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ASSESSMENT AND RATING OF
LEARNING OUTCOMES UNDER THE K
to 12
BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
DIVINE MERCYCOLLEGEFOUNDATION INC.
Caloocan City
Professional Education
Presented by:
CHRISTIAN D. EVANGELISTA
MARIANNE T. EVANGELISTA, MSHRM
DepEd ORDER No. 73 S. 2012
General Guidelines for the Assessment and
Rating of Learning Outcomes
• Effective School Year () 2012-2013, the
standards-based assessment and rating
system shall be implemented to support the
progressive roll-out starting with grades 1 and
7 of the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum in
public and private elementary and secondary
schools nationwide.
OUTLINE OF
PRESENTATION
• Philosophy of Assessment
• Nature of Assessment and Its
Purpose
• Levels of Assessment
• Assessment Tools
• Levels of Proficiency and Equivalent
Numeric Value
• Rating System
• Assessment Rubric
• Frequency of Assessment
WHAT IS
“K TO 12
PROGRAM”?
K TO 12 PROGRAM
• The K to 12 Program covers:
• Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education
(six years of primary education, four years of
Junior High School, and two years of Senior
High School [SHS])
A. PHILOSOPHY
• Assessment shall be used
primarily as a quality
assurance tool to track
student progress in the
attainment of standards,
promote self-reflection and
personal accountability for
one’s learning, and provide
a basis for the profiling of
B. NATURE AND
PURPOSE
OF ASSESSMENT
• Assessment shall be holistic, with
emphasis on the formative or
developmental purpose of quality
assuring student learning.
• It also standards-based as it seeks
to ensure that teachers will teach
to the standards and students will
aim to meet or even exceed the
standards.
• The students’ attainment of
standards in terms of content and
performance is, therefore, a
LEVEL OF
PERFORMANCE AND
UNDERSTANDING
C. LEVELS OF
ASSESSMENT
• The attainment of learning
outcomes as defined in the
standards shall be the basis for
the quality assurance of
learning using formative
assessments.
• They shall also be the focus of
the summative assessments
and shall be the basis for
grading at the end of
LEVEL OF LEARNING
OUTCOMES
• Knowledge
• Process or Skill
• Understanding
• Products and Performances
– The levels of Assessment are
defined as follows:
KNOWLEDGE
• The
substantive
content of
the
curriculum,
the facts and
information
that the
student
acquires
PROCESS
• Skills or
cognitive
operations
that the
student
performs on
facts and
information
for the
purpose of
UNDERSTANDING(S)
• Enduring big
ideas,
principles and
generalization
s inherent to
the discipline,
which may be
assessed
using the
facets of
understandin
g which may
be specific to
the discipline
PRODUCTS /
PERFORMANCES
• Real-life
application
of
understandi
ng as
evidenced
by the
student’s
performanc
e of
LEVELS OF
ASSESSMENT
These levels shall be the outcomes
reflected in the class record and
shall be given corresponding
percentage weights as follows:
LEVEL OF
ASSESSMENT
PERCENTAGE
WEIGHT
Knowledge 15%
Process or Skills 25%
Understanding (s) 30%
Products /
Performances
30%
TOTAL = 100%
ASSESSMENT TOOLS
KNOWLEDGE PROCESS /
SKILLS
UNDERSTAN
DINGS
PRODUCTS &
PERFORMAN
CES
Traditional Tools: Transform a Textual
Presentation into a
Diagram
Facets of
Understandings
Authentic products
or performance tasks
that a student is
expected to do to
Paper and Pencil
Tests
~ Outline, Organize,
Analyze, Interpret,
Translate, Convert or
Express Information
~ Self Knowledge Demonstrate his or
her understanding.
~ Multiple Choice ~ Flow Chart ~ Empathy ~ Self
Understanding
~ True or False ~ Construct Graphs ~ Perspective ~ Self Monitoring
~ Matching Type ~ Graphic
Organizers
~ Explanation ~ Self Assessment
~ Constructed
Response
~ Draw Analogies ~ Interpretation ~ Permit choices of
combinations of oral,
LEVELS OF
PROFICIENCY
AND ITS
EQUIVALENT
NUMERICAL VALUE
 The performance of the students
shall be described in the report card,
based on the following levels of
proficiency
LEVEL OF
PROFICIENCY
Beginning
(B)
Developing
(D)
Approaching Proficiency
(AP)
Proficient (P)
 While, the level proficiency shall
be based on a numerical value which
arrived form summing up the results
of the student’s performance on the
various level of assessment.
