ ∞
We are committing to getting
started. We are certain we want
to take delivery.
Ideas remain optional and
(ideally) unprioritized
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Discovery Kanban Prepares Options
Ready
for
Engin-
eering
F
I
Comm-
itted
D
4 Ongoing
Development
Done
3
J
K
12
Testing
Verification
3
L
Commitment point
4 -
Requi-
rements
Analysis
2412 -
Risk
Analysis
4824 -
Pool
of
Ideas
∞
Min & Max limits
ensure sufficient
options are always
available
Committed WorkOptions
Discarded
O
Reject
P Q
$$$ spent acquiring options
$$$ spent converting options
Embedded Options
Done
Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Roles
Ready
for
Engin-
eering
F
I
Comm-
itted
D
4 Ongoing
Development
Done
3
J
K
12
Testing
Verification
3
L
Commitment point
4 -
Requi-
rements
Analysis
2412 -
Risk
Analysis
4824 -
Pool
of
Ideas
∞
Service Delivery ManagerService Request Manager
Discarded
O
Reject
P Q
Marshals Options Manages Flow
Done
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
The Kanban Method
Change Management Principles
1. Start with what you do now
 Understanding current processes, as actually practiced
 Respecting existing roles, responsibilities & job titles
2. Gain agreement to pursue improvement
through evolutionary change
3. Encourage acts of leadership at all levels
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
The Kanban Method
General Practices
1. Visualize (with a kanban board 看板)
2. Limit work-in-progress (with kanban かんばん)
3. Manage flow
4. Make policies explicit
5. Implement feedback loops
6. Improve collaboratively, evolve experimentally
(using models & the scientific method)
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Strategy
Review
Risk
Review
Monthly
Service
Delivery
Review
Bi-WeeklyQuarterly
Kanban
Meeting
Daily
Operations
Review
Monthly
Replenishment &
Commitment
Meeting
Weekly
Delivery
Planning
Meeting
Per delivery cadence
change change
change
change
change
change
change change
change
info
info
info
info
info
info
info
info
info
change info
Kanban Cadences
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Kanban Design Patterns
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Personal Kanban
Backlog
F
E
G
D
Next Done
3
In-progress
3∞ ∞
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Aggregated Personal Kanban
Backlog
F
E
Team
Member
G
D
Next Done
3
In-progress
3
Joe
Peter
Steven
Joann
per person∞ ∞per person
At this level, we are still focused on
organizing & managing people rather than
enabling people to self-organize around the
work & managing its flow
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Team Kanban
Backlog
F
E
G
D
Next Done
3
In-progress
3∞ ∞
GY
PB
DE Avatar for each
team memberStill at a single
team level but
maturing to focus
on managing work
and less on
managing workers
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Poorly Understood or Emergent Workflow
F
E
G
D
Next Done
3
In-progress
6 ∞
GY
PB
DE
Wide in-progress
column with tickets
positioned left-to-right
with estimate of
completeness
Horizontal position shows percentage complete
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
A
Proposed Projects
B
D
E
F
K
H
G
Projects-in-progress
Complete
0%
Complete
100%
C
Simple Portfolio Visualization
J
I
M
N
O
L
Tickets represent Projects,
MVPs or MMFs
Horizontal position shows percentage complete
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
A
Strategic
40% budget
Operational
40% budget
Tactical
20% budget
Allocation of personnel
Total = 100%
B
D
E
F
K
H
G
Projects-in-progress
Complete
0%
Complete
100%
C
Color may indicate
cost of delay (or other risk)
Visualizing Risk in a Portfolio Kanban
Size of ticket
indicates budget
A total of 4 risk dimensions are shown on this
board
Schedule progress
Business contribution capacity allocation
Cost of Delay (and class of service)
Project size or budget
Horizontal position shows percentage complete
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
A
Proposed Projects
D
E
F
K
H
G
Projects-in-progress
Complete
0%
Complete
100%
C
Earned Value Portfolio Visualization
J
I
M
N
O
L
percentage scope complete
Percentagebudget/scheduleused
Size of ticket
indicates budget
B
Safe
Management
Attention
RequiredAt Risk
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
O
P
R
N
M
L
J
Per Person WIP Limit
Done
F
E
I
Pending
G
D
GY
PB DE
MN
AB
Dev/Build/
Test/Deploy
Dev
Ready
GY
GY
PB
PB
MN
MN
DE
DE
AB
AB
K
Bench
Specify
∞∞ ∞
Unbounded
Queue
Delayed
WIP
At this level, we are
focused on managing
work and enabling people
to self-organize around it
but we aren’t limiting WIP
in the system as a whole.
