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Mustang Ford




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               by micampe @Flickr
from MLAHandbook.org
from MLAHandbook.org
Small Note:
              ‘Single Quotes’ are ONLY for showing
              “quotes ‘within’ other quotes.”
Watch how the quotes work with
the comma and the period here. →



    For MLA “style,” you do “this.” (Colons and
    semicolons go outside the quotes, “though”; I’ve
    shown that in this sentence. It’s a convention
    that has to do with the way printers had to set
    up their letters in the old days, so it’s a little
    arbitrary. But it’s the convention.)
In Case of an Accident, What Do
You Need to Tell The Operator?




                                  Who? What? When?
by Rigmarole @Flickr
                                    Where? How?
Author. Title. City: Publisher,
Basic Book
                  Year. Form.
 Author. Title. City: Publisher,Year. Print.




                The periods block off major bits of data.
Author. Title. City: Publisher,
Basic Book
                   Year. Form.


   Loblaw, Bob.
   Loblaw, Bob, ed.
   Loblaw, Bob, and Joe Schmoe.
   Loblaw, Bob, and Joe Schmoe, eds.
   Loblaw, Bob, Jr., and Joe Schmoe, Jr., eds.
   Loblaw, Bob, Joe Schmoe, and Sallie Mae.
   Loblaw, Bob, et al.
   Anonymous source? Skip the author section.
   Corporate source? Use the corporate name.
Author. Title. City: Publisher,
Basic Book
                        Year. Form.


 Italics Are Acceptable but Potentially Confusing.
 Italicize the Title.
 If You’re Writing By Hand, Underline It.
 “Quote Marks” Are NOT Acceptable for Book Titles!
Titles: If it encloses other stuff or stands alone, italicize.
If it is enclosed, use quotes.

                       Italicize Quotes
                           Book “Chapter”
                     Long Poem “Poem in a Collection”
                            CD “Song Title”
                          DVD “Chapter”
                      Magazine “Article Title”
             Collection of Essays “Individual Essay”
Author. Title. City: Publisher,
Basic Book
                        Year. Form.

  General Rule: Capitalize All the Important Words.

  Specific Rules --> Do Not Capitalize These:
     articles (a, an, the)
     prepositions (aboard, about, above, etc.)
     coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.)
     “to” in infinitives (to Drive, to Walk, to Run, etc.)
     UNLESS They’re the First Word in the Title!
     OR They’re the First Word After a Colon in the Title!
Author. Title. City: Publisher,
Basic Book
                     Year. Form.


 Spokane, WA: Dunder Mifflin Press, Inc., 2006. Print.
 Spokane, WA: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. E-Book.
 Seattle: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. Print.
 NY: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. Print.
 LA: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. Print.
 Spokane, WA: Whitworth UP, 2006. Print.
 Podunk, GA: U of Nowhere P, 2006. Print.
Author. Title. City: Publisher,
Basic Book
                     Year. Database or Website.
 ONLINE
                     Form. Date of Access.


 Loblaw, Bob. Awesome Book. Sunnydale, CA:
    Penguin, 2007. Google Books. Web. 2 Nov.
    2009.
 Schmoe, Joe. Super Duper Book. Shermer, IL: Bueller
    Brothers, 2002. Bueller E-ditions. Web. 2 Nov.
    2009.
Article/    Author. “Article Title.” Collection
  Chapter       Title. Ed. Joe Schmoe. City:
Inside Book     Publisher, Year. Pages.




        For articles inside books.
Article/    Author. “Article Title.” Collection
  Chapter       Title. Ed. Joe Schmoe. City:
Inside Book     Publisher, Year. Pages.



                               25-35.
                               25-35, 62.
                               23+.
                               100-12.
                               1045-56.
                               1045-115.
Article/      Author. “Article Title.” Collection
  Chapter         Title. Ed. Joe Schmoe. City:
Inside Book       Publisher, Year. Pages.
  ONLINE          Database or Website. Form.
                  Date of Access.


