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PREFACE OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND RESEARCH
PROCESS
Ayeni Adebanji W.
Introduction
The world attained globalization based her movement with research. New products are being
brought to market based conducted research being made. These translates to the fact that lives
transcend to the next level of development in all sectors such as medical, tourism, security
education etc. According to Encarta Dictionary (2008) research is an organized study of a
conducted methodical investigation of a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a
theory and develop a plan of action based on the facts discovered. Research is conducted to solve
problems that are existing or are prone to exist around the researcher’s world. Oxford dictionary
(2013) gave research to mean investigation, study, exploration, examination and inquiry.
Scientific method also involves the interplay of inductive reasoning (reasoning from specific
observations and experiments to more general hypotheses and theories) and deductive reasoning
(reasoning from theories to account for specific experimental results). (Encarta, 2008)
According to Obadan (2012), different methods of conducting research are:
 Theoretical or pure research
 Applied research
 Policy research
 Empirical research
 Action research
 Ex-post Facto research
 Exploratory Research
 Scientific Research
 Field experiment
All these methods are used interchangeably based on the research to be conducted. It is possible
to also combine more than two or more methods to conduct a specific research. This is to have a
reliable result from the conducted research.in the course of the paper, the discussed method in
these paper is the scientific method being the most used for in all areas of research
Literature Review
According to Obadan (2012) “research of a scientific nature did not evolve until the 16th
century.
Before then, human inquiry was based on introspection.” It was based on the use of superstition
that vents were done and result were based. Basically can be based on the use of the human reason
which coined its result from “how an issue should be and not what lead to the course of that”
(redirecting the course of actions).
A shift came when the likes of Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Newton and Locke presented new ways
to examine nature (Obadan, 2012). Their method of application was different from the ones they
met on ground and these application came to bring about the ways issues were viewed.
Consequently, our method of understanding the world came to rely on measurement and
qualification. Mathematics replaced introspection as they to supreme truths and era of scientific
revolution began (Walonick 1993). It’s based on these adopted method that development came
from as it was able to debase the norms and logic that were in existence.
As it is adopted in social science research by Obadan, (2012) there are three dimensions to
conducting the research, they are
 Exploratory research
 Descriptive research
 Casual inquiry
The exploratory research works when problems are in a preliminary stage such as having a new
topic and obtaining data is hard to come by. These approach is easy as it allows you to address
questions in research of all types (what, how and why). The descriptive research is to describe
things such as the market potential for a product and the consumer who buy a product and the
casual inquiry is done by testing hypothesis using cause an effect relationship (Obadan, 2012).
Pros and Cons of the Scientific Method
The scientific method is being noted for its reliability and validity. The method is noted for these
two advantages because of the ability to prove the quality and the level of the consistency of the
undertaken research.
To determine the consistency of the above method, Galileo work will be accessed. According to
Encarta (2008), “Galileo Observed that heavy objects fall with increasing speed, he formulated the
hypothesis that the speed attained is directly proportional to the distance traversed. Being unable
to test this directly, he deduced from his hypothesis the conclusion that objects falling unequal
distances require the same amount of elapsed time. This was a false conclusion, and hence,
logically, the first hypothesis was false”. These lead to the scientist coming to a conclusion about
his undertaken research (hypothesis) that that the speed attained is directly proportional to the time
elapsed, not the distance traversed (Encarta, 2008).
The gotten result led to his verified result hypothesis he was able to verify experimentally by
rolling balls down an inclined plane.
Such agreement of a conclusion with an actual observation does not itself prove the correctness of
the hypothesis from which the conclusion is derived. It simply renders the premise that much more
plausible (Encarta, 2008) what proves it valid is the constituency of the derived hypothesis in the
long run.
There are no sources in the current document.
Characteristics of the Scientific Research
According to Obadan 2012, the listed following must be present in the research to be done .it has
to be:
 a process of gathering facts (data)
 Be systematic
 Review, question and synthesize existing knowledge and
 Involve analysis
 Possibly advance knowledge and
 Be a combination of all the above.
Significance of the Scientific Research Method
A tradition is basically being carried out based on the relevance that it portrays. The scientific
research has being found to last for more than 300 centuries and these can only mean that it does
have a deep relevance in her stage, in these case research. According to Obadan (20012) tshe
following are listed to be the following usefulness of the adopted research method.
 Constant Updating of knowledge via the use of the validity test.
