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Research Journal of Education
ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886
Vol. 5, Issue. 10, pp: 177-182, 2019
URL: https://arpgweb.com/journal/journal/15
DOI: https://doi.org/10.32861/rje.510.177.182
Academic Research Publishing
Group
*Corresponding Author
177
Original Research Open Access
Parenting a Factor Associated With Deviancy Amongst Students at Bokamoso
Junior Secondary School
Katlego Motlhankane*
Department of Agricultural Education Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana
Tapela Bulala
Department of Agricultural Education Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana
Masa Veronicah Motaung
Department of Agricultural Education Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine how parenting contributes to deviancy in school among students at
Bokamoso Junior Secondary School. The study was a descriptive survey in which a questionnaire was administered
to Form 2 and Form 3 students of Bokamoso Secondary School to collect data. The results were then presented using
mean and standard deviation. The results showed that majority of students were male around the age of 16-20 years.
The results further revealed that parental involvement has a significant influence on students being deviant, which
was given by an average mean of 2.55 which is above the criterion mean of 2.50 and average standard deviation of
0.572. It was concluded that parenting is factor associated with a deviancy amongst students at Bokamoso Secondary
School. It was therefore recommended that they should be a joint disciplinary council consisting of parents or
guardian, teachers and school management which usually recommends on how to deal or act on certain offences
depending on the gravity of offences.
Keywords: Parenting; Deviancy; Behavior; Guidance and counseling; Junior secondary school.
CC BY: Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0
1. Introduction
No parent is perfect and there are likely to make some mistakes in an effort raise their child to the best of their
abilities. In African societies acting out, or misbehavior, is often associated with ineffective parenting and seen a
reflection failed parenting. Ineffective parenting can directly and indirectly influence deviancy amongst children at
school (Martinez, 2007).
According Wairimu (2013), a particular behavior is not acceptable or is antisocial if any of these three criteria
are seen; the behaviour does not allow a person to function effectively with others as a member of society, if the
behaviour does not permit the person to meet his or her own needs and the behaviour has a negative effect in the
wellbeing of others hence the term deviancy which is believed to be recognized as violation of cultural norms
(Roberts, 1981). It is a very broad concept and many characteristics are used by members of society in identifying
deviance. One familiar type of deviance is crime, or the violation of norms formally enacted into criminal law. A
special category of crime is juvenile delinquency, or the violation of legal standards by the young. It is pointed out
that deviance can be negative or positive, but in that it stems from difference it causes us to react to another person
as an "outsider (Marvin, 2010). Deviance is not simply a matter of free choice or personal failings. Both conformity
and deviance are shaped by society, and this is evident in three ways (Lawrence and William, 2014). It exists only in
relation to cultural norms; people become deviant as others define them that way, and both rule-making and rule-
breaking involve social power. When parents are lacking in skills such as anger management and conflict resolution,
they will likely have difficulties modeling this behavior for their children. This, in turn, leaves children with poor
coping skills for common occurrences, such as anger, disappointment and frustration. BBC.com Health section
contributor James Tighe also notes that having a strong support network and realistic appraisals or perceptions of
life's problems are essential coping strategies. A lack of healthful coping strategies can lead to many overall health
and well-being concerns in children (Edwin, 2007).
Youth deviant behaviour is an escalating problem in schools and society today. There are many different factors
that can be blamed for this problem. During the last decade of the twentieth century, people began searching for
answers to this dilemma which is haunting all countries (Marvin, 2010). Many tragic school sagas such as kids
stabbing one another during fights and other making threats to teachers has taken place within the last decades that
have gained the attention of the public. As of now, no one can give the right answer to the problem or the reason
why it happens because there is no right answer yet and nobody can be sure that they know the cause. All they have
to go by are the opinions of different people. In recent years, incidences/ reports of deviant behavior in school
mainly due to poor parenting at home has become more serious, consistently poor parenting can have a negative
impact on kids and most parents seem to be unaware of these matter as what attitudes a student displays at home
may internally differ with how he/she upholds him/herself in school (Marvin, 2010). The is mostly illustrated by
Research Journal of Education
178
Parents who neglect their children's educational needs which will contribute to poor academic performance in their
children as it has shown that parental involvement in a child's education vastly improves academic achievement
(Marvin, 2010). IF for a say a parent displays characteristics of abusive behaviour. Such children for instance end
becoming bullies which is usually seen as a particular subset of aggressive and violent behaviours. The very serious
nature of some bullying has led to debate whether some forms of bullying could be conceptualized as „hate crime.‟
Teachers and schools focus most on various pupil „behaviours‟ (Lawrence and William, 2014). Most often they refer
to „disruptive‟, „disaffected behaviours, or sometimes behaviour is said to be „challenging and they end up being left
with question such as where does these behavior come from? These terms are associated with the particular focus of
the behavioural description: for example, „disruptive‟ refers to the interruption of the work of the teacher and other
pupils, or even the smooth working of the school; „disaffected‟ relates to a range of behaviours that imply a lack of
affection for school and may include disruptive behavior and non-attendance On the other hand, students brought up
by uncaring parents usually portray delinquent behaviors (Lawrence and William, 2014). They resort to criminal
activities to achieve what they could not get from their parents such students take part in criminal activities such as
stealing, rioting/rebellion among others, whereas others tend to fight with the teachers and refuse to get any help
moreover (Lawrence and William, 2014). It seems that schools are helpless regarding students with deviant behavior
and the educational authority does not have effective measures in place to deal with these problems. Some teachers
attribute the above problems to teachers lacking the right to use physical punishment, as it is forbidden in the current
educational regulations (Marvin, 2010). In addition, physical punishment violates students‟ human rights and only
temporarily curbs students „surface behavior (Lawrence and William, 2014). Changing a student‟s core temperament
is the effective measure to improve student hence a research will be conducted to establish how poor parenting can
be a factor associated with deviancy amongst schools. Parents who neglect their children's educational needs might
contribute to poor academic performance in their children. Sufficient evidence, including findings reported by the
state of Michigan's Department of Education, supports the idea that parental involvement in a child's education
vastly improves academic achievement. Parents who are inattentive, harsh criticizers and ineffective disciplinarians
fail to create a home environment that promotes and supports healthy educational attainment. Parents with an
ineffective parenting style might also show a lack of interest in advocating for their child‟s education Berg and
Bernard (2004).
