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3/16/2015 M K Islam / ME 459 / Leadership
• Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so
that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards
the achievement of group goals.
• Leadership is both a process and a property.
• As a process, leadership is the use of no coercive
influence to shape the group or organization’s goals,
motivate behavior toward the achievement of those
goals.
• As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics
attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders.
• Leader: the person who motivates other people is called
leader. The essence of leadership is followership.
3/16/2015
Ingredients of Leadership:
• The ability to use power effectively and in a responsible
manner.
• The ability to comprehend those human beings has
different motivational forces at different times and
different situations.
• The ability to inspire followers to apply their full
capabilities to a project.
• The ability to act in a manner that will develop a climate
conducive to responding to and arousing motivations.
Principle of Leadership: people tend to follow those who,
in their view, offer them a means of satisfying their own
personal goals
3/16/2015
• It started with the “Great man” theory that leaders are
born not made.
• Ralph M. Stogdill found that various researchers have
identified specific traits related to leadership ability.
1.Five physical trait such as energy, appearance and
height, etc.
2.Four intelligence and ability traits
3.Sixteen personality traits such as adaptability,
aggressiveness, enthusiasm, self-confidence, etc.
4.Six task related traits such as achievement drive,
persistence, initiative, etc.
5.Nine social characteristics such as cooperativeness,
interpersonal skills, administrative quality, etc.
3/16/2015
• There are several theories
on leadership behavior and
styles:
Leadership based on the
use of authority
Likerts four systems of
management
The managerial grid
Leadership involving a
variety of styles depending
on power and influence
3/16/2015
• Autocratic: The autocratic leader commands and expects
compliance, is dogmatic and positive and leads by the
ability to withhold or give rewards and punishment.
3/16/2015
• Democratic: The democratic, or participative, leader
consults with subordinates’ Concurrence to the one who
makes decisions but consults with subordinates before
doing so.
3/16/2015
• Free rein: The free-rein leader uses his or her power very
little, if at all, giving subordinates a high degree of
independent in their operations. Such leaders depend
largely on subordinates to set their own goals and the
means of achieving them.
3/16/2015
Likert has developed certain ideas approaches important
to understanding leadership behavior.
System 1: System 1 management is described as
“exploitive authoritative”,
>> its managers are highly autocratic, have little trust in
subordinates
>> motivate people through fear and punishment and
only occasional rewards
>>engage in downward communication, and limit
decision making to the top.
3/16/2015
System 2: System 2 management is called “benevolent-
authoritative”
>> its managers have a patronizing confidence and trust
in subordinates
>> motivate with rewards and some fear and
punishment, permit down upward communication
>> solicit some ideas and opinions from subordinates
>> allow some delegation of decision making but with
close policy control.
3/16/2015
System 3: System 3 management is referred to as
“Consultative”
>>managers in this system have substantial but not
complete confidence and trust in subordinates, usually try
to make use of subordinates ideas and opinions
>> use rewards for motivation with occasional
punishment and some participation
>> engage in communication flow both down and up
>> make broad policy and general decisions at the top
while allowing specific decisions to be made at lower
levels, and act consultatively in other ways.
3/16/2015
System 4: System 4 management as the most participate
of all and referred it as “participative-group”
>> managers have complete trust and confidence in
subordinates in all matters
>> they always get ideas and opinions from subordinate
and constructively use them.
>>They also give economic rewards on the basis of group
participation and involvement in such areas as setting
goals and appraising progress towards goals.
3/16/2015
3/16/2015
• The grid has two dimensions: Concern for people and
Concern for Production.
• Concern for production includes the attitude of a
supervisor toward a wide variety of things, such as
quality of policy decisions, procedures and processes,
work efficiency, and volume of output etc.
• Concern for people includes such elements as degree
of personal commitment toward the goal achievement,
maintenance of the self-esteem of workers, placement of
responsibility, etc.
• This grid has been used throughout the world as a
means of training managers and of identifying various
combinations of leadership styles
3/16/2015
3/16/2015
• This theory is developed by Robert Tannenbaum and
Warren H. Schimdt. According to this theory, style of
leadership depends on the leader, the followers and the
situation.
• leadership is a continuous scale ranging from autocratic
to democratic. Depending on the situation and
relationship between leaders and followers, one choose
leadership style.
3/16/2015
3/16/2015
The theory holds that people become leaders not only because
of the attributes of their personalities but also because various
situational factors and the interactions between leaders and
group members. Fiedler described three critical dimensions of
leadership situation that help determine what style of leadership
will be more effective:
• Position Power: A leader with clear considerable position
power can obtain good followership more easily than one
without such power.
• Task Structure: If task are clear, the quality of performance be
more easily controlled and group member, responsible for
performance.