Hence, service delivery will
not be predictable
Moving beyond a single
team to a service
delivery workflow
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Decoupled Cadences & Constant WIP
Backlog
F
E
G
D
Committed
Ready
For
Delivery
In-progress
6
∞ ∞
GY
PB
DE
Delivered
∞
Replenishment
The frequency of system
replenishment should reflect
arrival rate of new
information and the
transaction & coordination
costs of holding a meeting
The frequency of delivery should
reflect the transaction &
coordination costs of
deployment plus costs &
tolerance of customer to take
delivery
WIP limit should be
sufficient to keep the
team busy until the
next replenishment
meeting
Delivery
CONWIP
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Aggregated Team Kanban
Done
Pool
of
Ideas
F
E
I
Next
Deploy-
ment
Ready
G
D
GY
PB
DE MN
5 ∞
P1
AB
Ongoing
Development Testing
Done Ongoing Done
3 3
Team 1 Kanban
∞ ∞
Team 2 Kanban
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Aggregated Team Kanban
Done
Pool
of
Ideas
F
E
I
Next
Deploy-
ment
Ready
G
D
GY
PB
DE MN
5 ∞
P1
AB
Ongoing
Development Testing
Done Ongoing Done
3 3∞ ∞
Also
known
as
“infinite
done
queues”
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Aggregated Team Kanban
Done
Pool
of
Ideas
F
E
I
Next
Deploy-
ment
Ready
G
D
GY
PB
DE MN
5 ∞
P1
AB
Ongoing
Development Testing
Done Ongoing Done
3 3
Infinite limits on Done columns means that there really
isn’t a kanban pull system present.
This style of proto-kanban controls multi-tasking but
doesn’t limit workflow WIP
∞ ∞
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Q
P
O
M
L
K
J
I
Kanban can be represented with slots
Ideas
D
Engin-
eering
Ready
G
Ongoing
Development
Testing
Done
Test
Ready
F
B
CPull
Pull
*
UAT
Deploy-
ment
Ready
An empty slot signals
pull
Pull
Pull
Pull
I
Physical slot is a kanban
The tickets on the board are not
the kanban. Believing the tickets
are the kanban is a common
misconception
This board and
the next two all
look different
but they all
visualize the
same identical
kanban system
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
F
F
O
M
N
K
J
I
Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible
Ideas
D
I
Dev
Ready
G
Development Testing
Test
Ready
F B
C
UAT
Release
Ready
In-progress
Legend
Done
Blocked - issue
Blocked - defect
Colors are used
to denote state
Physical token such as a
magnet is a kanban
Moving done items
down below a line is an
optional enhancement
seen in some
implementations
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
F
F
O
M
N
K
J
I
Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible
Ideas
D
I
Dev
Ready
G
Development Testing
Test
Ready
F B
C
UAT
Release
Ready
In-progress
Legend
Done
Blocked - issue
Blocked - defect
Override on kanban
limit introduces
additional “blocked –
issue” kanban
People working on
blocked item “A”
have been
redirected to
work on item “I”
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
F
F
O
M
N
K
J
I
Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible
Ideas
D
I
Dev
Ready
G
Development Testing
Test
Ready
F B
C
UAT
Release
Ready
In-progress
Legend
Done
Blocked - issue
Blocked - defect
Using physical slots in the previous
example has been shown to create
inertia to modification & improvement
Using movable tokens allows for
WIP limits to be easily modified
and provides a natural signal
token mechanism
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
F
F
FF
F
F J
I
Declaring a kanban quantity is even simpler
Ideas
D
I
Engin-
eering
Ready
G
5
Ongoing
Development Testing
Done
3 3
Test
Ready
5
F
B
CPull
PullThese are the virtual kanban
*
These are the virtual kanbanThese are the (virtual) kanban These WIP limits
serve the same
function as the
magnets or slots
This board has even less maintenance
overhead than the magnet board
UAT
Deploy-
ment
Ready
∞ ∞
A “virtual kanban” pull signal is
created by subtracting the column
number from tickets currently in
the column
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Discovery Kanban Prepares Options
Engin-
eering
Ready
F
I
Comm-
itted
D
4 Ongoing
Development
Done
3
J
K
12
Testing
Verification
3
L
Commitment point
4 -
Requi-
rements
Analysis
2412 -
Risk
Analysis
4824 -
Pool
of
Ideas
∞
Min & Max limits
ensure sufficient
options are always
available
Discarded
O
Reject
P Q
Done
Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Single Service, Multiple Classes of Service
Allocate capacity with kanban limit per color
5 4 4 5 2= 20 total
Allocation
10 = 50%
...