Ineffective parenting can contribute to, and be exacerbated by, mental health problems in children, finds
research obtained by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Nearly 22 percent of youths ages 12 to 17
in 2004 received counseling for emotional and behavioral issues, reports the USHHS. This research also notes that
other socioeconomic contributors may pose significant barriers for parents to provide effective parenting to their
children. There are other factors to consider in children with mental illnesses from low socioeconomic communities
as well, such as ineffective teacher responses and poor social skills, Herrero et al. (2006).
1.1. Statement of the Problem
Good behaviour in schools has a positive bearing on educational participation and attainment while bad
behaviour negatively influences the learning and teaching process. The issue of learner indiscipline has taken Centre
stage for a long time both internationally and nationally. A number of schools in Botswana have experienced
negative deviant behaviors in one way or the other. For example, Mmegi Online newspaper of the 20 February 2008
reported about discipline challenges and misbehaving students in form five who ill-treated the newly admitted form
four students upon arrival at one of the schools in the south East district. In the same year Monkagedi Gaotlhobogwe
(2008) staff of the same newspaper wrote about Juvenile behaviours where students were involved in selling illegal
substances (dagga) in one of the senior secondary schools in the capital city, Gaborone. The worst incident in
Botswana reported by Shirley (2004) following an incident where nine students died and some became blind after
drinking a dangerous laboratory chemical called Methanol. Cases of truancy, students coming to school late, some
found smoking in toilets while others bully their classmates both in class and outside are some of the deviant to add,
that seem to be on the rise on schools in Botswana. Therefore this brings to question the lack of support from parents
in molding of student behavior?
1.2. Purpose of Study
Based on the problem stated above, the purpose of this study was to determine how parenting contributes to
deviancy in school among students at Bokamoso junior secondary school as Deviant behaviour is considered
abnormal or antisocial if it is uncommon, different from the norm and does not conform to what society expects.
Furthermore, the study was intended to identify solution to deviant behaviours and what can be done to improve the
situation.
1.3. Research Objectives
The study focused on the following objectives:
 To identify how parenting can contribute to deviancy amongst students at Bokamoso C.J.S.S
 To identify most common deviant behaviors that occurs amongst students at Bokamoso C.J.S.S.
1.4. Significance of the Study
The result of this study were intended to benefit parents, school administers, curriculum planners and the
government to make adequate plan to ensure that strategies that impose parental support among the youth was
Research Journal of Education
179
reduced to minimal levels or eliminated and that parents play a huge role in their child growth development with no
neglect. On the side of the curriculum planners it will help by ensuring that topics that suit student behavior are
taught in schools, it will go a long way in ensuring or implanting an acceptable lifestyle and perception towards
one‟s behaviour. Again, it would enable policy makers to realize the need for enacting and enforcing appropriate
policies that would be of help and bring about the welfare of the youth. Socially, it was intended to encourage
acceptable social standards and encourage a sanitized environment free from violence, corruption and other social
problems.
2. Review of Related Literature
Terry (2004), conducted a survey about Investigating the Relationship between Parenting Styles and Delinquent
Behavior, in which the study showed that Parenting is a complicated occupation that requires many different skills
that work in concert to influence a child‟s behavior. It can be argued that parents start developing their parenting
style even before their first child is born. It is within the first year or two that parents begin to attach to a parenting
style that works best for them. Mean while
Berg and Bernard (2004), argued that not all young people become involved in deviant behaviour and state that
some youth conform to norms in response to certain forces that control and regulate human behaviour. It is a rite of
passage in many countries especially among boys, and the majorities grow out of it. It forms a continuum from
minor to more serious activities and risk taking, and for some, it is the beginning of a longer and more serious career.
Risky behaviour is particularly characteristic of adolescence which include taking part in vandalism, stealing, getting
involved in gangs, illicit activities, drug abuse, engaging in unsafe sex, joining „tags‟ in dangerous situations,
climbing on the roof tops of public buses, engaging in individual or group fights among others. All these risky
behaviours affect public order and a sense of safety. A huge range of factors influence and shape their lives. The
quality of early childhood care and conditions, and parental and family relationships, are especially important. Local
and family poverty, poor housing and environmental conditions, all have a major impact on family life and the
quality of such care (Edwin, 2007).
Hulela and Matsolo (2011), conducted a survey on Perceptions of Agriculture Science Teachers Regarding
Negative Deviant Behaviours of Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana in the southern district of
Botswana. The results showed that the majority (67%) of the respondents were males while only 33% were females.
Teacher respondents‟ perceptions indicated behaviours such as “regular missing agriculture lessons, bullying other
students in the garden over the use of tools, vandalism of school agriculture tools, disrespecting technical staff
members, fighting other students during class, and failure to wear protective clothing” with a mean of 2.50-3.49.
Lack of parental guidance and peer pressure were revealed as primary factors influencing students ‟behaviours.
Dalhatu and Yunusa (2013), conducted a survey on How Bad parenting Affect Children in which the study
showed that Deviant behaviours start manifesting in children even before arrival into secondary schools when taken
for granted by the homes or the communities. Also behaviour such as noise, making in the classroom when not
checked or punished in time may take another dimension. It should be noted here that punishment does not
necessarily mean corporal punishment, because such punishment when administered constantly make the student to
become defiant. Gender differences are particularly important, since young girls and young women are exposed to
different sets of experiences and risks compared with boys and young men as they grow up. There is also clear
identification of the kinds of protective factors which strengthen children and young people‟s resilience in the face of
difficult living conditions. They include such things as good parenting, a stable and supportive home environment, a
healthy and supportive environment, and good school achievement. There is also accumulating evidence of effective
interventions which promote resilience and prevent future crime and victimization among the youth (Berg and
Bernard, 2004).