EQUIVALENT
NUMERICAL VALUE
74% and Below
75 - 79%
80 - 84%
85 - 89%
90% and Above
LEVELS OF PROFICIENCY
LEVELS OF PROFICIENCY
FEED BACK
• Results of the
assessment
across levels
should be fed
back
immediately to
the students, so
that they know
what to improve
further, and then
they can plan
strategically
how they can
PROTOTYPE
RUBRICS
FOR THE DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF
ASSESSMENT
WHAT IS RUBRIC:
• A rubric is a guideline for rating
student performance.
• It must define the range of possible
performance levels.
• Within this range, there are different
levels of performance which are
organized from the lowest level to the
highest level of performance.
• Usually, a scale of possible points is
associated with the continuum in
which the highest level receives the
greatest number of points and the
BENEFITS OF RUBRIC
–The rubric provides
assessment with exactly the
characteristics for each level
of performance on which the
students and the teacher
should base their judgment.
–The rubric provides the
students with clear
information about how well
they performed and what
they need to accomplish in
the future to better their
performance.
RUBRICS CRITERIA &
PERCENTAGE
CRITERIA PERCENT
AGE
Knowledge 15%
Skills 25%
Understanding (s) 30%
Transfer of
Understanding
30%
TOTAL: 100%
LEARNING
OUTCOME #O1
KNOWLEDGE
PAPER AND PENCIL
INSTRUMENTS
• Paper-and-
pencil
instruments
refer to a
general group of
assessment
tools in which
candidates read
questions and
respond in
writing.
• This includes
tests, such as
knowledge and
ability tests, and
MOST COMMON
RESPONSE
FORMATS ARE:
1. MULTIPLE CHOICE
2. TRUE OR FALSE
3. MATCHING TYPE
4. IDENTIFICATION
5. CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE
/ ESSAY
A. KNOWLEDGE (15%)
LEARNING
OUTCOME #O2
SKILLS
TRANSFORM TEXTUAL
PRESENTATION INTO A
DIAGRAM
• Outline, Organize, Analyze,
Interpret, Translate, Convert or
Express Information by using:
1. Flow Chart
2. Graphs
3. Analogies
4. Graphic Organizers
PROTOTYPE PIE GRAPH
Result of Midterm Exam
PERCENTAGE LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY
B
D
AP
P
A
30%
10%
5%
15%
40%
LEGEN
D
B. SKILLS (25%)
CONTINUATION:
CONTINUATION:
#02
CONTINUATION:
#03
PROTOTYPE
ASSESSMENT
MATRIX FOR “TLE”
(Technology Livelihood Education)
BASIS FOR PROMOTION AND
RETENTION
LEVEL OF
PROFICIENCY
EQUIVALENT
NUMERICAL
VALUE
Beginning
(B)
74% and
Below
Developing
(D)
75 - 79%
Approaching
Proficiency (AP)
80 - 84%
Proficient
(P)
85 - 89%
PROMOTION AND
RETENTION
• Promotion and Retention of
students shall be by subject
• Students whose proficiency level is
Beginning (B) at the end of the
quarter or grading period shall be
required to undergo remediation
after class hours so that they can
immediately catch up as they move
to the next grading period
• If by the end of school year, the
students are still at the Beginning
level, then they shall be required to
RATING SYSTEM
LEARNING
OUTCOME #O3
UNDERSTANDING
UNDERSTANDING
• Understanding as expressed
using any three of the six
facets of understanding
• The facets are explained
(adapted from the paper,
“Understanding by Design
Framework in the
Philippines” by Mc Tighe and
Grant Wiggins, p.5)
FACETS OF
UNDERSTANDING
CONC
EPT
EXPLAIN
INTERPR
ET
APPLY
PERSPE
CTIVE
EMPATH
Y
SELF
KNOWLE
DGE
FACET # 01
“EXPLANATION”
• Concepts,
principles, and
processes by
putting them in
their own
words, teaching
them to others,
justifying their
answers and
showing their
reasoning.
• By making
sense of
data, text,
and
experience
through
images,
analogies,
stories and
models;
FACET # 02
“INTERPRETATION”
• Effectively
using and
adapting
what they
know in
new and
complex
texts
FACET # 03
“APPLICATION”
• Demonstrate
perspective
by seeing the
big picture
and
recognizing
different
points of
view.
