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Mental Health Issues of Graduate Students
Research Project Report
Submitted By
Ayush Nand (50923)
Kumail Raza Shaikh (53944)
Vinesh Kumar (50871)
Parshant Dawani (50936)
Abdul Waleed (50888)
Submitted To
Abdul Samad Sheikh
(Supervisor for the Project)
IQRA University, Main Campus Karachi
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ABSTRACT
Purpose
This research report presents an exploration of mental health issues among graduate students,
focusing on the factors that contribute to their psychological well-being. The study aims to provide a
comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted aspects influencing mental health challenges in this
population.
The consequences of mental health issues among graduate students extend beyond individual well-
being and have implications for academic performance and career prospects. Studies indicate that
mental health challenges can negatively impact productivity, hinder progress toward degree completion,
and decrease overall satisfaction with the academic experience.
Design and methodology
We have chosen epistemology as our basic philosophy for this Research and the paradigm will
be post positivism The research method, we are adopting in this will be quantitative The research will
be based on the deductive which means generalizing the questions and answers, in which, the people
will select, what suits them best according to them knowledge & situation. The strategy we are adopting
here is the explanatory. The data will be collected completely from either fresh graduate students or
those students who are in their last year of university life. The Data will be mostly Collected from our
own university, which is Iqra University, Main Campus, 80% of data could comprise from
this main campus .The rest of the data could comprise of also be from same level of students, but those
students could be from other campuses, departments, universities, another city, or even from the country
for that reason.
Findings
The pilot testing conducted based on responses and internal reliability test showing the 92% consistency
of responses over the scale. The correlation analysis and regression analysis applied to evaluate the
relationship and impact of various factors on mental health. The results of correlations analysis explain
there is significant relationship of work-life balance, overthinking with mental health based on
significance values less than 0.05 with 95% confidence interval and 5% margin of error. The results of
regression analysis shows the factors are self-esteem,financial issues,work-life balance and over-
thinking are significant predictors of mental helth of a student as values of t statistics are significant
based 95% confidence interval. The results show that the over thinking and work-life balance are strong
predictors to evaluate the mental health of a student in education sector in Pakistan.
Originality and Value
Mental health issues among college students have been studied extensively, there has been relatively
little research specifically focused on graduate students. By exploring the unique challenges and
stressors faced by graduate students, research in this area can provide valuable insights into the factors
that contribute to mental health issues among graduate student.
Keywords: Mental Health of Students (DV), Self-Esteem, Financial issues, Work-Life Balance and
Overthinking
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Table of Contents
1.Introduction...........................................................................................................................................5
1.1 Background ....................................................................................................................................5
1.2 Research Problem..........................................................................................................................5
1.3 Objectives ......................................................................................................................................5
1.4 Research Question.........................................................................................................................6
1.5 Justification ....................................................................................................................................6
1.6 Scope of Study ...............................................................................................................................6
1.7 Limitations of the Study.................................................................................................................6
1.8 Definitions of Key Terms ................................................................................................................6
2. Literature Review ................................................................................................................................7
2.1 Self Esteem....................................................................................................................................7
2.2 Financial Issues..............................................................................................................................8
2.3 Work-Life Balance.........................................................................................................................9
2.4 Overthinking................................................................................................................................10
3.Research Methodology.......................................................................................................................11
3.1 Research Design ..........................................................................................................................11
3.2 Research Population ....................................................................................................................12
3.3 Sampling Strategy and Sample Size............................................................................................12
3.4 Data Collection Procedure...........................................................................................................12
Primary Data..................................................................................................................................12
Secondary Data..............................................................................................................................12
3.5 Research Instrument Selection ....................................................................................................13
3.6 Variables.......................................................................................................................................13
Conceptual Framework..................................................................................................................13
3.7 Hypothesis ...................................................................................................................................13
3.8 Plan of Analysis...........................................................................................................................14
3.9 Software Employed .....................................................................................................................14
4. Data Analysis and Discussion............................................................................................................14
4.1 Demographic of Respondents......................................................................................................14
4.2 Descriptive Statistics ...................................................................................................................16
4.3 Reliability Test.............................................................................................................................18
4.4 Co-relation Analysis .....................................................................................................................20
4.5 Regression Analysis......................................................................................................................21
4.6 Hypothesis Testing.......................................................................................................................22
5. Conclusion .....................................................................................................................................23
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5.1 Conclusion:...................................................................................................................................23
5.2 Implications of Research..............................................................................................................24
5.3 Areas of Further Research .....................................................................................................24
References..............................................................................................................................................24
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1.Introduction
1.1 Background
Stress and other mental health issues can negatively impact the health and academic
performance of college students Many students have killed themselves by attempting suicide
and Teachers have raised questions and concerns about the mental health of students. In
response, we developed a study of graduate students with the aim of addressing the questions
and concerns with data. In colleges and universities in the United States, suicide is one of the
most common causes of death among students. Each year, approximately 24,000 college
students attempt suicide while 1,100 students succeed in their attempt, making suicide the
second-leading cause of death among U.S. college students.
According to the National Survey of Counselling Centre Directors,1 91% of directors agreed
that the number of students with severe psychological problems continues to rise. Directors
reported that 37.4% of students seeking campus counselling services have severe psychological
problems, with nearly 5.9% so serious that they cannot remain in school or can only do so with
extensive psychological/psychiatric assistance, and 31.2% experience severe problems but are
able to remain on campus utilizing available treatment methods. In the past 5 years directors
have reported an increase in the following problems which require quick medication that is:
learning disabilities, self-injury, eating disorders, and sexual assault.
Students have different lifestyles, many students affect their academic performance, health, and
life in general. Many students choose unhealthy and dangerous ways to live their lives by
consuming bad habits, junk food, drugs, etc. Many students are depressed because are not used
to living alone in a hostel away from their family, some students are the point they feel insecure
to socialize or communicate with others and are not able to even share their problems with their
family due to the gap which is created because of distance.
Graduate students are always stressed because the demands to produce excellent scholarly
articles, get top grades on exams or assignments, and keep up with challenging content can be
enormously stressful. If you're in a highly competitive program or attending grad school on a
scholarship, you could be even more vulnerable to academic stress.
1.2 Research Problem
As Students move from the undergraduate level to the graduate level, they often face many
challenges such as depression, pressure to meet the needs of the family, search for a dream job
& time management as most of the students often do jobs and also do post-graduation/masters.
It is reported in research that 39% of graduate students suffer moderate to severe depression
after graduating and it is 6 times more than the general population. These problems can be
solved by continuous counseling/guidance by the colleges/universities or closed ones.
1.3 Objectives
1. Effects of mental health issues after graduation on daily life.
2. To let people be aware of the symptoms of mental health.
3. Potential interventions or support systems for issues faced by graduate students.
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4. To collaborate with universities, policymakers, and mental health professionals to
advocate for better mental health support and resources for graduate students.
5. To Raise awareness & prevent suicidal thoughts & reduce the stigma of mental illness.
1.4 Research Question
1. What are the Effects of mental health issues after graduation on daily life?
2. How can those Affects, Affect mental health after graduation in daily life?
3. What are the symptoms of mental health issues?
4. What Potential interventions or support systems for issues faced by graduate students?
5. How can we collaborate with universities, policymakers, and mental health
professionals to advocate for better mental health support and resources for graduate
students?
6. How to prevent suicidal thoughts & reduce the stigma of mental illness?
1.5 Justification
Graduate departments need to openly acknowledge the problem. If mental health issues are
barriers to success, then this should be a prominent topic in grad student orientations, student
handbooks, initial meetings with advisors, and other places. It needs to be clear that
departments recognize this as an important concern. The first step to addressing them is making
mental health part of the conversation in our academic communities.
1.6 Scope of Study
As discussed above why research on this topic is so critical, so for this research we will be
taking data mostly from Karachi, Pakistan. We will be interviewing some of the graduates from
Iqra University, Main Campus, and also from other universities in the city, we would give
survey forms to fill it that could be open-ended and also close-ended. We would also interview
some of the students of last year to get to know how they see their life after graduating from
the university.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1. Short of Resources: one of the biggest limitations of this research will be the lack of
resources and time, at max, we will be able to interview or fill out a questionnaire by
not more than 100 people and that is a very small number to judge but if take it as a
sample this could be a very good number to determine what are effects and problems
and how we can solve it.
2. False Information: Another problem could be is false or biased information by
participants, they could give biased views.
3. Lack of Context: The lack of background context of participants in Research affects
most therefore their background should be understood before making any conclusions.
1.8 Definitions of Key Terms
1. Stigma: A mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or
person.
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2. Potential Interventions: The action or process of intervening.
3. Policy-Makers: A person responsible for or involved in formulating policies,
especially in politics.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Self Esteem
Introduction: Self-esteem plays a crucial role in the overall well-being and academic success
of individuals, including graduate students. The unique challenges and pressures faced during
graduate education can significantly impact self-esteem. This literature review aims to explore
the existing body of research on the self-esteem of graduate students, including its determinants
and the coping strategies employed to manage and enhance self-esteem
Self-esteem is the degree to which students feel satisfied with themselves and feel valuable and
worthy of respect. Perceived competence is a belief that one has skills in a particular area. A
student with With success in achieving their goals and experiencing a sense of accomplishment,
graduate students tend to have high self-esteem, high self-confidence, and a high value in
themselves. Self-esteem can be affected by various factors that can damage the total life aim
and goal of the student, the student is distracted by such factors which makes his routine very
much difficult for him/her to be followed respectively. Self-esteem and perceived competence
are necessary for students to take risks in their learning and to bounce back after failure or
adversity. Low self-esteem or lack of confidence leaves students doubting their ability to
succeed, making them hesitant to engage in learning or take appropriate academic growth risks
Factors Affecting self-esteem
Parents/carers teaching problem-solving skills from a young age (so that a child feels a sense
of achievement) can lead to positive self-esteem. Learning difficulties at school can lead to a
child struggling to complete work or maintain friendships, which can lead to negative self-
esteem. Your self-esteem can be influenced by your beliefs about the type of person you are,
what you can do, your strengths, your weaknesses, and your expectations of your future. There
may be particular people in your life whose messages about you can also contribute to your
self-esteem.
AFFECT OF LOW ,SELF ESTEEM ON STUDENT Low
Self-esteem can create anxiety, stress, loneliness, and an increased likelihood of depression.
cause problems with friendships and romantic relationships. seriously impair academic and job
performance. lead to increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse.
Conclusion: The self-esteem of graduate students is influenced by various determinants,
including academic performance, social interactions, and the overall academic environment.
