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Learning
Information
So far in this unit, we have talked
about how humans learn
Today, we are going back to the
Educational Psych lesson to think
about how humans learn
information.
behaviors.
Short-Term Memories
Long-Term Memories
Information
Sensory Memories
Forgotten after
1 second.
Forgotten after
25 seconds.
Potentially permanent
storage, although hard to
retrieve.
Rehearsal
Rehearsal is the repetition or organization of
information that has entered the short-term memory.
Information is able to remain longer in the memory
if rehearsal is practiced.
Rehearsal allows us to
transfer information
from short-term
memories into long-
term memories!
Rehearsal
The type of rehearsal that is carried out greatly
impacts the mind’s ability to transfer information
from short-term to long-term memory…
Repetition
Repeating things over and over again keeps them
stored in short-term memory.
Organization
(Elaborative Rehearsal)
When information is organized in some fashion:
for example, when you link it to another memory.
Long-Term Memory
Memory that stores information on a relatively
permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve.
The reason we are able to
store long-term information is
because our brains create
semantic networks:
clusters of interconnected
information.The more
connections our brain makes
between a piece of
information and other pieces
of information, the more likely
we are to remember it.
Memory Consolidation
The process of gradually converting short-term
memories into long-term memories.
1. The more connections
we make within the brain,
the stronger our stored
memories become.
2. The more often we recall
information (think about it)
the stronger our memories
become.
Pathways of neurons in the
brain fire when you think about
something.The more often you
think about it, the smoother
and faster those patterns of
neurons will fire in your brain.
Memory Consolidation
1. Think about your prior knowledge on a topic before
learning new information related to that topic.
2. Think about how the topic is similar to or different from
other topics (compare & contrast)
3. Think about how the topic relates to experiences in your
life, to a book you read, to a movie you watched, to a
historical event, to a current event in the news…
4. Visualize how topics are connected to other topics by
making a word web, flowchart, or diagram.
Making Connections: How-To
There is a difference between
and
understanding
knowing
information.
Knowing Understanding
I can remember information:
I can memorize facts, define
terms, answer multiple-choice and
fill-in-the-blank style questions.
I can explain ideas the way they
were explained by my textbook or
teacher. I can summarize the
information and state it in my own
words.
I can describe simple relationships
between ideas by comparing and
contrasting and putting
information into categories.
I can USE information in new ways,
and apply the information I learned
in new situations. I can create and
design new things based on the
information I learned.
I can critique and judge the
information that I learned.
I can form my own theories and
test them.
I can analyze ideas by examining
complex relationships between
information I learned from many
different sources.
Knowing Understanding
I can remember information:
I can memorize facts, define
terms, answer multiple-choice and
fill-in-the-blank style questions.
I can explain ideas the way they
were explained by my textbook or
teacher. I can summarize the
information and state it in my own
words.
I can describe simple relationships
between ideas by comparing and
contrasting and putting
information into categories.
I can USE information in new ways,
and apply the information I learned
in new situations. I can create and
design new things based on the
information I learned.
I can critique and judge the
information that I learned.
I can form my own theories and
test them.
I can analyze ideas by examining
complex relationships between
information I learned from many
different sources.
Here’s the hard part:
You need to know
information first before you
can deeply understand it.
Knowing -> Understanding
How to “KNOW”
Information:
How to progress from
“KNOWING”
information to deeply
“UNDERSTANDING”:
How to show
that you understand
something in a
“summative”
assessment:
Repeat information over
and over again to help the
information stay in your
long-term memory.
Make connections to help
the information stay in your
long-term memory.
Summarize information
and identify the main ideas
to help you clarify the
meaning.
Organize information into
categories, charts, graphs, or
notes.
Interact and use the
information in lots of different
ways.The more ways you use the
information, the better your
understanding will become.
Repeat, make connections,
summarize, organize, explain,
interpret, ask questions, answer
questions, make predictions, have
discussions, make projects, make
diagrams, solve problems, judge
ideas, criticize ideas, propose new
ideas, create plans, present
information…etc!
Make an argument or an
analysis (this could be
done in a project,
presentation, or essay).
Make original projects or
experiments.
Perform a skill you
learned in a new situation.
Build on other people’s
ideas (don’t just re-state
them).
Knowing -> Understanding
How to “KNOW”
Information:
How to progress from
“KNOWING”
information to deeply
“UNDERSTANDING”:
How to show
that you understand
something in a
“summative”
assessment:
Most people study by repeating things over and over…
Yet summative assessments usually ask students to
demonstrate understanding (not just knowing!)