   Loblaw, Bob. “Awesome Article.” Awesome
      Book. Ed. Willow Rosenberg. Sunnydale, CA:
      Penguin, 2007. 22-42. Google Books. Web. 2
      Nov. 2009.
Academic
Journals




For Articles from Academic Journals
Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
Academic
                Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages.
Journals
                Print.




 Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic
    Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35. Print.
Academic Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
 Journals   Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages.
   from     Database. Web. Date Accessed.
DATABASES

   Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic
      Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35. Academic Search
      Premier. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.

  If There Are No Page Numbers Included:
   Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic
      Journal 22.3 (1987): n. pag. Literature Online.
      Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
Academic           Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
   Journals             Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages.
      from              Database. Web. Date Accessed.
DATABASES
                                                        ources!
     Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” “onlin    e” s
                                              Academic
        Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35.cess  arily Search
                                      Academic
        Premier. Web. 2 Nov.       ne
                                 t2009.
                         s are no
                     ase
                atab
  If There d
         from Are No Page Numbers Included:
    cles
Arti Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic
        Journal 22.3 (1987): n. pag. Literature Online.
        Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
Academic      Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
Journals        Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages.
ONLINE          Web. Date Accessed.


 Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic
    Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35. Web. 2 Nov.
    2009.

If There Are No Page Numbers Included:
 Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic
    Journal 22.3 (1987): n. pag. Web. 2 Nov.
    2009.
Everyday
Periodicals




Everyday Magazines and Newspapers
Everyday           Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
Periodicals           Title Date: Pages. Print.



  Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday
     Magazine 12 Sep. 2007: 6-17. Print.
  Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday
     Magazine Feb. 2007: 8-24. Print.




 ***Abbreviate All Months But May, June, and July.***
Everyday         Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
 Periodicals         Title Date: Pages. Database.
    from             Web. Date Accessed.
DATABASES

  Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday
     Magazine 12 Sep. 2007: 6-17. Academic Search
     Premier. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday
     Magazine Feb. 2007: n. pag. LexisNexis. Web.
     2 Nov. 2009.
Everyday            Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
 Periodicals            Title Date: Pages. Database.
    from                Web. Date Accessed.
DATABASES                                              ces!
                                                   sour
                                             onl ine”
     Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” “
                                       arily Everyday
         Magazine 12 Sep. 2007: nec ess Academic Search
                               t 6-17.
         Premier. Web. s2are no 2009.
                   base Nov.
               data “Super Duper Article.” Everyday
     Schmoe, Joe.
          from
     clesMagazine Feb. 2007: n. pag. LexisNexis. Web.
Arti
         2 Nov. 2009.
Everyday        Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
Periodicals        Title Date: Pages. Print.
 ONLINE          Author. “Inside Title.” Publication
                   Title. Publisher, Date. Web.
                   Date Accessed.

 Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Newsweek.
    Newsweek, 12 Sep. 2007. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
 Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday
    Magazine. Bueller Brothers, Feb. 2007. Web.
    2 Nov. 2009.
Information Needed for Web Sources

1.! Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer,
       or translator of the work
2.! Title of the work
3.! Title of the overall Web site (italicized), if different than item 2
4.! Version or edition used
5.! Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available, use N.p.
6.! Date of publication (day, month, and year, as available); if nothing is
       available, use n.d.
7.! Medium of publication (Web)
8.! Date of access (day, month, and year)


                                                             See 14e!
Information Needed for Web Sources

           Whole Website
NCAA.com. NCAA, 2009. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.


          Page From Website
NCAA. “Men’s Basketball.” NCAA.com.
  NCAA, 2009. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.




                    SEE ALSO: 14e and 14f
Information Needed for Web Sources

               Whole Blog
Loblaw, Bob. Bob Loblaw’s Law Blog. N.p.,
   2009. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.

         Single Posting from Blog
Loblaw, Bob. “Charles Not in Charge.” Bob
   Loblaw’s Law Blog. N.p., 15 Oct. 2007.
   Web. 2 Nov. 2009.