Graduate students must develop effective coping strategies to manage and enhance their self-
esteem. Internal coping mechanisms, such as self-reflection and goal-setting, empower
graduate students to cultivate a positive self-perception. External coping mechanisms, such as
social support, positive feedback, and mental health interventions, provide crucial external
resources for managing self-esteem.
Universities and academic institutions should prioritize the mental well-being of graduate
students by promoting a supportive and inclusive environment. This can involve implementing
mentorship programs, providing counseling services, and fostering a culture that emphasizes
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positive feedback and recognition. Further research is needed to explore additional coping
strategies and interventions specifically tailored to the unique challenges faced by graduate
students.
2.2 Financial Issues
Financial issues are a significant concern for graduate students pursuing higher education.
Higher education often comes with hefty tuition fees and living expenses, and they also have
to look after their home as most graduate students are 23+ when they have completed their
bachelor’s degree, and in our society, it is expected that 23-year-olds must look after their home
and other things come after that. It is important for policymakers, institutions, and support
services to understand the effects of financial issues on graduate students to develop effective
strategies for alleviating these problems.
Financial Problems are directly related to students’ academic performance, and much research
has been conducted by renowned writers. Dang and Bulus (2015) indicate that the economic
downturn has had a widespread impact on numerous students, including college students who
frequently express concerns about their financial situation. Consequently, these financial
concerns can potentially affect students’ academic performance, as students must divide their
attention between their financial concerns and their studies. To further illustrate this, financial
problems can cause a range of difficulties that affect students' academic performance. One way
this happens is when students must work part-time or long hours to address financial issues.
This takes away time from their studies and results in fewer studies, fewer credits, and poor
attendance, leading to poor academic performance overall. Balancing work and academics have
divided their focus and attention. Research by Perman (2019) shows that approximately 59%
of students from low-income families who worked 15 hours or more per week received below-
average grades (C or lower). Managing both work and class schedules becomes challenging,
and students may also experience fatigue, which further affects their academic performance.
Thus, it can be argued that a family's financial stability serves as a source of motivation and
encouragement for students to excel. Asri et al. (2017) further suggest that when highly
motivated students encounter financial difficulties, they transform these challenges into a
driving force to achieve success. Consequently, regardless of the obstacles they face, including
financial constraints, students should not allow these difficulties to hinder their academic
aspirations if they are determined to succeed. Widener (2017) suggested that financial issues
can impact students' academic performance through two primary mechanisms: health problems
and the need to work part-time. Additionally, according to Widener (2017), financial problems
can contribute to health issues, such as anxiety, which in turn can lead to negative behaviors,
such as excessive alcohol consumption or uncontrolled shopping. These behaviors can distract
students from their academic pursuits, causing them to lose their focus. Facing financial
challenges associated with the high cost of living can make students more susceptible to health
problems. Consequently, the question arises as to whether students experiencing financial
difficulties can effectively manage stress in their daily lives and finances. Asri et al. (2017)
assert that poor financial management can render individuals incapable of managing stress,
thereby affecting various aspects of their daily lives, including their health. This can manifest
as symptoms of depression and physical illnesses. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the
financial problems faced by graduate students have gained further prominence. Statistics
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indicate that more than two-thirds of continuing postsecondary school students expressed deep
concern regarding the financial repercussions of the pandemic (Wall, 2020). These ongoing
financial concerns for graduate students have persisted as inflation rates surged, leading to
escalated day-to-day expenses (Scherer & Smith, 2022). Although inflation affects the entire
population, graduate students are particularly vulnerable due to inadequate stipend amounts
that fail to align with the average cost of living.
Conclusion
Financial issues pose a significant problem for graduates, as the high cost of tuition fees, living
expenses, rising inflation, and the expectation of taking on household responsibilities create a
financial burden on graduate students that impacts their academic performance. Additionally,
financial problems can lead to physical and mental health issues such as anxiety, high blood
pressure, and negative behavior. However, it is also believed that students can use this as a
source of motivation, which can be a driving force for them to master their academic
performance.
2.3 Work-Life Balance
Students of this era are involved in different types of activities apart from their studies; the
students of this era are so depressed and pressurized because of academic stress they are so
confused about how to maintain a certain balance between their work and life work-life balance
is a factor that is related to the well-being of employees, and it impacts employees’ satisfaction
with their jobs directly. As has been discussed, providing a good work-life balance by the
organization can lead to increased employee dignity and, as a result, can increase employee job
satisfaction at work. However, work-life balance is not only the satisfaction of employees with
their jobs, but it also impacts their personal needs. Therefore, if their needs are not satisfied, it
will lead to a stressful situation that results in negative employee work-related attitudes,
including well-being and job performance. Prior studies by various authors have performed
significant work on its impact on job satisfaction and other work-related attitudes. A student or
employee in today’s society has no job security, which is a major reason why they are in a
stressful environment.
Many students are multitasking; they know how to balance life and work and run both things
smoothly; they usually utilize their free time to enjoy and maintain the balance between life;
they utilize their working days to maintain the balance between their work and they usually
complete their work in working days so that they can freely enjoy their off days. Some students
are not able to complete their work on their deadline they usually do their pending work on off
days, and they are not able to utilize their off days because of their work pressure and workload
they become mentally sick and gain very bad habits of not matching the deadlines they need to
understand that mind peace and relaxation is a very important factor that can help them to build
a peaceful life. As a student, it is very important to balance work and life because it can help
improve mental and physical health to improve academic performance. Second, it can help
build interpersonal relationships and broaden horizons to improve academic performance and
even life journeys. Work-life balance is a key part of a healthy and productive work
environment. An individual who achieves this balance successfully dedicates an equal amount
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of time to work-related tasks and personal matters, without experiencing stress or becoming
overwhelmed.
CONCLUSION:
Maintaining a balanced life is becoming increasingly important for health and well-being in a
fast-paced, modern world. Sustaining a balanced diet alongside personal fitness can help
improve and stabilize overall health and well-being. Maintaining a work-life balance helps
reduce stress and prevent burnout in the workplace. Chronic stress is one of the most common
health issues in workplaces. It can lead to physical consequences such as hypertension,
digestive troubles, chronic aches and pains, and heart problems, There are a few factors that
affect the balance between work and life these are stringent rules, excessive workload, hostile
work environment, time pressure, and lack of job security.
2.4 Overthinking
Introduction: Overthinking is a common phenomenon experienced by individuals across
various domains, including graduate students. Graduate education involves rigorous academic
demands, complex decision-making processes, and increased responsibilities, which can
contribute to heightened levels of stress and anxiety. This literature review aims to explore the
concept of overthinking among graduate students and its implications on their mental health
and well-being. The review incorporates five relevant studies that shed light on the challenges,
risk factors, prevalence, and positive factors associated with overthinking among graduate
students.
Challenges and Opportunities for graduate students in public health during the COVID-19
Pandemic The study by Jenei et al. (2020) examines the unique challenges faced by graduate
students in public health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors highlight the increased
stress and uncertainty experienced by these students, which may contribute to overthinking.
The study emphasizes the importance of providing support and resources to help graduate
students cope with the challenges posed by the pandemic.
Opportunities:
1.The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportunity for universities and institutions to
reassess the support systems and resources available to graduate students. By recognizing the
unique challenges faced by graduate students during this time, institutions can implement
interventions and strategies to address overthinking and promote mental well-being.
2.The identification of risk factors associated with student distress and overthinking provides
an opportunity for institutions to focus on preventative measures. By offering faculty support,
increasing access to well-being resources, and implementing programs that target these risk
factors, universities can create a more supportive environment for graduate students.
3.The comparative study on nomophobia among undergraduate students opens up an
opportunity for further research on the prevalence of anxiety-related behaviors and their impact
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on overthinking among graduate students. This research can inform the development of
targeted interventions specifically tailored to address the needs of graduate students.
Results:
1. The study by Jenei et al. (2020) revealed that graduate students in public health faced
increased stress and uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic. This finding emphasizes the
need for support and resources to help graduate students cope with the challenges posed by the
pandemic.
2. Langness et al. (2020) identified faculty support and the availability of well-being
resources as key factors associated with reduced student distress. These results suggest that
providing adequate support systems and resources can have a positive impact on reducing
overthinking among graduate students.
3. Ozdemir et al. (2017) found variations in the prevalence of nomophobia among
undergraduate students in Pakistan and Turkey. While this study focused on undergraduate
students, it suggests that anxiety-related behaviors may contribute to overthinking, highlighting
the importance of addressing these behaviors among graduate students.
4. Charles et al. (2022) identified positive factors such as social support, mentoring
relationships, mindfulness, self-compassion, and self-efficacy as influential in promoting
positive mental health outcomes among graduate students. These results indicate that
cultivating these factors can help mitigate overthinking tendencies and enhance the overall
well-being of graduate students.
Conclusion: Overthinking among graduate students is a significant concern that can negatively
impact their mental health and overall well-being. This literature review has highlighted several
studies that contribute to understanding the challenges, risk factors, prevalence, and positive
factors associated with overthinking among graduate students. The findings emphasize the
importance of providing support, and resources and fostering positive psychological factors to
help graduate students effectively manage overthinking and promote their mental health and
success in their academic journey. Further research and interventions are warranted to address
this issue comprehensively.
3.Research Methodology
It is the systematic way of selecting various choices of research methods, those choices vary
on the basis of what type of research, the researcher is doing. Those choices include
Quantitative and Qualitative research, types of research; exploratory and explanatory and it
could be time horizon too. Before showing results, the researchers are bound to show, what
type of research method has been chosen, what are analytical tools, how they have selected
data and sampling and what were the constraints in conducting the research.
3.1 Research Design
The study shows that the environment is one of the biggest factors for deteriorating the mental
health of graduate students. Holland's theory of Careers says that the environment plays a huge
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role in the careers of graduate students' academic and social well-being. We have chosen
epistemology as our basic philosophy for this Research and the paradigm will be post
positivism which means that the theory we have adapted, we will test/challenge it and it will
be our choice, we accept it or reject it based on the results we get. The research method we are
adopting in this will be quantitative and it will be done on a small scale because of the
constraints we discussed above; lack of resources and possibly false information. The research
will be based on the deductive which means generalizing the questions and answers, in which,
the people will select, what suits them best according to their knowledge & situation. The
strategy we are adopting here is the explanatory because lots of research on this particular topic
have been done in the past already and we want to further enhance it. The time horizon of this
research is cross-sectional which means one-time research.
