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*
Development of Major Management Theories
Scientific Approach
*
*Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912)
>> father of scientific management
>> major concern throughout most of his life was to
increase efficiency in production
>> lower costs and raise profits
>> make possible increased pay for workers through their
higher productivity
>> His famous works entitled “Principles of scientific
management”
*
*Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912)
>> The main points of his theory is:
1. Apply science in doing work replacing the thumb rule.
2. Select and train people scientifically
3. There should be co-operation and co-ordination between
supervisors and workers.’
4. Pay according to output.
5. Find out the best method and standard time in doing jobs.
*
*Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912)
Condition in industrial sector before Taylor’s announcement:
1. There was indiscipline in industries.
2. No formal training and necessary supervision.
3. Co-ordination between workers and supervisors was less.
4. Efficiency was less, Output was not satisfactory.
5. Workers were responsible for jobs
*
*Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912)
Effects after applying Taylor’s theory:
1. Disciplined restored in industry.
2. Output increased as well as efficiency.
3. Quality of job decreased in some cases as workers wanted
to shortened time for more output.
4. Management started dismissing the excess workforce, so
dissatisfaction increased among the workers
*
*Followers of W. Taylor’s :
Henry L Gantt:
>> emphasized on Harmonious cooperation
>> introduced graphical methods of describing plans
*
Frank and Lillian Gilberth:
>> Introduce motion and time study
>> The Gilbreths made use of scientific insights to develop a
study method based on the analysis of work motions,
consisting in part of filming the details of a worker’s activities
while recording the time it took to complete activities.
>> The films helped to create a visual record of how work was
completed, and emphasized areas for improvement.
>> the films also served the purpose of training workers about
the best way to perform their work
>> This method allowed the Gilbreths to build on the best
elements of the work flows and create a standardized best
practice.
*
Key players: >> Henri Fayol
>> Max Weber
Henri Fayol
# classical management theorist,
# widely regarded as the father of modern operational
management theory.
Taylor was concerned with task time and improving worker
efficiency but Fayol was concerned with management and is
generally agreed to consider more human and behavioral
factors in his management theories than Taylor.
*
Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
1. Division of work.
2. Authority.
3. Discipline.
4. Unity of command.
5. Unity of direction.
6. Subordination of
individual interests
to the general
interest.
7. Remuneration.
8. Centralization.
9. Scalar chain.
10. Order.
11. Equity.
12. Stability of tenure
of personnel.
13. Initiative.
14. Esprit de corps.
*
*The Hawthorne Studies: To study the effect of the behavior of
employees on productivity, Elton Mayo and his group undertook
the famous experiments at Hawthorne plant of the Western
Electric Company between 1927 and 1932 by changing
1. Light
2. Temperature
3. Work period
4. Rest period
5. Incentive
The outcomes are:
*Productivity does not depend upon the light, temperature, etc.
*Productivity depends upon “group behavior”, relationship between
employees and manager, moral and motivation of employees, etc.
*
1. What is classical management?
2. Explain the contribution of Max Weber in
management.
Management Thoughts

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Management Thoughts

  • 1. *
  • 2. Development of Major Management Theories
  • 4. * *Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912) >> father of scientific management >> major concern throughout most of his life was to increase efficiency in production >> lower costs and raise profits >> make possible increased pay for workers through their higher productivity >> His famous works entitled “Principles of scientific management”
  • 5. * *Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912) >> The main points of his theory is: 1. Apply science in doing work replacing the thumb rule. 2. Select and train people scientifically 3. There should be co-operation and co-ordination between supervisors and workers.’ 4. Pay according to output. 5. Find out the best method and standard time in doing jobs.
  • 6. * *Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912) Condition in industrial sector before Taylor’s announcement: 1. There was indiscipline in industries. 2. No formal training and necessary supervision. 3. Co-ordination between workers and supervisors was less. 4. Efficiency was less, Output was not satisfactory. 5. Workers were responsible for jobs
  • 7. * *Frederick W. Taylor’s (1856-1912) Effects after applying Taylor’s theory: 1. Disciplined restored in industry. 2. Output increased as well as efficiency. 3. Quality of job decreased in some cases as workers wanted to shortened time for more output. 4. Management started dismissing the excess workforce, so dissatisfaction increased among the workers
  • 8. * *Followers of W. Taylor’s : Henry L Gantt: >> emphasized on Harmonious cooperation >> introduced graphical methods of describing plans
  • 9. * Frank and Lillian Gilberth: >> Introduce motion and time study >> The Gilbreths made use of scientific insights to develop a study method based on the analysis of work motions, consisting in part of filming the details of a worker’s activities while recording the time it took to complete activities. >> The films helped to create a visual record of how work was completed, and emphasized areas for improvement. >> the films also served the purpose of training workers about the best way to perform their work >> This method allowed the Gilbreths to build on the best elements of the work flows and create a standardized best practice.
  • 10. * Key players: >> Henri Fayol >> Max Weber Henri Fayol # classical management theorist, # widely regarded as the father of modern operational management theory. Taylor was concerned with task time and improving worker efficiency but Fayol was concerned with management and is generally agreed to consider more human and behavioral factors in his management theories than Taylor.
  • 11. * Fayol's 14 Principles of Management 1. Division of work. 2. Authority. 3. Discipline. 4. Unity of command. 5. Unity of direction. 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. 7. Remuneration. 8. Centralization. 9. Scalar chain. 10. Order. 11. Equity. 12. Stability of tenure of personnel. 13. Initiative. 14. Esprit de corps.
  • 12. * *The Hawthorne Studies: To study the effect of the behavior of employees on productivity, Elton Mayo and his group undertook the famous experiments at Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company between 1927 and 1932 by changing 1. Light 2. Temperature 3. Work period 4. Rest period 5. Incentive The outcomes are: *Productivity does not depend upon the light, temperature, etc. *Productivity depends upon “group behavior”, relationship between employees and manager, moral and motivation of employees, etc.
  • 13. * 1. What is classical management? 2. Explain the contribution of Max Weber in management.