+1 = +5%
4 = 20%
6 = 30%
Input
Buffer In Prog DoneDoneIn Prog
DevelopmentAnalysis Build
Ready Test
Release
Ready
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
3 Services Aggregated Together
5 4 4 5 2 = 20 total
Change Req
12
Maintenance
2
Production Defect
6
Allocation
Total = 20
Input
Buffer In Prog Done
Build
Ready Test
Release
ReadyDoneIn Prog
DevelopmentAnalysis
Released
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Change
Requests
3
1
Prod.
Defects
Maintenance
Usability
Improvement
2
1
Improving Liquidity through Labor Pool Flexibility
Teams
F
E
Engin-
eering
Ready
G
D
GY
PB
DE
MN
2
P1
AB
Ongoing
Analysis Testing
Done Verification Acceptance
3 3
Ongoing
Development
Done
3
Joe
Peter
Steven
Joann
David
Rhonda
Brian
Ashok
Team
Lead
Junior who will be rotated
through all 4 teams
Generalist or T-shaped
people who can move
flexibly across rows on
the board to keep work
flowing
It’s typical to see splits of
fixed team workers versus
flexible system workers of
between 40-60%
Roughly half the labor pool
are flexible workers
Promotions from junior
team member to flexible
worker with an avatar
clearly visualize why a pay
rise is justified. Flexible
workers help manage
liquidity risk better!
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Organizational Maturity
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Personal Kanban
Aggregated
Personal Kanban
Team Kanban
Emergent/Undefined
Workflow
Per Person WIP Limit
CONWIP
Physical space
kanban
Physical token
kanban
Virtual Kanban
Classes of service
Capacity allocation
Liquidity optimization
Aggregated teams
Patterns of Kanban Board Designs
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Risk Hedging
Risk Management
Benefits of improving maturity
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Learning&improvement
Formula for evolutionary
change …
 Stressor
 Reflection Mechanism
 Leadership
Stressor
ReflectionMechanism
Kanban
Meeting
Risk Review
& SDR
Ops Review
Strategy
Review
Personal
WIP Limit
Column
WIP Limit
Row
WIP Limit
Strategy vs
Capability
Visualization
Replenishment
& Delivery
Planning
Personal
Reflection
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Conclusion
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Team Kanban
Practitioner
KanbanSystem
Design
Enterprise
Services
Planning
Lean Kanban Class Curricula
Kanban
Management
Professional
KanbanCoachingProfessional
AccreditedKanbanTrainer
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Thank you!
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
About
David Anderson is an innovator in
management of 21st Century
businesses that employ creative
people who “think for a living” . He
leads a training, consulting,
publishing and event planning
business dedicated to developing,
promoting and implementing new
management thinking & methods…
He has 30+ years experience in the high technology industry
starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has
led software organizations delivering superior productivity
and quality using innovative methods at large companies such
as Sprint and Motorola.
David defined Enterprise Services Planning and originated
Kanban Method an adaptive approach to improved service
delivery. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons
in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban.
David is Chairman & CEO of Lean Kanban Inc., a business
operating globally, dedicated to providing quality training &
events to bring Kanban and Enterprise Services Planning to
businesses who employ those who must “think for a living.”