                      SEE ALSO: 14e and 14f
Parenthetical (“In-Text”)
                         Citation for Fun and Profit

This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe 17).
This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe 17-18).
This sentence cites a fact from Schmoe (17-18).
This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe and Doe 17).
This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe, Doe, and Jones 18).
This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe et al. 18).
This cites a fact from an anonymous source (“Title” 27).
One of two works by one guy (Schmoe, “Title” 52).
One of two guys named Schmoe (J. Schmoe 52).
Direct Quotes and
                                 Parenthetical Citation
Direct quote from Joe Schmoe:
 “I like to be quoted. It’s like my dad always said,
 ‘Proper citation builds character, and it makes you
 strong.’ Who doesn’t like being quoted?”

   Some say good citation “builds character”(Schmoe 17).
   As Schmoe says, “I like to be quoted” (17).
   Schmoe says he “like[s] to be quoted” (17).
   Schmoe likes “to be quoted” (17).
   Schmoe asks, “Who doesn’t like being quoted?” (17).
   Schmoe said, “It’s like my dad always said, ‘Proper citation
   builds character’” (17).
Block Quotes
If you quote a lot of text--more than four printed lines--then
you insert a paragraph break and indent one inch. Like this:
      The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. What
      is called resignation is confirmed desperation. From the
      desperate city you go into the desperate country, and
      have to console yourself with the bravery of minks and
      muskrats. A stereotyped but unconscious despair is
      concealed even under what are called the games and
      amusements of mankind. There is no play in them, for
      this comes after work. But it is a characteristic of
      wisdom not to do desperate things. (Thoreau 22)
The block quote, like the rest of your essay, should be
double spaced. It’s also in the same size font as the rest of
the essay. Don’t get fancy.
YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE.
     YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE. ” (22).
     YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCKeQUOTE.         spe ration
                               in “q uiet d
     YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE.
                     i d, live
     YOU hore   au saNEED A BLOCK QUOTE.
             RARELY
       en, T RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE.
Most m
     YOU
     YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE.
    You don’t need to cite huge blocks of text.
   Usually, you shouldn’t. Selectively cite just as
   much as you need--and no more--working the
        quote smoothly into the sentence.
...   You don’t need ellipses at the “ . . . start and
      end of excerpted words . . . ” because, by
      convention, we know that you’re cutting
      words out of their context.

      Only three dots in an ellipsis, with spaces
      before, after, and in between.

      Good discussion of the ellipsis at the
      Grammar Girl site:
       http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/
       ellipsis.aspx
g.html
                 ritin
         n.net/w
  joh nso
ab
More examples and types of sources are available
   in section 14 of the Little Penguin Handbook.
Be sure to take a look at the sample MLA-formatted
     essay at 14h in the Little Penguin Handbook.