FACET # 04
“PERSPECTIVE”
FACET # 05
“EMPATHY”
• Display
empathy by
perceiving
sensitively
and putting
one’s self in
someone
else’s shoes;
• Have self
knowledge by
showing met
cognitive
awareness,
using
productive
habits of mind
and reflecting
on the meaning
of the learning
and
FACET # 06 “SELF
KNOWLEDGE”
UNDERSTANDING MAYBE ASSESSED BASED ON
THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA
Continuation:
LEARNING
OUTCOME #O4
PRODUCT /
PERFORMANCES
TRANSFER OF
UNDERSTANDING
• Transfer of understanding to life
situations maybe assessed as
demonstrated through the
following:
1. PRODUCTS – Outputs which
are reflective of learner’s
creative application of
understanding;
2. PERFORMANCES – skillful
exhibition or creative execution of
a process, reflective of
masterful application of learning
STUDENT IS EXPECTED
TO DEMONSTRATE
HIS/HER
UNDERSTANDING BY
MEANS OF:
• Self Understanding
• Self Monitoring
• Self Assessment
SELF
UNDERSTANDING
• Also
known as
Self
knowledg
e
• Is the
ability to
understan
d one's
SELF MONITORING
• Used in
behavioral
management
where a person
will keep a
record of
behavior
patterns.
• A personality
trait for
the ability to
• It is the process
of gathering
information about
yourself in order
to make an
informed career
decision.
• A self
assessment
should include a
look at the
SELF ASSESSMENT
Continuation:
PROTOTYPE
FORMATIVE
AND SUMMATIVE
ASSESSMENT
TOOLS
PRE ASSESSMENT
TOOL
• Pre-assessment allows the teacher
and student to discover what is
already known in a specific topic or
subject.
• It is critical to recognize prior
knowledge so students can engage
in questioning, formulating, thinking
and theorizing in order to construct
new knowledge appropriate to their
level.
PROTOTYPE PRE-ASSESSMENT
TOOL
FORMATIVE
ASSESSMENT• The goal of formative assessment is to
gather feedback that can be used by the
instructor and the students to guide
improvements in the ongoing teaching and
learning context. These are low stakes
assessments for students and instructors.
Examples:
1. Asking students to submit one
or two sentences
identifying the main point of a
lecture
2. Have students submit an outline
for a paper.
3. Early course evaluations
4. Giving quizzes to check student
understanding
SUMMATIVE
ASSESSMENT
• The goal of summative assessment is
to measure the level of success or
proficiency that has been obtained at the
end of an instructional unit, by comparing
it against some standard or benchmark.
• The outcome of a summative
assessment can be used formatively,
however, when students or faculty take the
results and use them to guide their efforts
and activities in subsequent courses.
• Examples of summative assessments
include:
 a midterm exam
 a final project
 a paper
PROTOTYPE SUMMATIVE
ASSESSMENT TOOL THROUGH
AUTHENTIC PERFORMANCE
TASK
Presented to:
DR. BELLA LAUREANO
And the students under Professional Education of
The Divine Mercy College Foundation Inc
(Batch2013)

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Kto12assessmentandrating 130719101325-phpapp02

  • 1. ASSESSMENT AND RATING OF LEARNING OUTCOMES UNDER THE K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM DIVINE MERCYCOLLEGEFOUNDATION INC. Caloocan City Professional Education Presented by: CHRISTIAN D. EVANGELISTA MARIANNE T. EVANGELISTA, MSHRM
  • 2. DepEd ORDER No. 73 S. 2012 General Guidelines for the Assessment and Rating of Learning Outcomes • Effective School Year () 2012-2013, the standards-based assessment and rating system shall be implemented to support the progressive roll-out starting with grades 1 and 7 of the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum in public and private elementary and secondary schools nationwide.
  • 3. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION • Philosophy of Assessment • Nature of Assessment and Its Purpose • Levels of Assessment • Assessment Tools • Levels of Proficiency and Equivalent Numeric Value • Rating System • Assessment Rubric • Frequency of Assessment
  • 4. WHAT IS “K TO 12 PROGRAM”?
  • 5. K TO 12 PROGRAM • The K to 12 Program covers: • Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS])
  • 6. A. PHILOSOPHY • Assessment shall be used primarily as a quality assurance tool to track student progress in the attainment of standards, promote self-reflection and personal accountability for one’s learning, and provide a basis for the profiling of
  • 7. B. NATURE AND PURPOSE OF ASSESSMENT • Assessment shall be holistic, with emphasis on the formative or developmental purpose of quality assuring student learning. • It also standards-based as it seeks to ensure that teachers will teach to the standards and students will aim to meet or even exceed the standards. • The students’ attainment of standards in terms of content and performance is, therefore, a
  • 8.