 Private and business decision making cause its done with lesser hands
 Evidence based policy making based on the reliability and validity proven test
 The growing complexity of enquiry which brings about creation or modification of theories
procedures and models in the course of the research being done.
Research Process
The beauty in life is the actualization of a goal when duly planned. Every goal is
characterized with the involvement of a step situation which also termed as a process. Chambers
dictionary defines a process as procedure, action, technique. To define the above statement, means
and methods seems more appropriate. This is based on the view that the scientific method involves
due process. It is based on these method that research has being majorly carried out for centuries.
The following have being the traditional ways or process of carrying out a research
 1st
STEP-Establishing the needs for research
 2ND
STEP-Defining the problem
 3RD
STEP-Formation and Development Working Hypothesis
 4TH
STEP- Determining research design
 5TH
STEP-Identifying information types and source
 6TH
STEP-Determining methods of assessing data
 7TH
STEP-Designing data collection form
 8TH
STEP-Determining sample plan and size
 9TH
STEP-Data collection
 10TH
STEP-Analyzing data
 11TH
STEP-Preparing and presenting final research report (N.c 2011)
The above stated steps have being in existence since time in memorial and have proved worthy of
useful standard.
Conclusion
The next world power isn’t determined by wealth or resources in her soil or environ, neither is it
by the military forces she possess but the research being under gone and put into practice. The
little difference that differentiate them is based on the resourcefulness of how fast their research
work yield result. What the scientific research has being able to accomplish is the change in
perspective that a change can occur without their being a catalyst from within. The beginning to
every accomplished result comes from the way it has to be viewed and that the purpose of research,
trying to look at the physical and stop the constant dependence of the metaphysical.
References
Anderson, B. (1966) The psychology experiment: An introduction to the scientific method. Belmont, CA
Carmines, E., and Zeller R., (1979) Reliability and validity assessment. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Dictionary, O. (2012). Oxford english dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McDaniel, C. and R. Gates (1991) Contemporary marketing research. St. Paul, MN: West.
Obadan, M. I. (2012). Research process,report writing and referencing. Ugbowo,Benin City,Nigeria:
Goldmark Press Limited.
Spector, P. (1981) Research design. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Walonick, D. (1993) StatPac gold IV: Marketing research and survey Edition Inc.

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scientific method and the research process

  • 1. PREFACE OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND RESEARCH PROCESS Ayeni Adebanji W. Introduction The world attained globalization based her movement with research. New products are being brought to market based conducted research being made. These translates to the fact that lives transcend to the next level of development in all sectors such as medical, tourism, security education etc. According to Encarta Dictionary (2008) research is an organized study of a conducted methodical investigation of a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory and develop a plan of action based on the facts discovered. Research is conducted to solve problems that are existing or are prone to exist around the researcher’s world. Oxford dictionary (2013) gave research to mean investigation, study, exploration, examination and inquiry. Scientific method also involves the interplay of inductive reasoning (reasoning from specific observations and experiments to more general hypotheses and theories) and deductive reasoning (reasoning from theories to account for specific experimental results). (Encarta, 2008) According to Obadan (2012), different methods of conducting research are:  Theoretical or pure research  Applied research  Policy research  Empirical research  Action research
  • 2.  Ex-post Facto research  Exploratory Research  Scientific Research  Field experiment All these methods are used interchangeably based on the research to be conducted. It is possible to also combine more than two or more methods to conduct a specific research. This is to have a reliable result from the conducted research.in the course of the paper, the discussed method in these paper is the scientific method being the most used for in all areas of research Literature Review According to Obadan (2012) “research of a scientific nature did not evolve until the 16th century. Before then, human inquiry was based on introspection.” It was based on the use of superstition that vents were done and result were based. Basically can be based on the use of the human reason which coined its result from “how an issue should be and not what lead to the course of that” (redirecting the course of actions). A shift came when the likes of Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Newton and Locke presented new ways to examine nature (Obadan, 2012). Their method of application was different from the ones they met on ground and these application came to bring about the ways issues were viewed. Consequently, our method of understanding the world came to rely on measurement and qualification. Mathematics replaced introspection as they to supreme truths and era of scientific revolution began (Walonick 1993). It’s based on these adopted method that development came from as it was able to debase the norms and logic that were in existence.