So…can you create a study method that not only helps
you know the basic facts, but also helps you understand
the concepts more deeply?

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Learning Information

  • 2. So far in this unit, we have talked about how humans learn Today, we are going back to the Educational Psych lesson to think about how humans learn information. behaviors.
  • 3. Short-Term Memories Long-Term Memories Information Sensory Memories Forgotten after 1 second. Forgotten after 25 seconds. Potentially permanent storage, although hard to retrieve.
  • 4. Rehearsal Rehearsal is the repetition or organization of information that has entered the short-term memory. Information is able to remain longer in the memory if rehearsal is practiced. Rehearsal allows us to transfer information from short-term memories into long- term memories!
  • 5. Rehearsal The type of rehearsal that is carried out greatly impacts the mind’s ability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory… Repetition Repeating things over and over again keeps them stored in short-term memory. Organization (Elaborative Rehearsal) When information is organized in some fashion: for example, when you link it to another memory.
  • 6. Long-Term Memory Memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve. The reason we are able to store long-term information is because our brains create semantic networks: clusters of interconnected information.The more connections our brain makes between a piece of information and other pieces of information, the more likely we are to remember it.
  • 7. Memory Consolidation The process of gradually converting short-term memories into long-term memories. 1. The more connections we make within the brain, the stronger our stored memories become. 2. The more often we recall information (think about it) the stronger our memories become. Pathways of neurons in the brain fire when you think about something.The more often you think about it, the smoother and faster those patterns of neurons will fire in your brain.
  • 8. Memory Consolidation 1. Think about your prior knowledge on a topic before learning new information related to that topic. 2. Think about how the topic is similar to or different from other topics (compare & contrast) 3. Think about how the topic relates to experiences in your life, to a book you read, to a movie you watched, to a historical event, to a current event in the news… 4. Visualize how topics are connected to other topics by making a word web, flowchart, or diagram. Making Connections: How-To
  • 9. There is a difference between and understanding knowing information.
  • 10. Knowing Understanding I can remember information: I can memorize facts, define terms, answer multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank style questions. I can explain ideas the way they were explained by my textbook or teacher. I can summarize the information and state it in my own words. I can describe simple relationships between ideas by comparing and contrasting and putting information into categories. I can USE information in new ways, and apply the information I learned in new situations. I can create and design new things based on the information I learned. I can critique and judge the information that I learned. I can form my own theories and test them. I can analyze ideas by examining complex relationships between information I learned from many different sources.
  • 11. Knowing Understanding I can remember information: I can memorize facts, define terms, answer multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank style questions. I can explain ideas the way they were explained by my textbook or teacher. I can summarize the information and state it in my own words. I can describe simple relationships between ideas by comparing and contrasting and putting information into categories. I can USE information in new ways, and apply the information I learned in new situations. I can create and design new things based on the information I learned. I can critique and judge the information that I learned. I can form my own theories and test them. I can analyze ideas by examining complex relationships between information I learned from many different sources. Here’s the hard part: You need to know information first before you can deeply understand it.
  • 12. Knowing -> Understanding How to “KNOW” Information: How to progress from “KNOWING” information to deeply “UNDERSTANDING”: How to show that you understand something in a “summative” assessment: Repeat information over and over again to help the information stay in your long-term memory. Make connections to help the information stay in your long-term memory. Summarize information and identify the main ideas to help you clarify the meaning. Organize information into categories, charts, graphs, or notes. Interact and use the information in lots of different ways.The more ways you use the information, the better your understanding will become. Repeat, make connections, summarize, organize, explain, interpret, ask questions, answer questions, make predictions, have discussions, make projects, make diagrams, solve problems, judge ideas, criticize ideas, propose new ideas, create plans, present information…etc! Make an argument or an analysis (this could be done in a project, presentation, or essay). Make original projects or experiments. Perform a skill you learned in a new situation. Build on other people’s ideas (don’t just re-state them).
  • 13. Knowing -> Understanding How to “KNOW” Information: How to progress from “KNOWING” information to deeply “UNDERSTANDING”: How to show that you understand something in a “summative” assessment: Most people study by repeating things over and over… Yet summative assessments usually ask students to demonstrate understanding (not just knowing!) So…can you create a study method that not only helps you know the basic facts, but also helps you understand the concepts more deeply?