The tools for data collection will be questionnaires forms which will be filled by 100+ students,
who have graduated or they are in their last year.
3.2 Research Population
The data will be collected completely from either fresh graduate students or those students who
are in their last year of university life. The Data will be mostly Collected from our own
university, which is Iqra University, Main Campus, 80% of data could comprise from this main
campus because it is relatively easier for us to collect and analyze data on our own campus.
The rest of the data could comprise of also be from same level of students, but those students
could be from other campuses, departments, universities, another city, or even from the country
for that reason.
3.3 Sampling Strategy and Sample Size
Non-probability sampling strategy will be adopted to collect the data for our research.
There are millions of Graduate students in Pakistan, and of course, because of certain
constraints we will not be able to reach out to everyone, so we have decided we will ask 100-
180 graduates to fill out the survey and most of those students will be from Iqra University,
Main Campus, Karachi, Pakistan.
3.4 Data Collection Procedure
We will use Two typs collection of Data; Primary Data and Secondary Data.
Primary Data
The Primary source of data will be the online forms submitted by graduate students. That form
will consist of some of the questions such as: what problems they are facing after graduation,
how they will plan it out, and what are symptoms of depression and anxiety are, these questions
will help us to analyze what are mental health issues Graduate Students.
Secondary Data
We will also need other researchers’ points of view in order to make this research as effective
as possible to make a conclusion. There have been numerous researches on this topic, so we
will read those journals & articles to make part of our research and the question to be asked in
the survey.
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Mental Health
& Challenges
3.5 Research Instrument Selection
As to observe the ratio of Mental Health issues and challenges faced by students we decided to
build a survey online google form which will be filled with responses from different students
of different programs from different Universities, We will set different types of questions
regarding their level of stress and pressure and we will try our best to know the reason of
pressure and stress and compare the ratio of most common issues that students are facing which
are riddle for them to pursue their academic journey.
3.6 Variables
1. Self Esteem
2. Financial Issues
3. Work Life Balance
4. Overthinking
Conceptual Framework
Self Esteem
Overthinking
Work-Life Balance
Financial issues
Irfan, U. (2018). Mental health and factors related to mental health among Pakistani university
students (Doctoral dissertation). University of Canterbury Te Whare Wnanga o Waitaha,
Christchurch, New Zealand. (p. 74).
This model explains the relationship of the variables that are Self Esteem, Financial Issues, Work-Life
Balance & Overthinking which are independent of their effect on Mental Health and challenges to a
Graduate student.
3.7 Hypothesis
H1: There is a significant relationship between Self Esteem and the Mental Health of a student.
H2: There is a significant relationship between Financial Issues and the Mental Health of a
student.
H3: There is a significant relationship between Work-Life balance and the Mental Health of a
student.
H4: There is a significant relationship between Overthinking and the Mental Health of a
student.
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3.8 Plan of Analysis
Data can be collected through questionnaires, inter-use, etc.
Define Questions And Goals: Clearly defining questions and goals is the first for data
analysis. We ought to pose a specific question before looking for an answer in the data.
Collect Data: Before analyzing data, there needs to be data available for use.
Data Manipulation: Now that all of the data is on one hand, it is important to clean the data
before starting this analysis portion of this process.
Determine Analysis: The question or goals will have a significant impact on the type of
analysis chosen.
Analyse Results: It’s important to understand the findings after data analysis. Simply put, what
are the learnings from the findings of the analysis?
By following these procedures, we will be able to employ data analysis to uncover significant
new insights that can be translated into actionable results.
3.9 Software Employed
We could use software such as Spread Sheet/SPSS-Software Package For Social Sciences-
Regression-Anova/SAS/Minitab etc.
4. Data Analysis and Discussion
4.1 Demographic of Respondents
1. Gender
Percent Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid Male 175 87.1 87.9 87.9
Female 23 11.4 11.6 99.5
Prefer not to say 1 .5 .5 100.0
Total 199 99.0 100.0
Missing System 2 1.0
Total 201 100.0
In the Demographic of Responders, we obtained a total of 201 responses, of which 175 (87.1%)
were males, 23 11.4% were females, 1 (0.5%) preferred not to say, and 2 1.0% were system-
generated. The valid percentage of Males is 87.9%, Females 11.6%, Prefer not to say 0.5%.
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2. Age
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid 18-25 111 55.2 55.5 55.5
26-33 61 30.3 30.5 86.0
33-40 15 7.5 7.5 93.5
Above 40 13 6.5 6.5 100.0
Total 200 99.5 100.0
Missing System 1 .5
Total 201 100.0
Our responses were mixed in terms of age. We got 55.2% of 18-25 Years, 30.3 of 26-33 years,
7.5% of 33-40 years, and 6.5% of above 40 years.
3. Work-Experience
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid Less than one year 78 38.8 39.6 39.6
1 to 3 years 56 27.9 28.4 68.0
3 to 5 years 35 17.4 17.8 85.8
More than 5 years 28 13.9 14.2 100.0
Total 197 98.0 100.0
Missing System 4 2.0
Total 201 100.0
We obtained different kinds of Work Experience responses in which 38.8% had less than 1
year, 1-3 years 27.9%,3-5 years, and 13.9% More than 5 years was 13.9%.
4. Education
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid Undergraduate 79 39.3 39.3 39.3
Graduate 103 51.2 51.2 90.5
Masters 15 7.5 7.5 98.0
PHD 4 2.0 2.0 100.0
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Total 201 100.0 100.0
We obtained different perceptions for different educational backgrounds: undergraduate,
39.3%; graduate, 51.2%; master’s, 7.5%; Ph.D., 2.0%. we can say that we achieved our target
as far as our target responders are concerned, about 60.07 were either graduated or have done
their master's or PHD.
4.2 Descriptive Statistics
Variable-1: Self Esteem
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
SE1 201 1.00 5.00 4.0597 1.19851
SE2 201 1.00 5.00 4.0697 1.13804
SE3 201 1.00 5.00 4.0746 1.24475
Valid N (listwise) 201
We obtained different types of results for Self Esteem of students, which contain: SE1
Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, SE2 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00 SE3 Minimum 1.00
Maximum 5.00.
Variable-2: Financial issues
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
FI1 201 1.00 5.00 1.7065 1.02392
FI2 201 1.00 5.00 1.5672 .84066
FI3 201 1.00 5.00 1.8756 1.03897
FI4 201 1.00 5.00 1.9104 1.03050
Valid N (listwise) 201
We obtained different types of responses for Financial issues of students; what problems they
face and what can be done so in which include F11 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, F12
Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, F13 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, F14 Minimum 1.00
Maximum 5.00.
Variable-3: Work-Life Balance
P a g e 17 | 28
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
WL1 201 1.00 5.00 1.6020 .78791
WL2 201 1.00 5.00 1.9204 .95584
WL3 201 1.00 5.00 1.7015 .77489
Valid N (listwise) 201
We obtained different types of responses which include WL1 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00,
WL2 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, WL3 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00.
Variable-4: Overthinking
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
OT1 201 1.00 5.00 1.5423 .83033
OT2 201 1.00 5.00 1.6219 .85809
OT3 201 1.00 5.00 2.2040 1.26221
OT4 201 1.00 5.00 2.0547 1.32363
Valid N (listwise) 201
We obtained different types of responses for the variable, Overthinking of students, which
include OT1, OT2, OT3 & OT4 (Minimum 1.00 and Maximum 5.00) in which the mean was
above 1.5 in all questions.
Variable-5: Mental health issues of graduate students (DV)
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
MH1 201 1.00 5.00 1.5672 .84066
MH2 201 1.00 5.00 1.7065 1.02392
MH3 201 1.00 5.00 1.6020 .78791
MH4 201 1.00 5.00 1.6219 .85809
Valid N (listwise) 201
We obtained different types of responses for the Mental Health of graduate students, which is
also our dependent variable which include, including MH1, MH2, MH3 & MH4 as Minimum
1.00 and Maximum 5.00, and in this too mean of the all questions we asked was above 1.5
while the standard deviation was mixed from the responses we got.
P a g e 18 | 28
4.3 Reliability Test
Variable-1: Self Esteem
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.876 3
For the Variable Self Esteem, we got Reliability Ratio the almost 88% which shows the
questions are quite reliable that show the audience has filled the questionnaire correctly.
Variable-2: Financial issues
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.779 4
For the Variable Financial Issue, we got a Reliability of 88% which shows the questions are
quite reliable and that shows the audience has constant responses to every question that has
been asked.
Variable-3: Work-Life Balance
For the Variable Work-Life Balance, we got a Reliability Ratio of 0.761 which mean is it also
above 75% (76%) which shows the questions are quite reliable and proves the audience has
filled the questionnaire correctly.
Variable-4: Overthinking
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.761 3
P a g e 19 | 28
.744 4
For the Variable Overthinking, we got a Reliability Ratio of 74% which shows the questions
are quite reliable that shows the audience has filled out the questionnaire correctly.
Variable-5: Mental health issues of graduate students (DV)
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.679 4
For Variable 5, Mental health of students which is also our only dependent variable of all these
4 independent variables. For this, we got a Reliability of 68%, which shows the questions are
quite reliable and that shows the audience has filled out the questionnaire correctly.
Total
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.917 18
Summary
Variables Items Cronbach’s Alpha
Self Esteem 3 0.876
Financial issues 4 0.779
Work-Life Balance 3 0.761
Overthinking 4 0.744
Mental Health of Students (DV) 4 0.679
Overall reliability 18
0.917
P a g e 20 | 28
The reliability test of all the constructs, which are mentioned in the table above, shows that
each variable also has significant reliability, the value of Cronbach’s Alpha is greater than 0.65
in all constructs or variables. The value of Self Esteem is 0.876. Work-Life Balance is 0.761.
Overthinking is 0.679. and Mental Health (DV) is 0.679, all constructs show significant
reliability and consistency of response over the scale.
4.4 Co-relation Analysis
Correlations
SE FI WL OT MH
SE Pearson Correlation 1 .332**
.343**
.309**
.319**
Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001
N 201 201 201 201 201
FI Pearson Correlation .332**
1 .301**
.441**
.345**
Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001
N 201 201 201 201 201
WL Pearson Correlation .343**
.301**
1 .461**
.463**
Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001
N 201 201 201 201 201
OT Pearson Correlation .309**
.441**
.461**
1 .417**
Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001
N 201 201 201 201 201
MH Pearson Correlation .319**
.345**
.463**
.417**
1
Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001
N 201 201 201 201 201
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The Correlation Matrix just explain the relationship of all variables with dependent variable
based on 95% confidence Interval and 5% Margin of Error on which sample is drawn from
population.