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Appendices
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
Books
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
2010 – Kanban “blue book”
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
2012 Lessons in Agile Management
The heavily under-rated book
that underpins the Kanban
Coaching Masterclass and most
of the theory behind the
Kanban Method
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
2014 Kanban from the Inside
Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja

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Patterns of Kanban Maturity

  • 1. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Patterns of Kanban Appropriate designs for your level of organizational maturity Presenter: David J. Anderson Lean Kanban North America San Diego May 2016
  • 2. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method
  • 3. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method Simple Underlying Principles 1. Intangible Goods (professional services) businesses can be managed like physical, tangible goods businesses 2. Represent intangible goods with tangible artifacts 3. Make invisible work & workflows visible 4. Control & limit inventory of intangible goods
  • 4. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method Service Delivery Principles 1. Understand and focus on your customers’ needs and expectations 2. Manage the work, let people self-organize around it 3. Evolve your management policies to improve customer & business outcomes
  • 5. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Seeing Services Learn to view what you do now as a set of services. Don’t reorg, just see things differently! Examples: HR provides services throughout the organization, but they also need services from IT Marketing provides services to product development but they need services from Sales and from IT IT provides services to Customer Support. There is an interdependency between Customer Support, QA, and IT Engineering. Different feature teams or product teams may have dependencies on each other Many groups are dependent upon specialist individuals
  • 6. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Pull For each service implement a Kanban “pull” system Ideas D Dev Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull Pull * There is capacity here UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ Pulling work from development will create capacity here too – the pull signals move upstream! Now we have capacity to replenish our ready buffer
  • 7. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Commitment is deferred E D Commitment point F F FF F F F G Pull Wish to avoid aborting after commitment Ideas Dev Ready 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 UAT Release Ready ∞ ∞ We are committing to getting started. We are certain we want to take delivery. Ideas remain optional and (ideally) unprioritized
  • 8. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Discovery Kanban Prepares Options Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Min & Max limits ensure sufficient options are always available Committed WorkOptions Discarded O Reject P Q $$$ spent acquiring options $$$ spent converting options Embedded Options Done Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
  • 9. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Roles Ready for Engin- eering F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Service Delivery ManagerService Request Manager Discarded O Reject P Q Marshals Options Manages Flow Done
  • 10. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method Change Management Principles 1. Start with what you do now  Understanding current processes, as actually practiced  Respecting existing roles, responsibilities & job titles 2. Gain agreement to pursue improvement through evolutionary change 3. Encourage acts of leadership at all levels
  • 11. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja The Kanban Method General Practices 1. Visualize (with a kanban board 看板) 2. Limit work-in-progress (with kanban かんばん) 3. Manage flow 4. Make policies explicit 5. Implement feedback loops 6. Improve collaboratively, evolve experimentally (using models & the scientific method)
  • 12. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Strategy Review Risk Review Monthly Service Delivery Review Bi-WeeklyQuarterly Kanban Meeting Daily Operations Review Monthly Replenishment & Commitment Meeting Weekly Delivery Planning Meeting Per delivery cadence change change change change change change change change change info info info info info info info info info change info Kanban Cadences
  • 13. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Kanban Design Patterns
  • 14. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Personal Kanban Backlog F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3∞ ∞
  • 15. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Personal Kanban Backlog F E Team Member G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3 Joe Peter Steven Joann per person∞ ∞per person At this level, we are still focused on organizing & managing people rather than enabling people to self-organize around the work & managing its flow
  • 16. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Team Kanban Backlog F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 3∞ ∞ GY PB DE Avatar for each team memberStill at a single team level but maturing to focus on managing work and less on managing workers
  • 17. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Poorly Understood or Emergent Workflow F E G D Next Done 3 In-progress 6 ∞ GY PB DE Wide in-progress column with tickets positioned left-to-right with estimate of completeness Horizontal position shows percentage complete
  • 18. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja A Proposed Projects B D E F K H G Projects-in-progress Complete 0% Complete 100% C Simple Portfolio Visualization J I M N O L Tickets represent Projects, MVPs or MMFs Horizontal position shows percentage complete