Furthermore, Terry (2004), hadn‟t conducted a study on “Investigating the Relationship between Parenting
Styles and Delinquent Behavior. The results showed t that parenting styles have been found to predict child
wellbeing in terms of social competence, academic performance, psychosocial development, and problem behavior.
Research using parent interviews, teacher interviews, and child report consistently finds these characteristics
associated with each parenting style. Children of authoritarian parents tend to lack social competence in dealing with
other children, frequently withdraw from social contact and rarely take their own initiative, look to outside authority
to decide what is correct, and often lack spontaneity and intellectual curiosity. Sons show more difficulties than
daughters, and sons are more likely to show anger and defiance towards people in authority. Terry (2004), further
says that Children of authoritative parents tend to be more self-reliant, self-controlled, willing to explore, and content
than other groups. Daughters are more independent than sons; sons are more socially responsible than daughters and
associated with better school performance in high school. Children of indulgent parents tend to: be relatively
immature, exhibit poor impulse control, and have difficulty accepting responsibility for their own actions and acting
independently. Children of uninvolved parents tend to lack social competence in many areas, be overly.
Poole (2003), conducted a survey on “Tackling poor parenting in which the results showed that adverse
consequences associated with poor parenting persist down the generations and is a problem for society as well as
individuals. The author cites evidence suggesting that in many cases poor parenting is associated with
socioeconomic deprivation, including health inequalities. She argues that most parents (especially mothers, as the
main child cares) are motivated to do their best for their children but that many families struggle against poverty.
Poor parenting skills may be a product of poverty and social exclusion rather than the fault of individual parents. A
public health approach, based on partnership with parents to meet their expressed needs in appropriate ways, could
offer a constructive way forward.
Research Journal of Education
180
Another profound study by Stelios and Panayiotis (2013), which investigated Parenting at home and bullying at
school stated that regarding the relationship between specific aspects of parenting and child aggressive behaviour,
several studies have shown that permissiveness best predicts the experience of victimization by the child while
authoritarianism best predicts bullying behavior, permissive parents tend to have children with difficulties in
curtailing their impulsive aggression. Other researchers have reported that children who bully their peers are more
likely to come from families where parents use authoritarian, harsh and punitive child rearing practices. Bullies
describe their family as authoritarian; more conflict oriented and less organized, while children who perceive their
parents as authoritative (i.e. setting limits but respecting their children‟s independence and being responsive to their
needs) are less likely to engage in bullying behavior. Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been
consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. It shows that adolescent deviant behaviour and
victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while
victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological
distress was mediated by adolescent parent communication and adolescent–teacher relationships. Multi group
analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender.
Furthermore Stelios and Panayiotis (2013), go on to say there is sufficient evidence in the literature that parental
practices, attitudes and behaviour at home are related to the child‟s aggressive activity at school. Developed and
tested a model describing the effects of structural and functional family characteristics on peer aggression. They
reported that parenting and family management practices interacted with individual behavioral attributes and
contributed indirectly to aggressive behaviour such as bullying. Similarly, tested models of the early development of
child conduct problems that incorporate the reciprocal effects of child behavior on parenting practice and of
parenting on child behavior, they concluded “that discipline encounters are really co-constructed by the parent and
the child rather than imposed on the child in a “top down” fashion by the parent. In other words, children are active
producers of their relationship with their parents, and their behavioral characteristics uniquely influence this
relationship. The strongest predictive factor for delinquency is having criminal parents. Whilst a very small part of
this effect may be accounted for by genetic factors, most of it must be related to the relationship that the parents have
with their children. It may be that parents provide a model of behaviour for the children to copy - but this would not
be direct, as parents rarely take their children along with them on their criminal activities. It may be that they provide
a model of aggressive and antisocial behaviour which in turn leads to delinquency. On the other hand, it is also likely
that delinquent parents are criminogenic parents in other ways, discipline where discipline is erratic or harsh;
children tend to become delinquent in adolescence. Such parents differ from normal parents in punishing harshly,
and in giving many commands.
Moore (2005), argues that there is now ample and accumulating evidence in developed and developing countries
that the conditions under which children and young people grow up are crucial for their mental and physical health,
and emotional, social and intellectual development. A huge range of factors influence and shape their lives. The
quality of early childhood care and conditions, and parental and family relationships, are especially important. Local
and family poverty, poor housing and environmental conditions, all have a major impact on family life and the
quality of such care (Edwin, 2007).
Danielle et al. (2006), conducted a study on Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children‟s
Depressive Symptoms. This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh–
negative parenting behaviors on children‟s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female
elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children‟s depressive
symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural
equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors were nearly
orthogonal dimensions of parenting and both related to children‟s depressive symptoms. Supportive–positive
parenting behaviors did not moderate the relation between harsh–negative parenting behaviors and children‟s
depressive symptoms. Results have implications for family intervention and preventions strategies.
3. Methods
The study was a descriptive survey on parental involvement and student deviancy at Bokamoso JSS. It was
meant describe the relationship between parenting and deviancy at Bokamoso JSS. Therefore, the major purpose of
employing this design was mainly to describe the nature of the condition as it took place during the time of the study
and to explore the associations of a particular condition thereby giving a snapshot of the conditions of study
The target population were students of Bokamoso Secondary school. A non-probability sampling in the form of
Purposive sampling was used in which the researcher decides who to sample based on the problem under study.