The Criterion suggest that value of significance 2 tailed must be less than 0.05 for significance
of independent variable having relationship with dependent variable. The table shows the that
the values of all four independent variables Self-esteem (SE), Financial issue (FI), Work life
balance (WL), Overthinking (OT) are <0.001 at significance, shows that all the variables
having positive and significant relationship with mental health change in these factors will
affects the results of mental health and these factors are core determinants of mental health
P a g e 21 | 28
Analyzing relationship of variables with Multiple Regression
The regression analysis evaluates the relationship and impact of variables with dependent
variables. The researcher evaluates the relationship and impact of self-esteem, work life
balance, financial issue overthinking on mental health . The regression model is applied based
on direct and positive relationship of those variables with dependent variables organizational
performance based on literature and initial statistical tests.
4.5 Regression Analysis
The model summary of regression analysis shows the value of R Square, which explain the
level of predictability by independent variables together to explain the dependant variable. The
Value of R Square is 0.298 which is about 0.3, means 30% model is significant and ability to
predict or forecast changes in mental health based on selected four variables OT,SE,FI and WL.
Regression Model Results-Mediation Innovative Culture
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 42.162 4 10.540 20.830 <.001b
Residual 99.182 196 .506
Total 141.343 200
a. Dependent Variable: MH
b. Predictors: (Constant), OT, SE, FI, WL
The ANOVA is analysis of variances; explain the variation in independent and dependent
variables, based on changes in independent how much variations come across in dependent
variables. The F Statistics is model fit test, evaluates the relationship and impact of selected
independent variables on dependent variable. The Model fit is significant and F Statistics value
is significant as greater than 2 and probability value less than 0.05.
Model Summary
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of the
Estimate
1 .546a
.298 .284 .71136
a. Predictors: (Constant), OT, SE, FI, WL
P a g e 22 | 28
Regression Model Sumamary
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .254 .186 1.367 .173
SE .080 .046 .114 1.723 .086
FI .112 .056 .137 1.993 .048
WL .318 .074 .298 4.286 <.001
OT .186 .073 .183 2.528 .012
a. Dependent Variable: MH
The above results of regression model explained the significance of variables based on t
statistics and beta coefficients. The research evaluates the results based on 95% confidence
interval and value of t statistics must be greater than 1.96 required with probability values less
then 0.05. The results shows that the self esteem with value 1.7 and probability value 0.86 is
significant predictor of Mental health issues of graduates students. Financial issue with t
statistics 1.9, and probability value is .048, Work life balance with the statistic 4.2 and
probability value is less than .001, Overthinking with t statistic value 2.5 and probability value
is 0.12.
4.6 Hypothesis Testing
Alternative Hypothesis t-statistics Significant
level
Accepted / Rejected
H1: There isn’t any significant
relationship between Self
Esteem and the Mental Health
of a student.
1.723 .086 Rejected
P a g e 23 | 28
5. Conclusion
5.1 Conclusion:
The research conducted on Mental health issues of graduate students In Pakistan. Various
researchers determine various factors in univeristies based on primary data, the factors
includes Self Esteem Financial issue, Work life balance and overthinking. This research
conducted based on four constructs Self Esteem, Financial issue, Work life balance,
Overthinking. The data collected from the students of Iqra University and from some other
universities, complete the sample size of 201 respondents based on convenience sampling.
The collected data tested based on internal reliability test, the values of Cronbach’s Alpha
shows the 92% consistency of response over all item and based on constructs the reliability
is also greater than 70%. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha is greater than 0.7 in all constructs
or variables. The value of Self Esteem is 0.876, Financial issue is 0.779, Work life balance
0.761, overthinking 0.744 and MH is 0.679, all constructs shows the significant reliability
and consistency of response over the scale. The Correlation analysis and regression applied
to analyze the relationship and impact of variables to test the hypothesis and verify the
factors of mental health The results of correlation analysis tested based on 95% confidence
interval and 5% Margin of Error, the results of four variables Self Esteem, Financial issue,
Work life balance, Overthinking values are significant and all four factors are determinants
of MH . The Alternative hypothesis are also accepted as values of t statistics and probability
are significant based on given criterion and hence it is proved that significant relationship
Self Esteem, Financial issue, Work life balance, Overthinking and impact on mental health
The Mental health studied by few researchers in Pakistan but this research contributes the
new constructs, new literature and contribution based on particularly on graduate students In
Karachi. This study elaborates that self esteem and financial issue are strong significant
predictors and work life balance and overthinking also significant but with less explanatory
power then the self esteem and financial issue.
H2: There isn’t any significant
relationship between Financial
Issues and the Mental Health of
a student.
1.993 .048
Rejected
H3: There is a significant
relationship between Work-Life
balance and the Mental Health
of a student.
4.286 <.001 Accepted
H4: There is a significant
relationship between
Overthinking and the Mental
Health of a student.
2.528 .012 Accepted
P a g e 24 | 28
5.2 Implications of Research
The research results can be implemented on graduate students in Karachi Pakistan, as the research is
focused on Mental health issues of graduate students. Research on factors affecting the mental
health issues of graduate students has important implications for both individual students and
the broader academic community. By addressing these factors, we can help create a more
supportive and healthy environment for graduate students to thrive in.
5.3 Areas of Further Research
This research provides a comprehensive understanding of factors affecting mental health issue
in educaation sector in Karachi Pakistan, but these are not only the factors, there can be many
other factors that research can be conducted on this. This research explain the over-thinking
and work-life balance significant relationship and impact on mental health of a student.
The further research can be conducted on the impact of academic pressure and workload on
mental health, the role of social support networks and the impact of financial stress. Overall,
there is a great deal of potential for further research in this area, and addressing these factors
could help improve the mental health and well-being of graduate students.
References
Burns N, Grove SK. The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique and Utilization. 5th
ed. St.
Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. P. 40.
Irfan, U. (2016). Mental health and factors related to mental health among Pakistani university
students (Doctoral dissertation). University of Canterbury Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha,
Christchurch, New Zealand. (p. 74).
Newman, J., & Dobbrow, C. (2022). Augury’s James Newman and Chris Dobbrow discuss the
compatibility of sustainability and profitability.
Gallea, J. I., Medrano, L. A., & Morera, L. P. (2021). Work-related mental health issues in graduate
population. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-12.
Jenei, K., Cassidy-Matthews, C., Virk, P., Lulie, B., & Closson, K. (2020). Challenges and
opportunities for graduate students in the public health sector during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(6), 912-914.
Powers, S. (2018, March 6). New study says graduate students in mental health crisis. Inside Higher
Ed.
P a g e 25 | 28
Bembenutty, H., & Karabenick, S. A. (2004). Inherent association. Journal of Educational Psychology,
96(4), 766-776
Jenei, K., Cassidy-Matthews, C., Virk, P., Lulie, B., & Closson, K. (2020). Challenges and
opportunities for graduate students in public health during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(6), 994-998.
Langness, S., Rajapuram, N., Marshall, M., Rahman, A. S., & Sammann, A. (2020). Risk
factors associated with student distress in medical school: Associations with faculty support
and availability of well-being resources. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 1-9.
Ozdemir, B., Cakir, O., & Hussain, I. (2017). Prevalence of Nomophobia among University
Students: A Comparative Study of Pakistani and Turkish Undergraduate Students. The
Education and Science Journal, 42(189), 167-186.
Charles, S. T., Karnaze, M. M., & Leslie, F. M. (2022). Positive factors related to graduate
student mental health. Journal of American College Health, 70(6), 1858-1866.
P a g e 26 | 28
Appendices
A. Questionnaires:
Hello and Aslam-O-Alaikum, We are students of Iqra University,
Karachi, conducting a research on the “Mental Health Issues of Graduate students" You are invited
to participate in this research. Survey responses assure you that will be strictly confidential and data
from this survey will be reported only in the aggregate. Your understanding and cooperation for this
academic exercise will be highly appreciated.
Gender Age (years) Education Work Experience
 Male 18-25 Matriculation less than one year
 Female 26-33 Intermediate 1 to 3 years
 33-40 Bachelors 3 to 5 years
 Above 40 Masters More than 5 Years
 PhD
Scale: Please tick the most appropriate items that best describe you
(SD=Strongly Disagree, D= Disagree, N= Neutral / No idea, A=Agree, SA= Strongly Agree)
Statements SD D N A SA
Self Esteem (Rubin R.W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H.
2001)
I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with
others.
I feel that I have several good qualities.
I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.
Financial Issues (Altman, T., & Roth. M. 2018)
Educational expenses create a lot of burden on students.
Universities should be offering educational expenses of graduate
students.
I always had difficulty making ends meet financially.
I always feel insecurity about my financial issue.
Work-life Balance (SHAHANI, N.U.N., NAWAZ, M., & TAHIR,
R. 2020)
Work-life balance policy must consider these factors, including
flexibility in working time and some monetary benefits.
P a g e 27 | 28
Work-life balance is not only about families and childcare, but also
about working less.
A employee happiness refers to the level of contentment an
employee experiences in their workplace.
Overthinking (Al Mazrouei, Maktoom. (UAE) happiness context”
2022).
Overthinking can cause unhappiness, anxiety, depression, and other
mental health problems. Mental health problems are related to many
factors including rumination, depression brooding, worry, etc.
Many people get caught up in overthinking problems from time to
time, but some people make a habit of it. This habit can affect
grades and academic performance because students get so caught up
in thinking mode that they never get to a good solution.
You always feel that you are experiencing a mental health issue.
Mental Health of Students (Fleming, G. 2020, Jan. 29)
Students often experience various mental health challenges due to
the pressures of academic performance, social expectations.
Creating a supportive and inclusive campus environment that
promotes mental health awareness, reduces stigma, and provides
easily accessible mental health services is crucial for supporting
students’ well-being.
Sleep disturbances and irregular sleep patterns are prevalent among
students, negatively impacting their mental health and cognitive
abilities.
Social isolation and feelings of loneliness can significantly impact
students’ mental health, especially when adjusting to new
environments or facing social challenges.
Thank You, for your co-operation.
P a g e 28 | 28
B.
