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Marine
and Fresh
Water
Marine
Ecosystem
Marine
Ecosystems
Types of Marine
Ecosystems

 Estuaries
 Salt marshes
 Rocky shores
 Sandy Shores
 Coral reef
 Mangrove swamp
 Barrier islands
Estuaries
An area in which fresh water from a river mixes
with salt water from the ocean; a transition area
from the land to the ocean. Other names: bay,
sound, lagoon, harbor, or bayou.
The Ocean

Area where
fresh and salt
water mix
River bringing
freshwater to
the sea
Characteristics of
Estuaries

 Very nutrient rich ecosystems  leads to
high productivity and high biodiversity.
 Fast-moving rivers and waves carry
nutrient-rich particles.
 Sediment settles out in the estuary when
the water slows down.
 Nutrients accumulates on the bottom
(benthic zone).
 Great place for plants to grow!
Estuary plants
Plants must be adapted to salty habitat

eelgrass

cordgrass

glasswort – a succulent
Estuary animals
Huge variety including…
Blue crab, Stone crab, Fiddler crab,
Horseshoe crab, Mosquito, Lobster,
Flounder, Stripped bass, Crane,
Flamingo, Sea gull, Ibis, Manatee,
otters, and many more.
Salt Marshes
 A low area that is subject to regular, but gentle,
tides, dominated by grasses.
 Salt marshes do not have trees or shrubs

Texas salt marsh
Mangrov
e
Swamps
Coastal wetlands
located in tropical
and subtropical
zones; characterized
by salt-tolerant trees
and shrubs, such as
mangrove trees
Rocky shores

Also called rocky intertidal zone – many places to
live in this habitat, means high biodiversity
Organisms must be adapted to wave action,
changing tide levels
Rocky Shores

At low tides, there are often tide pools left
behind where you can see starfish,
anemones, crabs, octopus
Sandy Shores
Sandy shores or beaches are loose deposits of
sand, gravel or shells that cover the shoreline
in many places. They make up two-thirds of the
world’s ice-free coastlines.
Barrier Islands
A long, narrow, offshore
island, usually having
beaches and dunes on
the seaward side,often
with lagoons on the
landward side
Coral Reefs
 Structures in the shallow oceans that are built
by animals called corals; serve as a habitat for
many diverse organisms
 Require two things: warm temperatures and
sunlight
 Found between 30°N and 30°S of the equator
Coral Reefs
There are many different kinds of corals:

Soft corals

Hard corals

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Marine ecosystems

  • 4. Types of Marine Ecosystems  Estuaries  Salt marshes  Rocky shores  Sandy Shores  Coral reef  Mangrove swamp  Barrier islands
  • 5. Estuaries An area in which fresh water from a river mixes with salt water from the ocean; a transition area from the land to the ocean. Other names: bay, sound, lagoon, harbor, or bayou. The Ocean Area where fresh and salt water mix River bringing freshwater to the sea
  • 6. Characteristics of Estuaries  Very nutrient rich ecosystems  leads to high productivity and high biodiversity.  Fast-moving rivers and waves carry nutrient-rich particles.  Sediment settles out in the estuary when the water slows down.  Nutrients accumulates on the bottom (benthic zone).  Great place for plants to grow!
  • 7. Estuary plants Plants must be adapted to salty habitat eelgrass cordgrass glasswort – a succulent
  • 8. Estuary animals Huge variety including… Blue crab, Stone crab, Fiddler crab, Horseshoe crab, Mosquito, Lobster, Flounder, Stripped bass, Crane, Flamingo, Sea gull, Ibis, Manatee, otters, and many more.
  • 9. Salt Marshes  A low area that is subject to regular, but gentle, tides, dominated by grasses.  Salt marshes do not have trees or shrubs Texas salt marsh
  • 10. Mangrov e Swamps Coastal wetlands located in tropical and subtropical zones; characterized by salt-tolerant trees and shrubs, such as mangrove trees
  • 11. Rocky shores Also called rocky intertidal zone – many places to live in this habitat, means high biodiversity Organisms must be adapted to wave action, changing tide levels
  • 12. Rocky Shores At low tides, there are often tide pools left behind where you can see starfish, anemones, crabs, octopus
  • 13. Sandy Shores Sandy shores or beaches are loose deposits of sand, gravel or shells that cover the shoreline in many places. They make up two-thirds of the world’s ice-free coastlines.
  • 14. Barrier Islands A long, narrow, offshore island, usually having beaches and dunes on the seaward side,often with lagoons on the landward side
  • 15. Coral Reefs  Structures in the shallow oceans that are built by animals called corals; serve as a habitat for many diverse organisms  Require two things: warm temperatures and sunlight  Found between 30°N and 30°S of the equator
  • 16. Coral Reefs There are many different kinds of corals: Soft corals Hard corals