Purposive sampling is a type of non-probability sampling in which the researcher consciously selects specific
elements or subjects for inclusion in a study in order to ensure that the elements had certain characteristics relevant
to the study in these case a total of 12 students identified by the guidance and counselling teacher in Bokamoso Jss
were chosen to take part in the study.
A closed ended questionnaire with a Likert scale one (1) to four (4) being; 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree,
3=agree and 4 = strongly agree was handed given to paricipants to complete.
To provide answers to the research question, the mean and Standard Deviation (SD) were utilised. A criterion
means of 2.50 was used to determine level of accepting an item while mean below 2.50 was regarded as rejection of
item. The standard deviation on the other hand demonstrated convergence or divergence about the item, that a
smaller the standard deviation showed homogeneity in response to an item by respondents.
Research Journal of Education
181
To ensure anonymity participants were asked not to write their names on the questionnaires and consent was
sought through signing of consent forms.
4. Results
Table-1. Percentage representation of males and females in the sample population
Frequency Percent
Male 8 66.7
Female 4 33.3
Total 12 100.0
Table-2. Mean standard deviation and standard error of the mean of variables in the study
The above shows the mean average of Student responses with regards to how parenting contribute to deviancy
among students at Bokamoso JSS and from the table above the mean average was found to be 2.55 these results
show parental involvement is a factor associated with deviancy amongst student at Bokamoso JSS.
5. Discusion
The objective of the study was to determine the parenting contributes to deviancy among students at Bokamao
Secondary School. The findings revealed that parents are not aware of the peers their children associate with and
these implies that parents are not aware of the people/ crowd their children spend time with hence these can have a
negative influence on the behavior of that child as it can result in them being influenced to participate in the wrong
activities such as smoking or end up bulling other students. The overall mean score of 2.35 which is below the
criterion mean of 2.50 clearly demonstrate low parental involvement in activities that promotes positive behavior and
deter deviancy.The findings support the observations made by Stelios and Panayiotis (2013), Hulela and Matsolo
(2011), Terry (2004), Poole (2003) and Yinusa (2018) who reported a positive linear relationship between parenting
styles and student behavior. All these findings demonstrate that a poor parenting invariably contributes to student
deviancy in school and consequently poor results.
6. Conclusion
Was found that parenting can be a factor associated with deviancy amongst students at Bokamoso Jss therefore
it can be concluded parental involvement is an important factor which plays a huge role in molding the behaviour of
child hence reason students should be given proper guidance and monitoring both at home and in school and to help
prevent unwanted behaviour.
Recommendation
The Researcher recommends that they should be joint disciplinary council consisting of parents or guardians,
teachers and school management which will usually recommends on how to deal or act with certain offences
depending on the gravity of the offence.
References
Berg, A. and Bernard, M. (2004). Conformity and deviation. Harper and Brothers: New York.
Dalhatu, I. and Yunusa, A. (2013). How bad parenting affect children. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied
Sciences, 2(5): 231-34.
Mean Std. Deviation
My parents help me with school assignments? 12 2.17 .718
My parents praise/encourage regarding your
school performance?
12 2.83 .937
My parents punish me i have done something
wrong?
12 2.58 .793
I find it easy to sit down and talk to my parents
about my problems either at school or at home
12 2.25 .754
My parents allow me to participate in
Extracurricular activities at school?
12 3.50 .905
Are your parent aware of you peer Relations e.g.
friends you spend time with at school.
12 1.92 1.084
Are your parents eager to see school report 12 3.17 .937
My parents encourage me to go to school on time. 12 3.58 .669
I share what I have learnt with other students 12 2.33 .651
Is school important to you? 12 3.83 .389
Average mean and standard Deviation 12 2.35 .572
Research Journal of Education
182
Danielle, H. D., Pineda, A. Q. and Cole, D. (2006). Relation of positive and negative parenting to children‟s
depressive symptoms. Journal on Child Adolesc Psychol, 35(2): 313-22.
Edwin, H. J. (2007). The deviance process. D. Van Nostrand Company: New York.
Herrero, J., Estefani, E. and Gonzalo, M. (2006). Journal of Adolescence, 29: 671-90. Available:
http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/Deviance/Deviance5.html
Hulela, K. and Matsolo, W. (2011). Perceptions of agriculture science teachers regarding negative deviant
behaviours of students in senior secondary schools in Botswana. International Journal of Scientific
Research in Education, 4(1): 47-56.
Lawrence, M. and William, B. H. (2014). Parenting and teen drug use. Oxford University Press.
Martinez (2007). Effect of bad parenting on children. Global post. Available:
http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/effects-bad-parenting-children-2995.html
Marvin, A. H. (2010). Supervising student teachers, the professional way: A guide to cooperating teachers. Rowman
and Littlefield Publishers: Plymouth.
Monkagedi Gaotlhobogwe (2008). [Staff writer] Juvenile dagga dealer caught Mmegi. 25(151): Available:
http://mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=31&sid2=1&aid=5&dir=2014/November/Tuesday
Moore, K. (2005). Strategies in poverty eradication. Longman Publishers: London.
Poole, J. (2003). Tackling poor parenting: A public health issue. Fam Health Care, 13(2): 4-51.
Roberts, J. K. (1981). Effect of poverty on youths in African continent. OUP: London.
Shirley, N. (2004). Matsha Methanol students go blind. 21(16): Available:
https://www.mmegi.bw/2004/January/Friday30/16274859794.html
Stelios, N. G. and Panayiotis, S. (2013). Parenting at home and bullying at school. An International Journal Social
Psychology of Education, 16(2): 165-79.
Terry, D. J. (2004). Investigating the relationship between parenting styles and delinquent behavior. McNair
Scholars Journal, 8(1): 87-96.
Wairimu, M. W. (2013). Perceived factors influencing deviant behaviour among the youth in Njathaini community.