Sources Adapted Questionnaire:
(Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem:
Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 151–161)
(Altmann, T., & Roth, M. (2018). The Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for cross-sectional
direct assessment of self-esteem stability. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 91)
(SHAHANI, N. U. N., NAWAZ, M., & TAHIR, R. (2020). A Study of Work-Life Balance for
the Working
Women in the United Arab Emirates and its Impact on their Job Satisfaction and Employee
Retention: A Review Study. International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs, 5(2),
85–90. )
(Al Mazrouei, Maktoom, “Scandinavian work-life balance experience: its implementation in
the United
Arab Emirates (UAE) happiness context” (2022). Theses and Dissertations. 1260.)
(Fleming, G. 2020, Jan. 29 ThoughtCo.. (n.d.). Why Overthinking Is a Risky Habit)

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Mental Health Issues of Graduate Students

  • 1. P a g e 1 | 28 Mental Health Issues of Graduate Students Research Project Report Submitted By Ayush Nand (50923) Kumail Raza Shaikh (53944) Vinesh Kumar (50871) Parshant Dawani (50936) Abdul Waleed (50888) Submitted To Abdul Samad Sheikh (Supervisor for the Project) IQRA University, Main Campus Karachi
  • 2. P a g e 2 | 28 ABSTRACT Purpose This research report presents an exploration of mental health issues among graduate students, focusing on the factors that contribute to their psychological well-being. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted aspects influencing mental health challenges in this population. The consequences of mental health issues among graduate students extend beyond individual well- being and have implications for academic performance and career prospects. Studies indicate that mental health challenges can negatively impact productivity, hinder progress toward degree completion, and decrease overall satisfaction with the academic experience. Design and methodology We have chosen epistemology as our basic philosophy for this Research and the paradigm will be post positivism The research method, we are adopting in this will be quantitative The research will be based on the deductive which means generalizing the questions and answers, in which, the people will select, what suits them best according to them knowledge & situation. The strategy we are adopting here is the explanatory. The data will be collected completely from either fresh graduate students or those students who are in their last year of university life. The Data will be mostly Collected from our own university, which is Iqra University, Main Campus, 80% of data could comprise from this main campus .The rest of the data could comprise of also be from same level of students, but those students could be from other campuses, departments, universities, another city, or even from the country for that reason. Findings The pilot testing conducted based on responses and internal reliability test showing the 92% consistency of responses over the scale. The correlation analysis and regression analysis applied to evaluate the relationship and impact of various factors on mental health. The results of correlations analysis explain there is significant relationship of work-life balance, overthinking with mental health based on significance values less than 0.05 with 95% confidence interval and 5% margin of error. The results of regression analysis shows the factors are self-esteem,financial issues,work-life balance and over- thinking are significant predictors of mental helth of a student as values of t statistics are significant based 95% confidence interval. The results show that the over thinking and work-life balance are strong predictors to evaluate the mental health of a student in education sector in Pakistan. Originality and Value Mental health issues among college students have been studied extensively, there has been relatively little research specifically focused on graduate students. By exploring the unique challenges and stressors faced by graduate students, research in this area can provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to mental health issues among graduate student. Keywords: Mental Health of Students (DV), Self-Esteem, Financial issues, Work-Life Balance and Overthinking
  • 3. P a g e 3 | 28 Table of Contents 1.Introduction...........................................................................................................................................5 1.1 Background ....................................................................................................................................5 1.2 Research Problem..........................................................................................................................5 1.3 Objectives ......................................................................................................................................5 1.4 Research Question.........................................................................................................................6 1.5 Justification ....................................................................................................................................6 1.6 Scope of Study ...............................................................................................................................6 1.7 Limitations of the Study.................................................................................................................6 1.8 Definitions of Key Terms ................................................................................................................6 2. Literature Review ................................................................................................................................7 2.1 Self Esteem....................................................................................................................................7 2.2 Financial Issues..............................................................................................................................8 2.3 Work-Life Balance.........................................................................................................................9 2.4 Overthinking................................................................................................................................10 3.Research Methodology.......................................................................................................................11 3.1 Research Design ..........................................................................................................................11 3.2 Research Population ....................................................................................................................12 3.3 Sampling Strategy and Sample Size............................................................................................12 3.4 Data Collection Procedure...........................................................................................................12 Primary Data..................................................................................................................................12 Secondary Data..............................................................................................................................12 3.5 Research Instrument Selection ....................................................................................................13 3.6 Variables.......................................................................................................................................13 Conceptual Framework..................................................................................................................13 3.7 Hypothesis ...................................................................................................................................13 3.8 Plan of Analysis...........................................................................................................................14 3.9 Software Employed .....................................................................................................................14 4. Data Analysis and Discussion............................................................................................................14 4.1 Demographic of Respondents......................................................................................................14 4.2 Descriptive Statistics ...................................................................................................................16 4.3 Reliability Test.............................................................................................................................18 4.4 Co-relation Analysis .....................................................................................................................20 4.5 Regression Analysis......................................................................................................................21 4.6 Hypothesis Testing.......................................................................................................................22 5. Conclusion .....................................................................................................................................23
  • 4. P a g e 4 | 28 5.1 Conclusion:...................................................................................................................................23 5.2 Implications of Research..............................................................................................................24 5.3 Areas of Further Research .....................................................................................................24 References..............................................................................................................................................24
  • 5. P a g e 5 | 28 1.Introduction 1.1 Background Stress and other mental health issues can negatively impact the health and academic performance of college students Many students have killed themselves by attempting suicide and Teachers have raised questions and concerns about the mental health of students. In response, we developed a study of graduate students with the aim of addressing the questions and concerns with data. In colleges and universities in the United States, suicide is one of the most common causes of death among students. Each year, approximately 24,000 college students attempt suicide while 1,100 students succeed in their attempt, making suicide the second-leading cause of death among U.S. college students. According to the National Survey of Counselling Centre Directors,1 91% of directors agreed that the number of students with severe psychological problems continues to rise. Directors reported that 37.4% of students seeking campus counselling services have severe psychological problems, with nearly 5.9% so serious that they cannot remain in school or can only do so with extensive psychological/psychiatric assistance, and 31.2% experience severe problems but are able to remain on campus utilizing available treatment methods. In the past 5 years directors have reported an increase in the following problems which require quick medication that is: learning disabilities, self-injury, eating disorders, and sexual assault. Students have different lifestyles, many students affect their academic performance, health, and life in general. Many students choose unhealthy and dangerous ways to live their lives by consuming bad habits, junk food, drugs, etc. Many students are depressed because are not used to living alone in a hostel away from their family, some students are the point they feel insecure to socialize or communicate with others and are not able to even share their problems with their family due to the gap which is created because of distance. Graduate students are always stressed because the demands to produce excellent scholarly articles, get top grades on exams or assignments, and keep up with challenging content can be enormously stressful. If you're in a highly competitive program or attending grad school on a scholarship, you could be even more vulnerable to academic stress. 1.2 Research Problem As Students move from the undergraduate level to the graduate level, they often face many challenges such as depression, pressure to meet the needs of the family, search for a dream job & time management as most of the students often do jobs and also do post-graduation/masters. It is reported in research that 39% of graduate students suffer moderate to severe depression after graduating and it is 6 times more than the general population. These problems can be solved by continuous counseling/guidance by the colleges/universities or closed ones. 1.3 Objectives 1. Effects of mental health issues after graduation on daily life. 2. To let people be aware of the symptoms of mental health. 3. Potential interventions or support systems for issues faced by graduate students.
  • 6. P a g e 6 | 28 4. To collaborate with universities, policymakers, and mental health professionals to advocate for better mental health support and resources for graduate students. 5. To Raise awareness & prevent suicidal thoughts & reduce the stigma of mental illness. 1.4 Research Question 1. What are the Effects of mental health issues after graduation on daily life? 2. How can those Affects, Affect mental health after graduation in daily life? 3. What are the symptoms of mental health issues? 4. What Potential interventions or support systems for issues faced by graduate students? 5. How can we collaborate with universities, policymakers, and mental health professionals to advocate for better mental health support and resources for graduate students? 6. How to prevent suicidal thoughts & reduce the stigma of mental illness? 1.5 Justification Graduate departments need to openly acknowledge the problem. If mental health issues are barriers to success, then this should be a prominent topic in grad student orientations, student handbooks, initial meetings with advisors, and other places. It needs to be clear that departments recognize this as an important concern. The first step to addressing them is making mental health part of the conversation in our academic communities. 1.6 Scope of Study As discussed above why research on this topic is so critical, so for this research we will be taking data mostly from Karachi, Pakistan. We will be interviewing some of the graduates from Iqra University, Main Campus, and also from other universities in the city, we would give survey forms to fill it that could be open-ended and also close-ended. We would also interview some of the students of last year to get to know how they see their life after graduating from the university. 1.7 Limitations of the Study 1. Short of Resources: one of the biggest limitations of this research will be the lack of resources and time, at max, we will be able to interview or fill out a questionnaire by not more than 100 people and that is a very small number to judge but if take it as a sample this could be a very good number to determine what are effects and problems and how we can solve it. 2. False Information: Another problem could be is false or biased information by participants, they could give biased views. 3. Lack of Context: The lack of background context of participants in Research affects most therefore their background should be understood before making any conclusions. 1.8 Definitions of Key Terms 1. Stigma: A mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person.