  • 19. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja A Strategic 40% budget Operational 40% budget Tactical 20% budget Allocation of personnel Total = 100% B D E F K H G Projects-in-progress Complete 0% Complete 100% C Color may indicate cost of delay (or other risk) Visualizing Risk in a Portfolio Kanban Size of ticket indicates budget A total of 4 risk dimensions are shown on this board Schedule progress Business contribution capacity allocation Cost of Delay (and class of service) Project size or budget Horizontal position shows percentage complete
  • 20. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja A Proposed Projects D E F K H G Projects-in-progress Complete 0% Complete 100% C Earned Value Portfolio Visualization J I M N O L percentage scope complete Percentagebudget/scheduleused Size of ticket indicates budget B Safe Management Attention RequiredAt Risk
  • 21. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja O P R N M L J Per Person WIP Limit Done F E I Pending G D GY PB DE MN AB Dev/Build/ Test/Deploy Dev Ready GY GY PB PB MN MN DE DE AB AB K Bench Specify ∞∞ ∞ Unbounded Queue Delayed WIP At this level, we are focused on managing work and enabling people to self-organize around it but we aren’t limiting WIP in the system as a whole. Hence, service delivery will not be predictable Moving beyond a single team to a service delivery workflow
  • 22. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Decoupled Cadences & Constant WIP Backlog F E G D Committed Ready For Delivery In-progress 6 ∞ ∞ GY PB DE Delivered ∞ Replenishment The frequency of system replenishment should reflect arrival rate of new information and the transaction & coordination costs of holding a meeting The frequency of delivery should reflect the transaction & coordination costs of deployment plus costs & tolerance of customer to take delivery WIP limit should be sufficient to keep the team busy until the next replenishment meeting Delivery CONWIP
  • 23. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3 Team 1 Kanban ∞ ∞ Team 2 Kanban
  • 24. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3∞ ∞ Also known as “infinite done queues”
  • 25. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Aggregated Team Kanban Done Pool of Ideas F E I Next Deploy- ment Ready G D GY PB DE MN 5 ∞ P1 AB Ongoing Development Testing Done Ongoing Done 3 3 Infinite limits on Done columns means that there really isn’t a kanban pull system present. This style of proto-kanban controls multi-tasking but doesn’t limit workflow WIP ∞ ∞
  • 26. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Q P O M L K J I Kanban can be represented with slots Ideas D Engin- eering Ready G Ongoing Development Testing Done Test Ready F B CPull Pull * UAT Deploy- ment Ready An empty slot signals pull Pull Pull Pull I Physical slot is a kanban The tickets on the board are not the kanban. Believing the tickets are the kanban is a common misconception This board and the next two all look different but they all visualize the same identical kanban system
  • 27. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Colors are used to denote state Physical token such as a magnet is a kanban Moving done items down below a line is an optional enhancement seen in some implementations
  • 28. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Override on kanban limit introduces additional “blocked – issue” kanban People working on blocked item “A” have been redirected to work on item “I”
  • 29. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F O M N K J I Using movable tokens as kanban is more flexible Ideas D I Dev Ready G Development Testing Test Ready F B C UAT Release Ready In-progress Legend Done Blocked - issue Blocked - defect Using physical slots in the previous example has been shown to create inertia to modification & improvement Using movable tokens allows for WIP limits to be easily modified and provides a natural signal token mechanism
  • 30. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja F F FF F F J I Declaring a kanban quantity is even simpler Ideas D I Engin- eering Ready G 5 Ongoing Development Testing Done 3 3 Test Ready 5 F B CPull PullThese are the virtual kanban * These are the virtual kanbanThese are the (virtual) kanban These WIP limits serve the same function as the magnets or slots This board has even less maintenance overhead than the magnet board UAT Deploy- ment Ready ∞ ∞ A “virtual kanban” pull signal is created by subtracting the column number from tickets currently in the column
  • 31. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Discovery Kanban Prepares Options Engin- eering Ready F I Comm- itted D 4 Ongoing Development Done 3 J K 12 Testing Verification 3 L Commitment point 4 - Requi- rements Analysis 2412 - Risk Analysis 4824 - Pool of Ideas ∞ Min & Max limits ensure sufficient options are always available Discarded O Reject P Q Done Delivery KanbanDiscovery Kanban
  • 32. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Single Service, Multiple Classes of Service Allocate capacity with kanban limit per color 5 4 4 5 2= 20 total Allocation 10 = 50% ... +1 = +5% 4 = 20% 6 = 30% Input Buffer In Prog DoneDoneIn Prog DevelopmentAnalysis Build Ready Test Release Ready
  • 33. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 3 Services Aggregated Together 5 4 4 5 2 = 20 total Change Req 12 Maintenance 2 Production Defect 6 Allocation Total = 20 Input Buffer In Prog Done Build Ready Test Release ReadyDoneIn Prog DevelopmentAnalysis Released
  • 34. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Change Requests 3 1 Prod. Defects Maintenance Usability Improvement 2 1 Improving Liquidity through Labor Pool Flexibility Teams F E Engin- eering Ready G D GY PB DE MN 2 P1 AB Ongoing Analysis Testing Done Verification Acceptance 3 3 Ongoing Development Done 3 Joe Peter Steven Joann David Rhonda Brian Ashok Team Lead Junior who will be rotated through all 4 teams Generalist or T-shaped people who can move flexibly across rows on the board to keep work flowing It’s typical to see splits of fixed team workers versus flexible system workers of between 40-60% Roughly half the labor pool are flexible workers Promotions from junior team member to flexible worker with an avatar clearly visualize why a pay rise is justified. Flexible workers help manage liquidity risk better!