Nairobi, Kenya. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for Requirement of the Award of Degree in
Master of Science in Community Resource Management in the School of Applied Human Science of
Kenyatta University. https://ir-
library.ku.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/9044/Mbuthia%20Winnie%20Wairimu.pdf?sequence=1&isAl
lowed=y
Yinusa (2018). Achievement motivation and parenting styles in promoting effective learning among secondary
school students in ondo state. European Scientific Journal, 14(1): 392-401.

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Parenting a Factor Associated With Deviancy Amongst Students at Bokamoso Junior Secondary School

  • 1. Research Journal of Education ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886 Vol. 5, Issue. 10, pp: 177-182, 2019 URL: https://arpgweb.com/journal/journal/15 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32861/rje.510.177.182 Academic Research Publishing Group *Corresponding Author 177 Original Research Open Access Parenting a Factor Associated With Deviancy Amongst Students at Bokamoso Junior Secondary School Katlego Motlhankane* Department of Agricultural Education Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana Tapela Bulala Department of Agricultural Education Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana Masa Veronicah Motaung Department of Agricultural Education Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Botswana Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine how parenting contributes to deviancy in school among students at Bokamoso Junior Secondary School. The study was a descriptive survey in which a questionnaire was administered to Form 2 and Form 3 students of Bokamoso Secondary School to collect data. The results were then presented using mean and standard deviation. The results showed that majority of students were male around the age of 16-20 years. The results further revealed that parental involvement has a significant influence on students being deviant, which was given by an average mean of 2.55 which is above the criterion mean of 2.50 and average standard deviation of 0.572. It was concluded that parenting is factor associated with a deviancy amongst students at Bokamoso Secondary School. It was therefore recommended that they should be a joint disciplinary council consisting of parents or guardian, teachers and school management which usually recommends on how to deal or act on certain offences depending on the gravity of offences. Keywords: Parenting; Deviancy; Behavior; Guidance and counseling; Junior secondary school. CC BY: Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 1. Introduction No parent is perfect and there are likely to make some mistakes in an effort raise their child to the best of their abilities. In African societies acting out, or misbehavior, is often associated with ineffective parenting and seen a reflection failed parenting. Ineffective parenting can directly and indirectly influence deviancy amongst children at school (Martinez, 2007). According Wairimu (2013), a particular behavior is not acceptable or is antisocial if any of these three criteria are seen; the behaviour does not allow a person to function effectively with others as a member of society, if the behaviour does not permit the person to meet his or her own needs and the behaviour has a negative effect in the wellbeing of others hence the term deviancy which is believed to be recognized as violation of cultural norms (Roberts, 1981). It is a very broad concept and many characteristics are used by members of society in identifying deviance. One familiar type of deviance is crime, or the violation of norms formally enacted into criminal law. A special category of crime is juvenile delinquency, or the violation of legal standards by the young. It is pointed out that deviance can be negative or positive, but in that it stems from difference it causes us to react to another person as an "outsider (Marvin, 2010). Deviance is not simply a matter of free choice or personal failings. Both conformity and deviance are shaped by society, and this is evident in three ways (Lawrence and William, 2014). It exists only in relation to cultural norms; people become deviant as others define them that way, and both rule-making and rule- breaking involve social power. When parents are lacking in skills such as anger management and conflict resolution, they will likely have difficulties modeling this behavior for their children. This, in turn, leaves children with poor coping skills for common occurrences, such as anger, disappointment and frustration. BBC.com Health section contributor James Tighe also notes that having a strong support network and realistic appraisals or perceptions of life's problems are essential coping strategies. A lack of healthful coping strategies can lead to many overall health and well-being concerns in children (Edwin, 2007). Youth deviant behaviour is an escalating problem in schools and society today. There are many different factors that can be blamed for this problem. During the last decade of the twentieth century, people began searching for answers to this dilemma which is haunting all countries (Marvin, 2010). Many tragic school sagas such as kids stabbing one another during fights and other making threats to teachers has taken place within the last decades that have gained the attention of the public. As of now, no one can give the right answer to the problem or the reason why it happens because there is no right answer yet and nobody can be sure that they know the cause. All they have to go by are the opinions of different people. In recent years, incidences/ reports of deviant behavior in school mainly due to poor parenting at home has become more serious, consistently poor parenting can have a negative impact on kids and most parents seem to be unaware of these matter as what attitudes a student displays at home may internally differ with how he/she upholds him/herself in school (Marvin, 2010). The is mostly illustrated by
  • 2. Research Journal of Education 178 Parents who neglect their children's educational needs which will contribute to poor academic performance in their children as it has shown that parental involvement in a child's education vastly improves academic achievement (Marvin, 2010). IF for a say a parent displays characteristics of abusive behaviour. Such children for instance end becoming bullies which is usually seen as a particular subset of aggressive and violent behaviours. The very serious nature of some bullying has led to debate whether some forms of bullying could be conceptualized as „hate crime.‟ Teachers and schools focus most on various pupil „behaviours‟ (Lawrence and William, 2014). Most often they refer to „disruptive‟, „disaffected behaviours, or sometimes behaviour is said to be „challenging and they end up being left with question such as where does these behavior come from? These terms are associated with the particular focus of the behavioural description: for example, „disruptive‟ refers to the interruption of the work of the teacher and other pupils, or even the smooth working of the school; „disaffected‟ relates to a range of behaviours that imply a lack of affection for school and may include disruptive behavior and non-attendance On the other hand, students brought up by uncaring parents usually portray delinquent behaviors (Lawrence and William, 2014). They resort to criminal activities to achieve what they could not get from their parents such students take part in criminal activities such as stealing, rioting/rebellion among others, whereas others tend to fight with the teachers and refuse to get any help moreover (Lawrence and William, 2014). It seems that schools are helpless regarding students with deviant behavior and the educational authority does not have effective measures in place to deal with these problems. Some teachers attribute the above problems to teachers lacking the right to use physical punishment, as it is forbidden in the current educational regulations (Marvin, 2010). In addition, physical punishment violates students‟ human rights and only temporarily curbs students „surface behavior (Lawrence and William, 2014). Changing a student‟s core temperament is the effective measure to improve