  • 7. P a g e 7 | 28 2. Potential Interventions: The action or process of intervening. 3. Policy-Makers: A person responsible for or involved in formulating policies, especially in politics. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Self Esteem Introduction: Self-esteem plays a crucial role in the overall well-being and academic success of individuals, including graduate students. The unique challenges and pressures faced during graduate education can significantly impact self-esteem. This literature review aims to explore the existing body of research on the self-esteem of graduate students, including its determinants and the coping strategies employed to manage and enhance self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree to which students feel satisfied with themselves and feel valuable and worthy of respect. Perceived competence is a belief that one has skills in a particular area. A student with With success in achieving their goals and experiencing a sense of accomplishment, graduate students tend to have high self-esteem, high self-confidence, and a high value in themselves. Self-esteem can be affected by various factors that can damage the total life aim and goal of the student, the student is distracted by such factors which makes his routine very much difficult for him/her to be followed respectively. Self-esteem and perceived competence are necessary for students to take risks in their learning and to bounce back after failure or adversity. Low self-esteem or lack of confidence leaves students doubting their ability to succeed, making them hesitant to engage in learning or take appropriate academic growth risks Factors Affecting self-esteem Parents/carers teaching problem-solving skills from a young age (so that a child feels a sense of achievement) can lead to positive self-esteem. Learning difficulties at school can lead to a child struggling to complete work or maintain friendships, which can lead to negative self- esteem. Your self-esteem can be influenced by your beliefs about the type of person you are, what you can do, your strengths, your weaknesses, and your expectations of your future. There may be particular people in your life whose messages about you can also contribute to your self-esteem. AFFECT OF LOW ,SELF ESTEEM ON STUDENT Low Self-esteem can create anxiety, stress, loneliness, and an increased likelihood of depression. cause problems with friendships and romantic relationships. seriously impair academic and job performance. lead to increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Conclusion: The self-esteem of graduate students is influenced by various determinants, including academic performance, social interactions, and the overall academic environment. Graduate students must develop effective coping strategies to manage and enhance their self- esteem. Internal coping mechanisms, such as self-reflection and goal-setting, empower graduate students to cultivate a positive self-perception. External coping mechanisms, such as social support, positive feedback, and mental health interventions, provide crucial external resources for managing self-esteem. Universities and academic institutions should prioritize the mental well-being of graduate students by promoting a supportive and inclusive environment. This can involve implementing mentorship programs, providing counseling services, and fostering a culture that emphasizes
  • 8. P a g e 8 | 28 positive feedback and recognition. Further research is needed to explore additional coping strategies and interventions specifically tailored to the unique challenges faced by graduate students. 2.2 Financial Issues Financial issues are a significant concern for graduate students pursuing higher education. Higher education often comes with hefty tuition fees and living expenses, and they also have to look after their home as most graduate students are 23+ when they have completed their bachelor’s degree, and in our society, it is expected that 23-year-olds must look after their home and other things come after that. It is important for policymakers, institutions, and support services to understand the effects of financial issues on graduate students to develop effective strategies for alleviating these problems. Financial Problems are directly related to students’ academic performance, and much research has been conducted by renowned writers. Dang and Bulus (2015) indicate that the economic downturn has had a widespread impact on numerous students, including college students who frequently express concerns about their financial situation. Consequently, these financial concerns can potentially affect students’ academic performance, as students must divide their attention between their financial concerns and their studies. To further illustrate this, financial problems can cause a range of difficulties that affect students' academic performance. One way this happens is when students must work part-time or long hours to address financial issues. This takes away time from their studies and results in fewer studies, fewer credits, and poor attendance, leading to poor academic performance overall. Balancing work and academics have divided their focus and attention. Research by Perman (2019) shows that approximately 59% of students from low-income families who worked 15 hours or more per week received below- average grades (C or lower). Managing both work and class schedules becomes challenging, and students may also experience fatigue, which further affects their academic performance. Thus, it can be argued that a family's financial stability serves as a source of motivation and encouragement for students to excel. Asri et al. (2017) further suggest that when highly motivated students encounter financial difficulties, they transform these challenges into a driving force to achieve success. Consequently, regardless of the obstacles they face, including financial constraints, students should not allow these difficulties to hinder their academic aspirations if they are determined to succeed. Widener (2017) suggested that financial issues can impact students' academic performance through two primary mechanisms: health problems and the need to work part-time. Additionally, according to Widener (2017), financial problems can contribute to health issues, such as anxiety, which in turn can lead to negative behaviors, such as excessive alcohol consumption or uncontrolled shopping. These behaviors can distract students from their academic pursuits, causing them to lose their focus. Facing financial challenges associated with the high cost of living can make students more susceptible to health problems. Consequently, the question arises as to whether students experiencing financial difficulties can effectively manage stress in their daily lives and finances. Asri et al. (2017) assert that poor financial management can render individuals incapable of managing stress, thereby affecting various aspects of their daily lives, including their health. This can manifest as symptoms of depression and physical illnesses. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the financial problems faced by graduate students have gained further prominence. Statistics
  • 9. P a g e 9 | 28 indicate that more than two-thirds of continuing postsecondary school students expressed deep concern regarding the financial repercussions of the pandemic (Wall, 2020). These ongoing financial concerns for graduate students have persisted as inflation rates surged, leading to escalated day-to-day expenses (Scherer & Smith, 2022). Although inflation affects the entire population, graduate students are particularly vulnerable due to inadequate stipend amounts that fail to align with the average cost of living. Conclusion Financial issues pose a significant problem for graduates, as the high cost of tuition fees, living expenses, rising inflation, and the expectation of taking on household responsibilities create a financial burden on graduate students that impacts their academic performance. Additionally, financial problems can lead to physical and mental health issues such as anxiety, high blood pressure, and negative behavior. However, it is also believed that students can use this as a source of motivation, which can be a driving force for them to master their academic performance. 2.3 Work-Life Balance Students of this era are involved in different types of activities apart from their studies; the students of this era are so depressed and pressurized because of academic stress they are so confused about how to maintain a certain balance between their work and life work-life balance is a factor that is related to the well-being of employees, and it impacts employees’ satisfaction with their jobs directly. As has been discussed, providing a good work-life balance by the organization can lead to increased employee dignity and, as a result, can increase employee job satisfaction at work. However, work-life balance is not only the satisfaction of employees with their jobs, but it also impacts their personal needs. Therefore, if their needs are not satisfied, it will lead to a stressful situation that results in negative employee work-related attitudes, including well-being and job performance. Prior studies by various authors have performed significant work on its impact on job satisfaction and other work-related attitudes. A student or employee in today’s society has no job security, which is a major reason why they are in a stressful environment. Many students are multitasking; they know how to balance life and work and run both things smoothly; they usually utilize their free time to enjoy and maintain the balance between life; they utilize their working days to maintain the balance between their work and they usually complete their work in working days so that they can freely enjoy their off days. Some students are not able to complete their work on their deadline they usually do their pending work on off days, and they are not able to utilize their off days because of their work pressure and workload they become mentally sick and gain very bad habits of not matching the deadlines they need to understand that mind peace and relaxation is a very important factor that can help them to build a peaceful life. As a student, it is very important to balance work and life because it can help improve mental and physical health to improve academic performance. Second, it can help build interpersonal relationships and broaden horizons to improve academic performance and even life journeys. Work-life balance is a key part of a healthy and productive work environment. An individual who achieves this balance successfully dedicates an equal amount
  • 10. P a g e 10 | 28 of time to work-related tasks and personal matters, without experiencing stress or becoming overwhelmed. CONCLUSION: Maintaining a balanced life is becoming increasingly important for health and well-being in a fast-paced, modern world. Sustaining a balanced diet alongside personal fitness can help improve and stabilize overall health and well-being. Maintaining a work-life balance helps reduce stress and prevent burnout in the workplace. Chronic stress is one of the most common health issues in workplaces. It can lead to physical consequences such as hypertension, digestive troubles, chronic aches and pains, and heart problems, There are a few factors that affect the balance between work and life these are stringent rules, excessive workload, hostile work environment, time pressure, and lack of job security. 2.4 Overthinking Introduction: Overthinking is a common phenomenon experienced by individuals across various domains, including graduate students. Graduate education involves rigorous academic demands, complex decision-making processes, and increased responsibilities, which can contribute to heightened levels of stress and anxiety. This literature review aims to explore the concept of overthinking among graduate students and its implications on their mental health and well-being. The review incorporates five relevant studies that shed light on the challenges, risk factors, prevalence, and positive factors associated with overthinking among graduate students. Challenges and Opportunities for graduate students in public health during the COVID-19 Pandemic The study by Jenei et al. (2020) examines the unique challenges faced by graduate students in public health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors highlight the increased stress and uncertainty experienced by these students, which may contribute to overthinking. The study emphasizes the importance of providing support and resources to help graduate students cope with the challenges posed by the pandemic. Opportunities: 1.The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportunity for universities and institutions to reassess the support systems and resources available to graduate students. By recognizing the unique challenges faced by graduate students during this time, institutions can implement interventions and strategies to address overthinking and promote mental well-being. 2.The identification of risk factors associated with student distress and overthinking provides an opportunity for institutions to focus on preventative measures. By offering faculty support, increasing access to well-being resources, and implementing programs that target these risk factors, universities can create a more supportive environment for graduate students. 3.The comparative study on nomophobia among undergraduate students opens up an opportunity for further research on the prevalence of anxiety-related behaviors and their impact
  • 11. P a g e 11 | 28 on overthinking among graduate students. This research can inform the development of targeted interventions specifically tailored to address the needs of graduate students. Results: 1. The study by Jenei et al. (2020) revealed that graduate students in public health faced increased stress and uncertainty during the COVID-19 pandemic. This finding emphasizes the need for support and resources to help graduate students cope with the challenges posed by the pandemic. 2. Langness et al. (2020) identified faculty support and the availability of well-being resources as key factors associated with reduced student distress. These results suggest that providing adequate support systems and resources can have a positive impact on reducing overthinking among graduate students. 3. Ozdemir et al. (2017) found variations in the prevalence of nomophobia among undergraduate students in Pakistan and Turkey. While this study focused on undergraduate students, it suggests that anxiety-related behaviors may contribute to overthinking, highlighting the importance of addressing these behaviors among graduate students. 4. Charles et al. (2022) identified positive factors such as social support, mentoring relationships, mindfulness, self-compassion, and self-efficacy as influential in promoting positive mental health outcomes among graduate students. These results indicate that cultivating these factors can help mitigate overthinking tendencies and enhance the overall well-being of graduate students. Conclusion: Overthinking among graduate students is a significant concern that can negatively impact their mental health and overall well-being. This literature review has highlighted several studies that contribute to understanding the challenges, risk factors, prevalence, and positive factors associated with overthinking among graduate students. The findings emphasize the importance of providing support, and resources and fostering positive psychological factors to help graduate students effectively manage overthinking and promote their mental health and success in their academic journey. Further research and interventions are warranted to address this issue comprehensively. 3.Research Methodology It is the systematic way of selecting various choices of research methods, those choices vary on the basis of what type of research, the researcher is doing. Those choices include Quantitative and Qualitative research, types of research; exploratory and explanatory and it could be time horizon too. Before showing results, the researchers are bound to show, what type of research method has been chosen, what are analytical tools, how they have selected data and sampling and what were the constraints in conducting the research. 3.1 Research Design The study shows that the environment is one of the biggest factors for deteriorating the mental health of graduate students. Holland's theory of Careers says that the environment plays a huge
  • 12. P a g e 12 | 28 role in the careers of graduate students' academic and social well-being. We have chosen epistemology as our basic philosophy for this Research and the paradigm will be post positivism which means that the theory we have adapted, we will test/challenge it and it will be our choice, we accept it or reject it based on the results we get. The research method we are adopting in this will be quantitative and it will be done on a small scale because of the constraints we discussed above; lack of resources and possibly false information. The research will be based on the deductive which means generalizing the questions and answers, in which, the people will select, what suits them best according to their knowledge & situation. The strategy we are adopting here is the explanatory because lots of research on this particular topic have been done in the past already and we want to further enhance it. The time horizon of this research is cross-sectional which means one-time research. The tools for data collection will be questionnaires forms which will be filled by 100+ students, who have graduated or they are in their last year. 3.2 Research Population The data will be collected completely from either fresh graduate students or those students who are in their last year of university life. The Data will be mostly Collected from our own university, which is Iqra University, Main Campus, 80% of data could comprise from this main campus because it is relatively easier for us to collect and analyze data on our own campus. The rest of the data could comprise of also be from same level of students, but those students could be from other campuses, departments, universities, another city, or even from the country for that reason. 3.3 Sampling Strategy and Sample Size Non-probability sampling strategy will be adopted to collect the data for our research. There are millions of Graduate students in Pakistan, and of course, because of certain constraints we will not be able to reach out to everyone, so we have decided we will ask 100- 180 graduates to fill out the survey and most of those students will be from Iqra University, Main Campus, Karachi, Pakistan. 3.4 Data Collection Procedure We will use Two typs collection of Data; Primary Data and Secondary Data. Primary Data The Primary source of data will be the online forms submitted by graduate students. That form will consist of some of the questions such as: what problems they are facing after graduation, how they will plan it out, and what are symptoms of depression and anxiety are, these questions will help us to analyze what are mental health issues Graduate Students. Secondary Data We will also need other researchers’ points of view in order to make this research as effective as possible to make a conclusion. There have been numerous researches on this topic, so we will read those journals & articles to make part of our research and the question to be asked in the survey.