  • 35. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Organizational Maturity
  • 36. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja
  • 37. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Personal Kanban Aggregated Personal Kanban Team Kanban Emergent/Undefined Workflow Per Person WIP Limit CONWIP Physical space kanban Physical token kanban Virtual Kanban Classes of service Capacity allocation Liquidity optimization Aggregated teams Patterns of Kanban Board Designs
  • 38. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Risk Hedging Risk Management Benefits of improving maturity
  • 39. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Learning&improvement Formula for evolutionary change …  Stressor  Reflection Mechanism  Leadership Stressor ReflectionMechanism Kanban Meeting Risk Review & SDR Ops Review Strategy Review Personal WIP Limit Column WIP Limit Row WIP Limit Strategy vs Capability Visualization Replenishment & Delivery Planning Personal Reflection
  • 40. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Conclusion
  • 41. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Team Kanban Practitioner KanbanSystem Design Enterprise Services Planning Lean Kanban Class Curricula Kanban Management Professional KanbanCoachingProfessional AccreditedKanbanTrainer
  • 42. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Thank you!
  • 43. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja About David Anderson is an innovator in management of 21st Century businesses that employ creative people who “think for a living” . He leads a training, consulting, publishing and event planning business dedicated to developing, promoting and implementing new management thinking & methods… He has 30+ years experience in the high technology industry starting with computer games in the early 1980’s. He has led software organizations delivering superior productivity and quality using innovative methods at large companies such as Sprint and Motorola. David defined Enterprise Services Planning and originated Kanban Method an adaptive approach to improved service delivery. His latest book, published in June 2012, is, Lessons in Agile Management – On the Road to Kanban. David is Chairman & CEO of Lean Kanban Inc., a business operating globally, dedicated to providing quality training & events to bring Kanban and Enterprise Services Planning to businesses who employ those who must “think for a living.”
  • 44. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Appendices
  • 45. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja Books
  • 46. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 2010 – Kanban “blue book”
  • 47. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 2012 Lessons in Agile Management The heavily under-rated book that underpins the Kanban Coaching Masterclass and most of the theory behind the Kanban Method
  • 48. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja 2014 Kanban from the Inside
  • 49. Copyright Lean Kanban Inc.dja@leankanban.com @lki_dja

Editor's Notes

  1. Briefly explain the 3 service delivery principles. Reflect on the values embedded in these statements: customer focus; respect; understanding. The Kanban Method has 2 sets of principles: the service delivery principles; and the change management principles.
  2. Briefly explain the 3 service delivery principles. Reflect on the values embedded in these statements: customer focus; respect; understanding. The Kanban Method has 2 sets of principles: the service delivery principles; and the change management principles.
  3. Think in terms of services rather than departments or functional groups: look at the way you work, who your customers are, the activities involved, and how the work flows.
  4. As soon as work is completed at one step, it can be immediately pulled to the next step. This creates capacity to take on new work.
  5. The first commitment point is when we pull a work item.
  6. Discovery Kanban is also known as upstream kanban. The discovery and delivery kanban boards are visualized together on a single board for simplicity of teaching. It is more typical for these to be separate boards often in separate offices.
  7. Some organizations are developing specific roles and titles related to discovery and delivery activities.
  8. There are 3 Change Management Principles designed to frame an evolutionary approach to improvement. Be aware that the Kanban Method is applied to the way you work now, and it will help you evolve the way you work gradually over time. [Briefly walk through each of the principles. See David’s blog at http://www.djaa.com/principles-general-practices-kanban-method if you want help with how to explain each.]
  9. There are 6 General Practices in the Kanban Method. [Walk briefly through each of the 6 Practices. See David Anderson’s blog at http://www.djaa.com/principles-general-practices-kanban-method if you want help with how to explain]
  10. One service practice of the Kanban Method is to build an information flow via formal reviews and meetings. This improves collaboration and agility.
  11. Team Kanban boards tend to be locally focused and aimed at helping team members visualize and focus on their own work. There may be no real notion of a customer request and no concept of a service delivery workflow The main focus of proto-Kanban is reduction of multitasking, also known as, “relief from overburdening”. Overburdening is know as “muri” in Lean or Toyota Production System. Relief from overburdening refers to individuals and not the whole system which can still be overburdened, slow and unpredictable.