student hence a research will be conducted to establish how poor parenting can be a factor associated with deviancy amongst schools. Parents who neglect their children's educational needs might contribute to poor academic performance in their children. Sufficient evidence, including findings reported by the state of Michigan's Department of Education, supports the idea that parental involvement in a child's education vastly improves academic achievement. Parents who are inattentive, harsh criticizers and ineffective disciplinarians fail to create a home environment that promotes and supports healthy educational attainment. Parents with an ineffective parenting style might also show a lack of interest in advocating for their child‟s education Berg and Bernard (2004). Ineffective parenting can contribute to, and be exacerbated by, mental health problems in children, finds research obtained by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Nearly 22 percent of youths ages 12 to 17 in 2004 received counseling for emotional and behavioral issues, reports the USHHS. This research also notes that other socioeconomic contributors may pose significant barriers for parents to provide effective parenting to their children. There are other factors to consider in children with mental illnesses from low socioeconomic communities as well, such as ineffective teacher responses and poor social skills, Herrero et al. (2006). 1.1. Statement of the Problem Good behaviour in schools has a positive bearing on educational participation and attainment while bad behaviour negatively influences the learning and teaching process. The issue of learner indiscipline has taken Centre stage for a long time both internationally and nationally. A number of schools in Botswana have experienced negative deviant behaviors in one way or the other. For example, Mmegi Online newspaper of the 20 February 2008 reported about discipline challenges and misbehaving students in form five who ill-treated the newly admitted form four students upon arrival at one of the schools in the south East district. In the same year Monkagedi Gaotlhobogwe (2008) staff of the same newspaper wrote about Juvenile behaviours where students were involved in selling illegal substances (dagga) in one of the senior secondary schools in the capital city, Gaborone. The worst incident in Botswana reported by Shirley (2004) following an incident where nine students died and some became blind after drinking a dangerous laboratory chemical called Methanol. Cases of truancy, students coming to school late, some found smoking in toilets while others bully their classmates both in class and outside are some of the deviant to add, that seem to be on the rise on schools in Botswana. Therefore this brings to question the lack of support from parents in molding of student behavior? 1.2. Purpose of Study Based on the problem stated above, the purpose of this study was to determine how parenting contributes to deviancy in school among students at Bokamoso junior secondary school as Deviant behaviour is considered abnormal or antisocial if it is uncommon, different from the norm and does not conform to what society expects. Furthermore, the study was intended to identify solution to deviant behaviours and what can be done to improve the situation. 1.3. Research Objectives The study focused on the following objectives:  To identify how parenting can contribute to deviancy amongst students at Bokamoso C.J.S.S  To identify most common deviant behaviors that occurs amongst students at Bokamoso C.J.S.S. 1.4. Significance of the Study The result of this study were intended to benefit parents, school administers, curriculum planners and the government to make adequate plan to ensure that strategies that impose parental support among the youth was
  • 3. Research Journal of Education 179 reduced to minimal levels or eliminated and that parents play a huge role in their child growth development with no neglect. On the side of the curriculum planners it will help by ensuring that topics that suit student behavior are taught in schools, it will go a long way in ensuring or implanting an acceptable lifestyle and perception towards one‟s behaviour. Again, it would enable policy makers to realize the need for enacting and enforcing appropriate policies that would be of help and bring about the welfare of the youth. Socially, it was intended to encourage acceptable social standards and encourage a sanitized environment free from violence, corruption and other social problems. 2. Review of Related Literature Terry (2004), conducted a survey about Investigating the Relationship between Parenting Styles and Delinquent Behavior, in which the study showed that Parenting is a complicated occupation that requires many different skills that work in concert to influence a child‟s behavior. It can be argued that parents start developing their parenting style even before their first child is born. It is within the first year or two that parents begin to attach to a parenting style that works best for them. Mean while Berg and Bernard (2004), argued that not all young people become involved in deviant behaviour and state that some youth conform to norms in response to certain forces that control and regulate human behaviour. It is a rite of passage in many countries especially among boys, and the majorities grow out of it. It forms a continuum from minor to more serious activities and risk taking, and for some, it is the beginning of a longer and more serious career. Risky behaviour is particularly characteristic of adolescence which include taking part in vandalism, stealing, getting involved in gangs, illicit activities, drug abuse, engaging in unsafe sex, joining „tags‟ in dangerous situations, climbing on the roof tops of public buses, engaging in individual or group fights among others. All these risky behaviours affect public order and a sense of safety. A huge range of factors influence and shape their lives. The quality of early childhood care and conditions, and parental and family relationships, are especially important. Local and family poverty, poor housing and environmental conditions, all have a major impact on family life and the quality of such care (Edwin, 2007). Hulela and Matsolo (2011), conducted a survey on Perceptions of Agriculture Science Teachers Regarding Negative Deviant Behaviours of Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Botswana in the southern district of Botswana. The results showed that the majority (67%) of the respondents were males while only 33% were females. Teacher respondents‟ perceptions indicated behaviours such as “regular missing agriculture lessons, bullying other students in the garden over the use of tools, vandalism of school agriculture tools, disrespecting technical staff members, fighting other students during class, and failure to wear protective clothing” with a mean of 2.50-3.49. Lack of parental guidance and peer pressure were revealed as primary factors influencing students ‟behaviours. Dalhatu and Yunusa (2013), conducted a survey on How Bad parenting Affect Children in which the study showed that Deviant behaviours start manifesting in children even before arrival into secondary schools when taken for granted by the homes or the communities. Also behaviour such as noise, making in the classroom when not checked or punished in time may take another dimension. It should be noted here that punishment does not necessarily mean corporal punishment, because such punishment when administered constantly make the student to become defiant. Gender differences are particularly important, since young girls and young women are exposed to different sets of experiences and risks compared with boys and young men as they grow up. There is also clear identification of the kinds of protective factors which strengthen children and young people‟s resilience in the face of difficult living conditions. They include such things as good parenting, a stable and supportive home environment, a healthy and supportive environment, and good school achievement. There is also accumulating evidence of effective interventions which promote resilience and prevent future crime and victimization among the youth (Berg and Bernard, 2004). Furthermore, Terry (2004), hadn‟t conducted a study on “Investigating the Relationship between Parenting Styles and Delinquent Behavior. The results showed t that parenting styles have been found to predict child wellbeing in terms of social competence, academic performance, psychosocial development, and problem behavior. Research using parent interviews, teacher interviews, and child report consistently finds these characteristics associated with each parenting style. Children of authoritarian parents tend to lack social competence in dealing with other children, frequently withdraw from social contact and rarely take their own initiative, look to outside authority to decide what is correct, and often lack spontaneity and intellectual curiosity. Sons show more difficulties than daughters, and sons are more likely to show anger and defiance towards people in authority. Terry (2004), further says that Children of authoritative parents tend to be more self-reliant, self-controlled, willing to explore, and content than other groups. Daughters are more independent than sons; sons are more socially responsible than daughters and associated with better school performance in high school. Children of indulgent parents tend to: be relatively immature, exhibit poor impulse control, and have difficulty accepting responsibility for their own actions and acting independently. Children of uninvolved parents tend to lack social competence in many areas, be overly. Poole (2003), conducted a survey on “Tackling poor parenting in which the results showed that adverse consequences associated with poor parenting persist down the generations and is a problem for society as well as individuals. The author cites evidence suggesting that in many cases poor parenting is associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including health inequalities. She argues that most parents (especially mothers, as the main child cares) are motivated to do their best for their children but that many families struggle against poverty. Poor parenting skills may be a product of poverty and social exclusion rather than the fault of individual parents. A public health approach, based on partnership with parents to meet their expressed needs in appropriate ways, could offer a constructive way forward.
  • 4. Research Journal of Education 180 Another profound study by Stelios and Panayiotis (2013), which investigated Parenting at home and bullying at school stated that regarding the relationship between specific aspects of parenting and child aggressive behaviour, several studies have shown that permissiveness best predicts the experience of victimization by the child while authoritarianism best predicts bullying behavior, permissive parents tend to have children with difficulties in curtailing their impulsive aggression. Other researchers have reported that children who bully their peers are more likely to come from families where parents use authoritarian, harsh and punitive child rearing practices. Bullies describe their family as authoritarian; more conflict oriented and less organized, while children who perceive their parents as authoritative (i.e. setting limits but respecting their children‟s independence and being responsive to their needs) are less likely to engage in bullying behavior. Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. It shows that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent parent communication and adolescent–teacher relationships. Multi group analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender. Furthermore Stelios and Panayiotis (2013), go on to say there is sufficient evidence in the literature that parental practices, attitudes and behaviour at home are related to the child‟s aggressive activity at school. Developed and tested a model describing the effects of structural and functional family characteristics on peer aggression. They reported that parenting and family management practices interacted with individual behavioral attributes and contributed indirectly to aggressive behaviour such as bullying. Similarly, tested models of the early development of child conduct problems that incorporate the reciprocal effects of child behavior on parenting practice and of parenting on child behavior, they concluded “that discipline encounters are really co-constructed by the parent and the child rather than imposed on the child in a “top down” fashion by the parent. In other words, children are active producers of their relationship with their parents, and their behavioral characteristics uniquely influence this relationship. The strongest predictive factor for delinquency is having criminal parents. Whilst a very small part of this effect may be accounted for by genetic factors, most of it must be related to the relationship that the parents have with their children. It may be that parents provide a model of behaviour for the children to copy - but this would not be direct, as parents rarely take their children along with them on their criminal activities. It may be that they provide a model of aggressive and antisocial behaviour which in turn leads to delinquency. On the other hand, it is also likely that delinquent parents are criminogenic parents in other ways, discipline where discipline is erratic or harsh; children tend to become delinquent in adolescence. Such parents differ from normal parents in punishing harshly, and in giving many commands. Moore (2005), argues that there is now ample and accumulating evidence in developed and developing countries that the conditions under which children and young people grow up are crucial for their mental and physical health, and emotional, social and intellectual development. A huge range of factors influence and shape their lives. The quality of early childhood care and conditions, and parental and family relationships, are especially important. Local and family poverty, poor housing and environmental conditions, all have a major impact on family life and the quality of such care (Edwin, 2007). Danielle et al. (2006), conducted a study on Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children‟s Depressive Symptoms. This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh– negative parenting behaviors on children‟s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children‟s depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors were nearly orthogonal dimensions of parenting and both related to children‟s depressive symptoms. Supportive–positive parenting behaviors did not moderate the relation between harsh–negative parenting behaviors and children‟s depressive symptoms. Results have implications for family intervention and preventions strategies. 3. Methods The study was a descriptive survey on parental involvement and student deviancy at Bokamoso JSS. It was meant describe the relationship between parenting and deviancy at Bokamoso JSS. Therefore, the major purpose of employing this design was mainly to describe the nature of the condition as it took place during the time of the study and to explore the associations of a particular condition thereby giving a snapshot of the conditions of study The target population were students of Bokamoso Secondary school. A non-probability sampling in the form of Purposive sampling was used in which the researcher decides who to sample based on the problem under study. Purposive sampling is a type of non-probability sampling in which the researcher consciously selects specific elements or subjects for inclusion in a study in order to ensure that the elements had certain characteristics relevant to the study in these case a total of 12 students identified by the guidance and counselling teacher in Bokamoso Jss were chosen to take part in the study. A closed ended questionnaire with a Likert scale one (1) to four (4) being; 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3=agree and 4 = strongly agree was handed given to paricipants to complete. To provide answers to the research question, the mean and Standard Deviation (SD) were utilised. A criterion means of 2.50 was used to determine level of accepting an item while mean below 2.50 was regarded as rejection of item. The standard deviation on the other hand demonstrated convergence or divergence about the item, that a smaller the standard deviation showed homogeneity in response to an item by respondents.