• Leader member relation: Fiedler regarded this dimension as
most important from a leader point of view, since position
power and task structure may be largely under the control of
an enterprise. It has to do with the extent to which group3/16/2015
3/16/2015
3/16/2015

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Leadership

  • 1. 3/16/2015 M K Islam / ME 459 / Leadership
  • 2. • Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals. • Leadership is both a process and a property. • As a process, leadership is the use of no coercive influence to shape the group or organization’s goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals. • As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be leaders. • Leader: the person who motivates other people is called leader. The essence of leadership is followership. 3/16/2015
  • 3. Ingredients of Leadership: • The ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner. • The ability to comprehend those human beings has different motivational forces at different times and different situations. • The ability to inspire followers to apply their full capabilities to a project. • The ability to act in a manner that will develop a climate conducive to responding to and arousing motivations. Principle of Leadership: people tend to follow those who, in their view, offer them a means of satisfying their own personal goals 3/16/2015
  • 4. • It started with the “Great man” theory that leaders are born not made. • Ralph M. Stogdill found that various researchers have identified specific traits related to leadership ability. 1.Five physical trait such as energy, appearance and height, etc. 2.Four intelligence and ability traits 3.Sixteen personality traits such as adaptability, aggressiveness, enthusiasm, self-confidence, etc. 4.Six task related traits such as achievement drive, persistence, initiative, etc. 5.Nine social characteristics such as cooperativeness, interpersonal skills, administrative quality, etc. 3/16/2015
  • 5. • There are several theories on leadership behavior and styles: Leadership based on the use of authority Likerts four systems of management The managerial grid Leadership involving a variety of styles depending on power and influence 3/16/2015
  • 6. • Autocratic: The autocratic leader commands and expects compliance, is dogmatic and positive and leads by the ability to withhold or give rewards and punishment. 3/16/2015
  • 7. • Democratic: The democratic, or participative, leader consults with subordinates’ Concurrence to the one who makes decisions but consults with subordinates before doing so. 3/16/2015
  • 8. • Free rein: The free-rein leader uses his or her power very little, if at all, giving subordinates a high degree of independent in their operations. Such leaders depend largely on subordinates to set their own goals and the means of achieving them. 3/16/2015
  • 9. Likert has developed certain ideas approaches important to understanding leadership behavior. System 1: System 1 management is described as “exploitive authoritative”, >> its managers are highly autocratic, have little trust in subordinates >> motivate people through fear and punishment and only occasional rewards >>engage in downward communication, and limit decision making to the top. 3/16/2015
  • 10. System 2: System 2 management is called “benevolent- authoritative” >> its managers have a patronizing confidence and trust in subordinates >> motivate with rewards and some fear and punishment, permit down upward communication >> solicit some ideas and opinions from subordinates >> allow some delegation of decision making but with close policy control. 3/16/2015
  • 11. System 3: System 3 management is referred to as “Consultative” >>managers in this system have substantial but not complete confidence and trust in subordinates, usually try to make use of subordinates ideas and opinions >> use rewards for motivation with occasional punishment and some participation >> engage in communication flow both down and up >> make broad policy and general decisions at the top while allowing specific decisions to be made at lower levels, and act consultatively in other ways. 3/16/2015
  • 12. System 4: System 4 management as the most participate of all and referred it as “participative-group” >> managers have complete trust and confidence in subordinates in all matters >> they always get ideas and opinions from subordinate and constructively use them. >>They also give economic rewards on the basis of group participation and involvement in such areas as setting goals and appraising progress towards goals. 3/16/2015
  • 14. • The grid has two dimensions: Concern for people and Concern for Production. • Concern for production includes the attitude of a supervisor toward a wide variety of things, such as quality of policy decisions, procedures and processes, work efficiency, and volume of output etc. • Concern for people includes such elements as degree of personal commitment toward the goal achievement, maintenance of the self-esteem of workers, placement of responsibility, etc. • This grid has been used throughout the world as a means of training managers and of identifying various combinations of leadership styles 3/16/2015
  • 16. • This theory is developed by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schimdt. According to this theory, style of leadership depends on the leader, the followers and the situation. • leadership is a continuous scale ranging from autocratic to democratic. Depending on the situation and relationship between leaders and followers, one choose leadership style. 3/16/2015
  • 18. The theory holds that people become leaders not only because of the attributes of their personalities but also because various situational factors and the interactions between leaders and group members. Fiedler described three critical dimensions of leadership situation that help determine what style of leadership will be more effective: • Position Power: A leader with clear considerable position power can obtain good followership more easily than one without such power. • Task Structure: If task are clear, the quality of performance be more easily controlled and group member, responsible for performance. • Leader member relation: Fiedler regarded this dimension as most important from a leader point of view, since position power and task structure may be largely under the control of an enterprise. It has to do with the extent to which group3/16/2015