  • 3. As it is adopted in social science research by Obadan, (2012) there are three dimensions to conducting the research, they are  Exploratory research  Descriptive research  Casual inquiry The exploratory research works when problems are in a preliminary stage such as having a new topic and obtaining data is hard to come by. These approach is easy as it allows you to address questions in research of all types (what, how and why). The descriptive research is to describe things such as the market potential for a product and the consumer who buy a product and the casual inquiry is done by testing hypothesis using cause an effect relationship (Obadan, 2012). Pros and Cons of the Scientific Method The scientific method is being noted for its reliability and validity. The method is noted for these two advantages because of the ability to prove the quality and the level of the consistency of the undertaken research. To determine the consistency of the above method, Galileo work will be accessed. According to Encarta (2008), “Galileo Observed that heavy objects fall with increasing speed, he formulated the hypothesis that the speed attained is directly proportional to the distance traversed. Being unable to test this directly, he deduced from his hypothesis the conclusion that objects falling unequal distances require the same amount of elapsed time. This was a false conclusion, and hence, logically, the first hypothesis was false”. These lead to the scientist coming to a conclusion about
  • 4. his undertaken research (hypothesis) that that the speed attained is directly proportional to the time elapsed, not the distance traversed (Encarta, 2008). The gotten result led to his verified result hypothesis he was able to verify experimentally by rolling balls down an inclined plane. Such agreement of a conclusion with an actual observation does not itself prove the correctness of the hypothesis from which the conclusion is derived. It simply renders the premise that much more plausible (Encarta, 2008) what proves it valid is the constituency of the derived hypothesis in the long run. There are no sources in the current document. Characteristics of the Scientific Research According to Obadan 2012, the listed following must be present in the research to be done .it has to be:  a process of gathering facts (data)  Be systematic  Review, question and synthesize existing knowledge and  Involve analysis  Possibly advance knowledge and  Be a combination of all the above.
  • 5. Significance of the Scientific Research Method A tradition is basically being carried out based on the relevance that it portrays. The scientific research has being found to last for more than 300 centuries and these can only mean that it does have a deep relevance in her stage, in these case research. According to Obadan (20012) tshe following are listed to be the following usefulness of the adopted research method.  Constant Updating of knowledge via the use of the validity test.  Private and business decision making cause its done with lesser hands  Evidence based policy making based on the reliability and validity proven test  The growing complexity of enquiry which brings about creation or modification of theories procedures and models in the course of the research being done. Research Process The beauty in life is the actualization of a goal when duly planned. Every goal is characterized with the involvement of a step situation which also termed as a process. Chambers dictionary defines a process as procedure, action, technique. To define the above statement, means and methods seems more appropriate. This is based on the view that the scientific method involves due process. It is based on these method that research has being majorly carried out for centuries. The following have being the traditional ways or process of carrying out a research  1st STEP-Establishing the needs for research  2ND STEP-Defining the problem  3RD STEP-Formation and Development Working Hypothesis
  • 6.  4TH STEP- Determining research design  5TH STEP-Identifying information types and source  6TH STEP-Determining methods of assessing data  7TH STEP-Designing data collection form  8TH STEP-Determining sample plan and size  9TH STEP-Data collection  10TH STEP-Analyzing data  11TH STEP-Preparing and presenting final research report (N.c 2011) The above stated steps have being in existence since time in memorial and have proved worthy of useful standard. Conclusion The next world power isn’t determined by wealth or resources in her soil or environ, neither is it by the military forces she possess but the research being under gone and put into practice. The little difference that differentiate them is based on the resourcefulness of how fast their research work yield result. What the scientific research has being able to accomplish is the change in perspective that a change can occur without their being a catalyst from within. The beginning to every accomplished result comes from the way it has to be viewed and that the purpose of research, trying to look at the physical and stop the constant dependence of the metaphysical.
  • 7. References Anderson, B. (1966) The psychology experiment: An introduction to the scientific method. Belmont, CA Carmines, E., and Zeller R., (1979) Reliability and validity assessment. Beverly Hills: Sage. Dictionary, O. (2012). Oxford english dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. McDaniel, C. and R. Gates (1991) Contemporary marketing research. St. Paul, MN: West. Obadan, M. I. (2012). Research process,report writing and referencing. Ugbowo,Benin City,Nigeria: Goldmark Press Limited. Spector, P. (1981) Research design. Beverly Hills: Sage. Walonick, D. (1993) StatPac gold IV: Marketing research and survey Edition Inc.