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MLA Basics for Writing 1

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  • 4. Mustang Ford by micampe @Flickr
  • 5. Ford Mustang by micampe @Flickr
  • 8. Small Note: ‘Single Quotes’ are ONLY for showing “quotes ‘within’ other quotes.”
  • 9. Watch how the quotes work with the comma and the period here. → For MLA “style,” you do “this.” (Colons and semicolons go outside the quotes, “though”; I’ve shown that in this sentence. It’s a convention that has to do with the way printers had to set up their letters in the old days, so it’s a little arbitrary. But it’s the convention.)
  • 10. In Case of an Accident, What Do You Need to Tell The Operator? Who? What? When? by Rigmarole @Flickr Where? How?
  • 11. Author. Title. City: Publisher, Basic Book Year. Form. Author. Title. City: Publisher,Year. Print. The periods block off major bits of data.
  • 12. Author. Title. City: Publisher, Basic Book Year. Form. Loblaw, Bob. Loblaw, Bob, ed. Loblaw, Bob, and Joe Schmoe. Loblaw, Bob, and Joe Schmoe, eds. Loblaw, Bob, Jr., and Joe Schmoe, Jr., eds. Loblaw, Bob, Joe Schmoe, and Sallie Mae. Loblaw, Bob, et al. Anonymous source? Skip the author section. Corporate source? Use the corporate name.
  • 13. Author. Title. City: Publisher, Basic Book Year. Form. Italics Are Acceptable but Potentially Confusing. Italicize the Title. If You’re Writing By Hand, Underline It. “Quote Marks” Are NOT Acceptable for Book Titles!
  • 14. Titles: If it encloses other stuff or stands alone, italicize. If it is enclosed, use quotes. Italicize Quotes Book “Chapter” Long Poem “Poem in a Collection” CD “Song Title” DVD “Chapter” Magazine “Article Title” Collection of Essays “Individual Essay”
  • 15. Author. Title. City: Publisher, Basic Book Year. Form. General Rule: Capitalize All the Important Words. Specific Rules --> Do Not Capitalize These: articles (a, an, the) prepositions (aboard, about, above, etc.) coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.) “to” in infinitives (to Drive, to Walk, to Run, etc.) UNLESS They’re the First Word in the Title! OR They’re the First Word After a Colon in the Title!
  • 16. Author. Title. City: Publisher, Basic Book Year. Form. Spokane, WA: Dunder Mifflin Press, Inc., 2006. Print. Spokane, WA: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. E-Book. Seattle: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. Print. NY: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. Print. LA: Dunder Mifflin, 2006. Print. Spokane, WA: Whitworth UP, 2006. Print. Podunk, GA: U of Nowhere P, 2006. Print.
  • 17. Author. Title. City: Publisher, Basic Book Year. Database or Website. ONLINE Form. Date of Access. Loblaw, Bob. Awesome Book. Sunnydale, CA: Penguin, 2007. Google Books. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. Schmoe, Joe. Super Duper Book. Shermer, IL: Bueller Brothers, 2002. Bueller E-ditions. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 18. Article/ Author. “Article Title.” Collection Chapter Title. Ed. Joe Schmoe. City: Inside Book Publisher, Year. Pages. For articles inside books.
  • 19. Article/ Author. “Article Title.” Collection Chapter Title. Ed. Joe Schmoe. City: Inside Book Publisher, Year. Pages. 25-35. 25-35, 62. 23+. 100-12. 1045-56. 1045-115.
  • 20. Article/ Author. “Article Title.” Collection Chapter Title. Ed. Joe Schmoe. City: Inside Book Publisher, Year. Pages. ONLINE Database or Website. Form. Date of Access. Loblaw, Bob. “Awesome Article.” Awesome Book. Ed. Willow Rosenberg. Sunnydale, CA: Penguin, 2007. 22-42. Google Books. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 22. Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Academic Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Journals Print. Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35. Print.
  • 23. Academic Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Journals Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. from Database. Web. Date Accessed. DATABASES Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. If There Are No Page Numbers Included: Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic Journal 22.3 (1987): n. pag. Literature Online. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 24. Academic Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Journals Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. from Database. Web. Date Accessed. DATABASES ources! Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” “onlin e” s Academic Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35.cess arily Search Academic Premier. Web. 2 Nov. ne t2009. s are no ase atab If There d from Are No Page Numbers Included: cles Arti Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic Journal 22.3 (1987): n. pag. Literature Online. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 25. Academic Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Journals Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. ONLINE Web. Date Accessed. Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic Journal 22.3 (1987): 22-35. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. If There Are No Page Numbers Included: Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Academic Journal 22.3 (1987): n. pag. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 27. Everyday Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Periodicals Title Date: Pages. Print. Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday Magazine 12 Sep. 2007: 6-17. Print. Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday Magazine Feb. 2007: 8-24. Print. ***Abbreviate All Months But May, June, and July.***