  • 13. P a g e 13 | 28 Mental Health & Challenges 3.5 Research Instrument Selection As to observe the ratio of Mental Health issues and challenges faced by students we decided to build a survey online google form which will be filled with responses from different students of different programs from different Universities, We will set different types of questions regarding their level of stress and pressure and we will try our best to know the reason of pressure and stress and compare the ratio of most common issues that students are facing which are riddle for them to pursue their academic journey. 3.6 Variables 1. Self Esteem 2. Financial Issues 3. Work Life Balance 4. Overthinking Conceptual Framework Self Esteem Overthinking Work-Life Balance Financial issues Irfan, U. (2018). Mental health and factors related to mental health among Pakistani university students (Doctoral dissertation). University of Canterbury Te Whare Wnanga o Waitaha, Christchurch, New Zealand. (p. 74). This model explains the relationship of the variables that are Self Esteem, Financial Issues, Work-Life Balance & Overthinking which are independent of their effect on Mental Health and challenges to a Graduate student. 3.7 Hypothesis H1: There is a significant relationship between Self Esteem and the Mental Health of a student. H2: There is a significant relationship between Financial Issues and the Mental Health of a student. H3: There is a significant relationship between Work-Life balance and the Mental Health of a student. H4: There is a significant relationship between Overthinking and the Mental Health of a student.
  • 14. P a g e 14 | 28 3.8 Plan of Analysis Data can be collected through questionnaires, inter-use, etc. Define Questions And Goals: Clearly defining questions and goals is the first for data analysis. We ought to pose a specific question before looking for an answer in the data. Collect Data: Before analyzing data, there needs to be data available for use. Data Manipulation: Now that all of the data is on one hand, it is important to clean the data before starting this analysis portion of this process. Determine Analysis: The question or goals will have a significant impact on the type of analysis chosen. Analyse Results: It’s important to understand the findings after data analysis. Simply put, what are the learnings from the findings of the analysis? By following these procedures, we will be able to employ data analysis to uncover significant new insights that can be translated into actionable results. 3.9 Software Employed We could use software such as Spread Sheet/SPSS-Software Package For Social Sciences- Regression-Anova/SAS/Minitab etc. 4. Data Analysis and Discussion 4.1 Demographic of Respondents 1. Gender Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Male 175 87.1 87.9 87.9 Female 23 11.4 11.6 99.5 Prefer not to say 1 .5 .5 100.0 Total 199 99.0 100.0 Missing System 2 1.0 Total 201 100.0 In the Demographic of Responders, we obtained a total of 201 responses, of which 175 (87.1%) were males, 23 11.4% were females, 1 (0.5%) preferred not to say, and 2 1.0% were system- generated. The valid percentage of Males is 87.9%, Females 11.6%, Prefer not to say 0.5%.
  • 15. P a g e 15 | 28 2. Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 18-25 111 55.2 55.5 55.5 26-33 61 30.3 30.5 86.0 33-40 15 7.5 7.5 93.5 Above 40 13 6.5 6.5 100.0 Total 200 99.5 100.0 Missing System 1 .5 Total 201 100.0 Our responses were mixed in terms of age. We got 55.2% of 18-25 Years, 30.3 of 26-33 years, 7.5% of 33-40 years, and 6.5% of above 40 years. 3. Work-Experience Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Less than one year 78 38.8 39.6 39.6 1 to 3 years 56 27.9 28.4 68.0 3 to 5 years 35 17.4 17.8 85.8 More than 5 years 28 13.9 14.2 100.0 Total 197 98.0 100.0 Missing System 4 2.0 Total 201 100.0 We obtained different kinds of Work Experience responses in which 38.8% had less than 1 year, 1-3 years 27.9%,3-5 years, and 13.9% More than 5 years was 13.9%. 4. Education Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Undergraduate 79 39.3 39.3 39.3 Graduate 103 51.2 51.2 90.5 Masters 15 7.5 7.5 98.0 PHD 4 2.0 2.0 100.0
  • 16. P a g e 16 | 28 Total 201 100.0 100.0 We obtained different perceptions for different educational backgrounds: undergraduate, 39.3%; graduate, 51.2%; master’s, 7.5%; Ph.D., 2.0%. we can say that we achieved our target as far as our target responders are concerned, about 60.07 were either graduated or have done their master's or PHD. 4.2 Descriptive Statistics Variable-1: Self Esteem Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation SE1 201 1.00 5.00 4.0597 1.19851 SE2 201 1.00 5.00 4.0697 1.13804 SE3 201 1.00 5.00 4.0746 1.24475 Valid N (listwise) 201 We obtained different types of results for Self Esteem of students, which contain: SE1 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, SE2 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00 SE3 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00. Variable-2: Financial issues Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation FI1 201 1.00 5.00 1.7065 1.02392 FI2 201 1.00 5.00 1.5672 .84066 FI3 201 1.00 5.00 1.8756 1.03897 FI4 201 1.00 5.00 1.9104 1.03050 Valid N (listwise) 201 We obtained different types of responses for Financial issues of students; what problems they face and what can be done so in which include F11 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, F12 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, F13 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, F14 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00. Variable-3: Work-Life Balance
  • 17. P a g e 17 | 28 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation WL1 201 1.00 5.00 1.6020 .78791 WL2 201 1.00 5.00 1.9204 .95584 WL3 201 1.00 5.00 1.7015 .77489 Valid N (listwise) 201 We obtained different types of responses which include WL1 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, WL2 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00, WL3 Minimum 1.00 Maximum 5.00. Variable-4: Overthinking Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation OT1 201 1.00 5.00 1.5423 .83033 OT2 201 1.00 5.00 1.6219 .85809 OT3 201 1.00 5.00 2.2040 1.26221 OT4 201 1.00 5.00 2.0547 1.32363 Valid N (listwise) 201 We obtained different types of responses for the variable, Overthinking of students, which include OT1, OT2, OT3 & OT4 (Minimum 1.00 and Maximum 5.00) in which the mean was above 1.5 in all questions. Variable-5: Mental health issues of graduate students (DV) Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation MH1 201 1.00 5.00 1.5672 .84066 MH2 201 1.00 5.00 1.7065 1.02392 MH3 201 1.00 5.00 1.6020 .78791 MH4 201 1.00 5.00 1.6219 .85809 Valid N (listwise) 201 We obtained different types of responses for the Mental Health of graduate students, which is also our dependent variable which include, including MH1, MH2, MH3 & MH4 as Minimum 1.00 and Maximum 5.00, and in this too mean of the all questions we asked was above 1.5 while the standard deviation was mixed from the responses we got.