  12. Notice the row for each person. This is more about managing people than managing work. The main focus of proto-Kanban is reduction of multitasking and individual relief from overburdening but the system can still be overburdened, slow and unpredictable.
  13. Team Kanban boards tend to be locally focused and aimed at helping team members visualize and focus on their own work. There may be no real notion of a customer request and no concept of a service delivery workflow The main focus of proto-Kanban is reduction of multitasking, also known as, “relief from overburdening”. Overburdening is know as “muri” in Lean or Toyota Production System. Relief from overburdening refers to individuals and not the whole system which can still be overburdened, slow and unpredictable.
  14. Team Kanban boards tend to be locally focused and aimed at helping team members visualize and focus on their own work. There may be no real notion of a customer request and no concept of a service delivery workflow The main focus of proto-Kanban is reduction of multitasking, also known as, “relief from overburdening”. Overburdening is know as “muri” in Lean or Toyota Production System. Relief from overburdening refers to individuals and not the whole system which can still be overburdened, slow and unpredictable.
  15. An example of a per-person WIP limit using avatar magnets. The queues with no limit mean that the cycle time can’t be measured across the workflow.
  16. Decoupled cadences is a typical response to a challenged Scrum (or Agile timeboxed iteration) process. The concept of the timebox is removed and instead a WIP limit is set to be at least large enough for the time period of a single replenishment cycle. The replenishment cycle may initially be the same as the Scrum cadence. A separate delivery cadence is set. Again it may default to the same cadence as the Scrum it is replacing. Lead times are not restricted to a single cycle of the system, instead replenishment is controlled to the WIP limit. This form of setting a constant work-in-progress limit for the whole system exists in industrial engineering and is known as CONWIP system (for constant WIP). Technically this is a full pull system. However, when applying this to Agile teams using a method like Scrum, the constant WIP is applied over only two states – committed and in-progress, so we might view this as rather a shallow or degenerate form of a CONWIP implementation. Decoupled cadences is often seen together with Per Person WIP limit
  17. As an understanding of a service delivery workflow emerges, it can make sense to aggregate several team kanban boards into a single board. However, the queues in-between each team remain unlimited. The entire workflow isn’t a pull system but individual teams can focus on specific items of work and benefit from relief from over-burdening.
  18. Aggregated Team Kanban is also know as “infinite done queues” for the obvious reason that the queues between each team activity are unbounded
  19. An aggregated team kanban workflow provides relief from overburdening and is likely to benefit quality but the system can still be overburdened, slow and unpredictable. Customer service may not improve much and customers may still be dissatisfied with their expectations unmet.
  20. Slides in the section are for discussion of review material, as needed. === Physical spaces on the board are one way to express available slots (kanban: capacity) for new work.
  21. Slides in the section are for discussion of review material, as needed. The white circle magnets are slots (kanban) that represent capacity for WIP, rather than putting numbers at the top of each column or displaying physical slots for capacity. Colored magnets could indicate state in addition to indicating a slot.
  22. Slides in the section are for discussion of review material, as needed. Physical white circle magnets can represent capacity for WIP, rather than putting numbers at the top of each column or displaying physical slots for capacity. There are various ways to communicate information on a kanban board: colors, shapes, locations, etc
  23. Slides in the section are for discussion of review material, as needed. Physical tokens can also be used to communicate other information. There are various ways to communicate information on a kanban board: colors, shapes, locations, etc
  24. Slides in the section are for discussion of review material, as needed. ---- Numbers written at the top of the columns can also express available slots (capacity) for new work.
  25. Discovery Kanban is also known as upstream kanban. The discovery and delivery kanban boards are visualized together on a single board for simplicity of teaching. It is more typical for these to be separate boards often in separate offices.
  26. The assumption on this design is a single work item type. There are no rows and no WIP limits or capacity allocations for such rows. Therefore we have a single service to deliver a single type of work, however 4 classes of service are offered.
  27. Unlike the previous example, this board visualizes 3 work item types and hence 3 services are being offered. (example, “We fix production defects” service) The colors are likely to represent classes of service. Each row has a WIP limit indicating a capacity allocation across different service types. This will have been implemented to shape demand and hedge risk across the different work item types.