  • 28. Everyday Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Periodicals Title Date: Pages. Database. from Web. Date Accessed. DATABASES Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday Magazine 12 Sep. 2007: 6-17. Academic Search Premier. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday Magazine Feb. 2007: n. pag. LexisNexis. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 29. Everyday Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Periodicals Title Date: Pages. Database. from Web. Date Accessed. DATABASES ces! sour onl ine” Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” “ arily Everyday Magazine 12 Sep. 2007: nec ess Academic Search t 6-17. Premier. Web. s2are no 2009. base Nov. data “Super Duper Article.” Everyday Schmoe, Joe. from clesMagazine Feb. 2007: n. pag. LexisNexis. Web. Arti 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 30. Everyday Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Periodicals Title Date: Pages. Print. ONLINE Author. “Inside Title.” Publication Title. Publisher, Date. Web. Date Accessed. Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Newsweek. Newsweek, 12 Sep. 2007. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. Schmoe, Joe. “Super Duper Article.” Everyday Magazine. Bueller Brothers, Feb. 2007. Web. 2 Nov. 2009.
  • 31. Information Needed for Web Sources 1.! Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work 2.! Title of the work 3.! Title of the overall Web site (italicized), if different than item 2 4.! Version or edition used 5.! Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available, use N.p. 6.! Date of publication (day, month, and year, as available); if nothing is available, use n.d. 7.! Medium of publication (Web) 8.! Date of access (day, month, and year) See 14e!
  • 32. Information Needed for Web Sources Whole Website NCAA.com. NCAA, 2009. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. Page From Website NCAA. “Men’s Basketball.” NCAA.com. NCAA, 2009. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. SEE ALSO: 14e and 14f
  • 33. Information Needed for Web Sources Whole Blog Loblaw, Bob. Bob Loblaw’s Law Blog. N.p., 2009. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. Single Posting from Blog Loblaw, Bob. “Charles Not in Charge.” Bob Loblaw’s Law Blog. N.p., 15 Oct. 2007. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. SEE ALSO: 14e and 14f
  • 34. Parenthetical (“In-Text”) Citation for Fun and Profit This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe 17). This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe 17-18). This sentence cites a fact from Schmoe (17-18). This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe and Doe 17). This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe, Doe, and Jones 18). This sentence cites a fact (Schmoe et al. 18). This cites a fact from an anonymous source (“Title” 27). One of two works by one guy (Schmoe, “Title” 52). One of two guys named Schmoe (J. Schmoe 52).
  • 35. Direct Quotes and Parenthetical Citation Direct quote from Joe Schmoe: “I like to be quoted. It’s like my dad always said, ‘Proper citation builds character, and it makes you strong.’ Who doesn’t like being quoted?” Some say good citation “builds character”(Schmoe 17). As Schmoe says, “I like to be quoted” (17). Schmoe says he “like[s] to be quoted” (17). Schmoe likes “to be quoted” (17). Schmoe asks, “Who doesn’t like being quoted?” (17). Schmoe said, “It’s like my dad always said, ‘Proper citation builds character’” (17).
  • 36. Block Quotes If you quote a lot of text--more than four printed lines--then you insert a paragraph break and indent one inch. Like this: The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. What is called resignation is confirmed desperation. From the desperate city you go into the desperate country, and have to console yourself with the bravery of minks and muskrats. A stereotyped but unconscious despair is concealed even under what are called the games and amusements of mankind. There is no play in them, for this comes after work. But it is a characteristic of wisdom not to do desperate things. (Thoreau 22) The block quote, like the rest of your essay, should be double spaced. It’s also in the same size font as the rest of the essay. Don’t get fancy.
  • 37. YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE. YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE. ” (22). YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCKeQUOTE. spe ration in “q uiet d YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE. i d, live YOU hore au saNEED A BLOCK QUOTE. RARELY en, T RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE. Most m YOU YOU RARELY NEED A BLOCK QUOTE. You don’t need to cite huge blocks of text. Usually, you shouldn’t. Selectively cite just as much as you need--and no more--working the quote smoothly into the sentence.
  • 38. ... You don’t need ellipses at the “ . . . start and end of excerpted words . . . ” because, by convention, we know that you’re cutting words out of their context. Only three dots in an ellipsis, with spaces before, after, and in between. Good discussion of the ellipsis at the Grammar Girl site: http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/ ellipsis.aspx
  • 39. g.html ritin n.net/w joh nso ab
  • 40. More examples and types of sources are available in section 14 of the Little Penguin Handbook. Be sure to take a look at the sample MLA-formatted essay at 14h in the Little Penguin Handbook.