  • 5. Research Journal of Education 181 To ensure anonymity participants were asked not to write their names on the questionnaires and consent was sought through signing of consent forms. 4. Results Table-1. Percentage representation of males and females in the sample population Frequency Percent Male 8 66.7 Female 4 33.3 Total 12 100.0 Table-2. Mean standard deviation and standard error of the mean of variables in the study The above shows the mean average of Student responses with regards to how parenting contribute to deviancy among students at Bokamoso JSS and from the table above the mean average was found to be 2.55 these results show parental involvement is a factor associated with deviancy amongst student at Bokamoso JSS. 5. Discusion The objective of the study was to determine the parenting contributes to deviancy among students at Bokamao Secondary School. The findings revealed that parents are not aware of the peers their children associate with and these implies that parents are not aware of the people/ crowd their children spend time with hence these can have a negative influence on the behavior of that child as it can result in them being influenced to participate in the wrong activities such as smoking or end up bulling other students. The overall mean score of 2.35 which is below the criterion mean of 2.50 clearly demonstrate low parental involvement in activities that promotes positive behavior and deter deviancy.The findings support the observations made by Stelios and Panayiotis (2013), Hulela and Matsolo (2011), Terry (2004), Poole (2003) and Yinusa (2018) who reported a positive linear relationship between parenting styles and student behavior. All these findings demonstrate that a poor parenting invariably contributes to student deviancy in school and consequently poor results. 6. Conclusion Was found that parenting can be a factor associated with deviancy amongst students at Bokamoso Jss therefore it can be concluded parental involvement is an important factor which plays a huge role in molding the behaviour of child hence reason students should be given proper guidance and monitoring both at home and in school and to help prevent unwanted behaviour. Recommendation The Researcher recommends that they should be joint disciplinary council consisting of parents or guardians, teachers and school management which will usually recommends on how to deal or act with certain offences depending on the gravity of the offence. References Berg, A. and Bernard, M. (2004). Conformity and deviation. Harper and Brothers: New York. Dalhatu, I. and Yunusa, A. (2013). How bad parenting affect children. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(5): 231-34. Mean Std. Deviation My parents help me with school assignments? 12 2.17 .718 My parents praise/encourage regarding your school performance? 12 2.83 .937 My parents punish me i have done something wrong? 12 2.58 .793 I find it easy to sit down and talk to my parents about my problems either at school or at home 12 2.25 .754 My parents allow me to participate in Extracurricular activities at school? 12 3.50 .905 Are your parent aware of you peer Relations e.g. friends you spend time with at school. 12 1.92 1.084 Are your parents eager to see school report 12 3.17 .937 My parents encourage me to go to school on time. 12 3.58 .669 I share what I have learnt with other students 12 2.33 .651 Is school important to you? 12 3.83 .389 Average mean and standard Deviation 12 2.35 .572
  • 6. Research Journal of Education 182 Danielle, H. D., Pineda, A. Q. and Cole, D. (2006). Relation of positive and negative parenting to children‟s depressive symptoms. Journal on Child Adolesc Psychol, 35(2): 313-22. Edwin, H. J. (2007). The deviance process. D. Van Nostrand Company: New York. Herrero, J., Estefani, E. and Gonzalo, M. (2006). Journal of Adolescence, 29: 671-90. Available: http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/Deviance/Deviance5.html Hulela, K. and Matsolo, W. (2011). Perceptions of agriculture science teachers regarding negative deviant behaviours of students in senior secondary schools in Botswana. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 4(1): 47-56. Lawrence, M. and William, B. H. (2014). Parenting and teen drug use. Oxford University Press. Martinez (2007). Effect of bad parenting on children. Global post. Available: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/effects-bad-parenting-children-2995.html Marvin, A. H. (2010). Supervising student teachers, the professional way: A guide to cooperating teachers. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers: Plymouth. Monkagedi Gaotlhobogwe (2008). [Staff writer] Juvenile dagga dealer caught Mmegi. 25(151): Available: http://mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=31&sid2=1&aid=5&dir=2014/November/Tuesday Moore, K. (2005). Strategies in poverty eradication. Longman Publishers: London. Poole, J. (2003). Tackling poor parenting: A public health issue. Fam Health Care, 13(2): 4-51. Roberts, J. K. (1981). Effect of poverty on youths in African continent. OUP: London. Shirley, N. (2004). Matsha Methanol students go blind. 21(16): Available: https://www.mmegi.bw/2004/January/Friday30/16274859794.html Stelios, N. G. and Panayiotis, S. (2013). Parenting at home and bullying at school. An International Journal Social Psychology of Education, 16(2): 165-79. Terry, D. J. (2004). Investigating the relationship between parenting styles and delinquent behavior. McNair Scholars Journal, 8(1): 87-96. Wairimu, M. W. (2013). Perceived factors influencing deviant behaviour among the youth in Njathaini community. Nairobi, Kenya. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for Requirement of the Award of Degree in Master of Science in Community Resource Management in the School of Applied Human Science of Kenyatta University. https://ir- library.ku.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/123456789/9044/Mbuthia%20Winnie%20Wairimu.pdf?sequence=1&isAl lowed=y Yinusa (2018). Achievement motivation and parenting styles in promoting effective learning among secondary school students in ondo state. European Scientific Journal, 14(1): 392-401.