  • 18. P a g e 18 | 28 4.3 Reliability Test Variable-1: Self Esteem Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .876 3 For the Variable Self Esteem, we got Reliability Ratio the almost 88% which shows the questions are quite reliable that show the audience has filled the questionnaire correctly. Variable-2: Financial issues Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .779 4 For the Variable Financial Issue, we got a Reliability of 88% which shows the questions are quite reliable and that shows the audience has constant responses to every question that has been asked. Variable-3: Work-Life Balance For the Variable Work-Life Balance, we got a Reliability Ratio of 0.761 which mean is it also above 75% (76%) which shows the questions are quite reliable and proves the audience has filled the questionnaire correctly. Variable-4: Overthinking Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .761 3
  • 19. P a g e 19 | 28 .744 4 For the Variable Overthinking, we got a Reliability Ratio of 74% which shows the questions are quite reliable that shows the audience has filled out the questionnaire correctly. Variable-5: Mental health issues of graduate students (DV) Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .679 4 For Variable 5, Mental health of students which is also our only dependent variable of all these 4 independent variables. For this, we got a Reliability of 68%, which shows the questions are quite reliable and that shows the audience has filled out the questionnaire correctly. Total Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .917 18 Summary Variables Items Cronbach’s Alpha Self Esteem 3 0.876 Financial issues 4 0.779 Work-Life Balance 3 0.761 Overthinking 4 0.744 Mental Health of Students (DV) 4 0.679 Overall reliability 18 0.917
  • 20. P a g e 20 | 28 The reliability test of all the constructs, which are mentioned in the table above, shows that each variable also has significant reliability, the value of Cronbach’s Alpha is greater than 0.65 in all constructs or variables. The value of Self Esteem is 0.876. Work-Life Balance is 0.761. Overthinking is 0.679. and Mental Health (DV) is 0.679, all constructs show significant reliability and consistency of response over the scale. 4.4 Co-relation Analysis Correlations SE FI WL OT MH SE Pearson Correlation 1 .332** .343** .309** .319** Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001 N 201 201 201 201 201 FI Pearson Correlation .332** 1 .301** .441** .345** Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001 N 201 201 201 201 201 WL Pearson Correlation .343** .301** 1 .461** .463** Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001 N 201 201 201 201 201 OT Pearson Correlation .309** .441** .461** 1 .417** Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001 N 201 201 201 201 201 MH Pearson Correlation .319** .345** .463** .417** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) <.001 <.001 <.001 <.001 N 201 201 201 201 201 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The Correlation Matrix just explain the relationship of all variables with dependent variable based on 95% confidence Interval and 5% Margin of Error on which sample is drawn from population. The Criterion suggest that value of significance 2 tailed must be less than 0.05 for significance of independent variable having relationship with dependent variable. The table shows the that the values of all four independent variables Self-esteem (SE), Financial issue (FI), Work life balance (WL), Overthinking (OT) are <0.001 at significance, shows that all the variables having positive and significant relationship with mental health change in these factors will affects the results of mental health and these factors are core determinants of mental health
  • 21. P a g e 21 | 28 Analyzing relationship of variables with Multiple Regression The regression analysis evaluates the relationship and impact of variables with dependent variables. The researcher evaluates the relationship and impact of self-esteem, work life balance, financial issue overthinking on mental health . The regression model is applied based on direct and positive relationship of those variables with dependent variables organizational performance based on literature and initial statistical tests. 4.5 Regression Analysis The model summary of regression analysis shows the value of R Square, which explain the level of predictability by independent variables together to explain the dependant variable. The Value of R Square is 0.298 which is about 0.3, means 30% model is significant and ability to predict or forecast changes in mental health based on selected four variables OT,SE,FI and WL. Regression Model Results-Mediation Innovative Culture ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 42.162 4 10.540 20.830 <.001b Residual 99.182 196 .506 Total 141.343 200 a. Dependent Variable: MH b. Predictors: (Constant), OT, SE, FI, WL The ANOVA is analysis of variances; explain the variation in independent and dependent variables, based on changes in independent how much variations come across in dependent variables. The F Statistics is model fit test, evaluates the relationship and impact of selected independent variables on dependent variable. The Model fit is significant and F Statistics value is significant as greater than 2 and probability value less than 0.05. Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .546a .298 .284 .71136 a. Predictors: (Constant), OT, SE, FI, WL
  • 22. P a g e 22 | 28 Regression Model Sumamary Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .254 .186 1.367 .173 SE .080 .046 .114 1.723 .086 FI .112 .056 .137 1.993 .048 WL .318 .074 .298 4.286 <.001 OT .186 .073 .183 2.528 .012 a. Dependent Variable: MH The above results of regression model explained the significance of variables based on t statistics and beta coefficients. The research evaluates the results based on 95% confidence interval and value of t statistics must be greater than 1.96 required with probability values less then 0.05. The results shows that the self esteem with value 1.7 and probability value 0.86 is significant predictor of Mental health issues of graduates students. Financial issue with t statistics 1.9, and probability value is .048, Work life balance with the statistic 4.2 and probability value is less than .001, Overthinking with t statistic value 2.5 and probability value is 0.12. 4.6 Hypothesis Testing Alternative Hypothesis t-statistics Significant level Accepted / Rejected H1: There isn’t any significant relationship between Self Esteem and the Mental Health of a student. 1.723 .086 Rejected
  • 23. P a g e 23 | 28 5. Conclusion 5.1 Conclusion: The research conducted on Mental health issues of graduate students In Pakistan. Various researchers determine various factors in univeristies based on primary data, the factors includes Self Esteem Financial issue, Work life balance and overthinking. This research conducted based on four constructs Self Esteem, Financial issue, Work life balance, Overthinking. The data collected from the students of Iqra University and from some other universities, complete the sample size of 201 respondents based on convenience sampling. The collected data tested based on internal reliability test, the values of Cronbach’s Alpha shows the 92% consistency of response over all item and based on constructs the reliability is also greater than 70%. The value of Cronbach’s Alpha is greater than 0.7 in all constructs or variables. The value of Self Esteem is 0.876, Financial issue is 0.779, Work life balance 0.761, overthinking 0.744 and MH is 0.679, all constructs shows the significant reliability and consistency of response over the scale. The Correlation analysis and regression applied to analyze the relationship and impact of variables to test the hypothesis and verify the factors of mental health The results of correlation analysis tested based on 95% confidence interval and 5% Margin of Error, the results of four variables Self Esteem, Financial issue, Work life balance, Overthinking values are significant and all four factors are determinants of MH . The Alternative hypothesis are also accepted as values of t statistics and probability are significant based on given criterion and hence it is proved that significant relationship Self Esteem, Financial issue, Work life balance, Overthinking and impact on mental health The Mental health studied by few researchers in Pakistan but this research contributes the new constructs, new literature and contribution based on particularly on graduate students In Karachi. This study elaborates that self esteem and financial issue are strong significant predictors and work life balance and overthinking also significant but with less explanatory power then the self esteem and financial issue. H2: There isn’t any significant relationship between Financial Issues and the Mental Health of a student. 1.993 .048 Rejected H3: There is a significant relationship between Work-Life balance and the Mental Health of a student. 4.286 <.001 Accepted H4: There is a significant relationship between Overthinking and the Mental Health of a student. 2.528 .012 Accepted
  • 24. P a g e 24 | 28 5.2 Implications of Research The research results can be implemented on graduate students in Karachi Pakistan, as the research is focused on Mental health issues of graduate students. Research on factors affecting the mental health issues of graduate students has important implications for both individual students and the broader academic community. By addressing these factors, we can help create a more supportive and healthy environment for graduate students to thrive in. 5.3 Areas of Further Research This research provides a comprehensive understanding of factors affecting mental health issue in educaation sector in Karachi Pakistan, but these are not only the factors, there can be many other factors that research can be conducted on this. This research explain the over-thinking and work-life balance significant relationship and impact on mental health of a student. The further research can be conducted on the impact of academic pressure and workload on mental health, the role of social support networks and the impact of financial stress. Overall, there is a great deal of potential for further research in this area, and addressing these factors could help improve the mental health and well-being of graduate students. References Burns N, Grove SK. The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique and Utilization. 5th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. P. 40. Irfan, U. (2016). Mental health and factors related to mental health among Pakistani university students (Doctoral dissertation). University of Canterbury Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha, Christchurch, New Zealand. (p. 74). Newman, J., & Dobbrow, C. (2022). Augury’s James Newman and Chris Dobbrow discuss the compatibility of sustainability and profitability. Gallea, J. I., Medrano, L. A., & Morera, L. P. (2021). Work-related mental health issues in graduate population. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-12. Jenei, K., Cassidy-Matthews, C., Virk, P., Lulie, B., & Closson, K. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for graduate students in the public health sector during the COVID-19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(6), 912-914. Powers, S. (2018, March 6). New study says graduate students in mental health crisis. Inside Higher Ed.
  • 25. P a g e 25 | 28 Bembenutty, H., & Karabenick, S. A. (2004). Inherent association. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 766-776 Jenei, K., Cassidy-Matthews, C., Virk, P., Lulie, B., & Closson, K. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for graduate students in public health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(6), 994-998. Langness, S., Rajapuram, N., Marshall, M., Rahman, A. S., & Sammann, A. (2020). Risk factors associated with student distress in medical school: Associations with faculty support and availability of well-being resources. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 1-9. Ozdemir, B., Cakir, O., & Hussain, I. (2017). Prevalence of Nomophobia among University Students: A Comparative Study of Pakistani and Turkish Undergraduate Students. The Education and Science Journal, 42(189), 167-186. Charles, S. T., Karnaze, M. M., & Leslie, F. M. (2022). Positive factors related to graduate student mental health. Journal of American College Health, 70(6), 1858-1866.
  • 26. P a g e 26 | 28 Appendices A. Questionnaires: Hello and Aslam-O-Alaikum, We are students of Iqra University, Karachi, conducting a research on the “Mental Health Issues of Graduate students" You are invited to participate in this research. Survey responses assure you that will be strictly confidential and data from this survey will be reported only in the aggregate. Your understanding and cooperation for this academic exercise will be highly appreciated. Gender Age (years) Education Work Experience  Male 18-25 Matriculation less than one year  Female 26-33 Intermediate 1 to 3 years  33-40 Bachelors 3 to 5 years  Above 40 Masters More than 5 Years  PhD Scale: Please tick the most appropriate items that best describe you (SD=Strongly Disagree, D= Disagree, N= Neutral / No idea, A=Agree, SA= Strongly Agree) Statements SD D N A SA Self Esteem (Rubin R.W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. 2001) I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. I feel that I have several good qualities. I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. Financial Issues (Altman, T., & Roth. M. 2018) Educational expenses create a lot of burden on students. Universities should be offering educational expenses of graduate students. I always had difficulty making ends meet financially. I always feel insecurity about my financial issue. Work-life Balance (SHAHANI, N.U.N., NAWAZ, M., & TAHIR, R. 2020) Work-life balance policy must consider these factors, including flexibility in working time and some monetary benefits.
  • 27. P a g e 27 | 28 Work-life balance is not only about families and childcare, but also about working less. A employee happiness refers to the level of contentment an employee experiences in their workplace. Overthinking (Al Mazrouei, Maktoom. (UAE) happiness context” 2022). Overthinking can cause unhappiness, anxiety, depression, and other mental health problems. Mental health problems are related to many factors including rumination, depression brooding, worry, etc. Many people get caught up in overthinking problems from time to time, but some people make a habit of it. This habit can affect grades and academic performance because students get so caught up in thinking mode that they never get to a good solution. You always feel that you are experiencing a mental health issue. Mental Health of Students (Fleming, G. 2020, Jan. 29) Students often experience various mental health challenges due to the pressures of academic performance, social expectations. Creating a supportive and inclusive campus environment that promotes mental health awareness, reduces stigma, and provides easily accessible mental health services is crucial for supporting students’ well-being. Sleep disturbances and irregular sleep patterns are prevalent among students, negatively impacting their mental health and cognitive abilities. Social isolation and feelings of loneliness can significantly impact students’ mental health, especially when adjusting to new environments or facing social challenges. Thank You, for your co-operation.
  • 28. P a g e 28 | 28 B. Sources Adapted Questionnaire: (Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 151–161) (Altmann, T., & Roth, M. (2018). The Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for cross-sectional direct assessment of self-esteem stability. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 91) (SHAHANI, N. U. N., NAWAZ, M., & TAHIR, R. (2020). A Study of Work-Life Balance for the Working Women in the United Arab Emirates and its Impact on their Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention: A Review Study. International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs, 5(2), 85–90. ) (Al Mazrouei, Maktoom, “Scandinavian work-life balance experience: its implementation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) happiness context” (2022). Theses and Dissertations. 1260.) (Fleming, G. 2020, Jan. 29 ThoughtCo.. (n.d.). Why Overthinking Is a Risky Habit)