  • 10. C. LEVELS OF ASSESSMENT • The attainment of learning outcomes as defined in the standards shall be the basis for the quality assurance of learning using formative assessments. • They shall also be the focus of the summative assessments and shall be the basis for grading at the end of
  • 11. LEVEL OF LEARNING OUTCOMES • Knowledge • Process or Skill • Understanding • Products and Performances – The levels of Assessment are defined as follows:
  • 12. KNOWLEDGE • The substantive content of the curriculum, the facts and information that the student acquires
  • 13. PROCESS • Skills or cognitive operations that the student performs on facts and information for the purpose of
  • 14. UNDERSTANDING(S) • Enduring big ideas, principles and generalization s inherent to the discipline, which may be assessed using the facets of understandin g which may be specific to the discipline
  • 15. PRODUCTS / PERFORMANCES • Real-life application of understandi ng as evidenced by the student’s performanc e of
  • 16. LEVELS OF ASSESSMENT These levels shall be the outcomes reflected in the class record and shall be given corresponding percentage weights as follows: LEVEL OF ASSESSMENT PERCENTAGE WEIGHT Knowledge 15% Process or Skills 25% Understanding (s) 30% Products / Performances 30% TOTAL = 100%
  • 17. ASSESSMENT TOOLS KNOWLEDGE PROCESS / SKILLS UNDERSTAN DINGS PRODUCTS & PERFORMAN CES Traditional Tools: Transform a Textual Presentation into a Diagram Facets of Understandings Authentic products or performance tasks that a student is expected to do to Paper and Pencil Tests ~ Outline, Organize, Analyze, Interpret, Translate, Convert or Express Information ~ Self Knowledge Demonstrate his or her understanding. ~ Multiple Choice ~ Flow Chart ~ Empathy ~ Self Understanding ~ True or False ~ Construct Graphs ~ Perspective ~ Self Monitoring ~ Matching Type ~ Graphic Organizers ~ Explanation ~ Self Assessment ~ Constructed Response ~ Draw Analogies ~ Interpretation ~ Permit choices of combinations of oral,
  • 19.  The performance of the students shall be described in the report card, based on the following levels of proficiency LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY Beginning (B) Developing (D) Approaching Proficiency (AP) Proficient (P)
  • 20.  While, the level proficiency shall be based on a numerical value which arrived form summing up the results of the student’s performance on the various level of assessment. EQUIVALENT NUMERICAL VALUE 74% and Below 75 - 79% 80 - 84% 85 - 89% 90% and Above
  • 23. FEED BACK • Results of the assessment across levels should be fed back immediately to the students, so that they know what to improve further, and then they can plan strategically how they can
  • 25. WHAT IS RUBRIC: • A rubric is a guideline for rating student performance. • It must define the range of possible performance levels. • Within this range, there are different levels of performance which are organized from the lowest level to the highest level of performance. • Usually, a scale of possible points is associated with the continuum in which the highest level receives the greatest number of points and the
  • 26. BENEFITS OF RUBRIC –The rubric provides assessment with exactly the characteristics for each level of performance on which the students and the teacher should base their judgment. –The rubric provides the students with clear information about how well they performed and what they need to accomplish in the future to better their performance.
  • 27. RUBRICS CRITERIA & PERCENTAGE CRITERIA PERCENT AGE Knowledge 15% Skills 25% Understanding (s) 30% Transfer of Understanding 30% TOTAL: 100%
  • 29. PAPER AND PENCIL INSTRUMENTS • Paper-and- pencil instruments refer to a general group of assessment tools in which candidates read questions and respond in writing. • This includes tests, such as knowledge and ability tests, and
  • 30. MOST COMMON RESPONSE FORMATS ARE: 1. MULTIPLE CHOICE 2. TRUE OR FALSE 3. MATCHING TYPE 4. IDENTIFICATION 5. CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE / ESSAY
  • 33. TRANSFORM TEXTUAL PRESENTATION INTO A DIAGRAM • Outline, Organize, Analyze, Interpret, Translate, Convert or Express Information by using: 1. Flow Chart 2. Graphs 3. Analogies 4. Graphic Organizers
  • 34. PROTOTYPE PIE GRAPH Result of Midterm Exam PERCENTAGE LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY B D AP P A 30% 10% 5% 15% 40% LEGEN D
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. BASIS FOR PROMOTION AND RETENTION LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY EQUIVALENT NUMERICAL VALUE Beginning (B) 74% and Below Developing (D) 75 - 79% Approaching Proficiency (AP) 80 - 84% Proficient (P) 85 - 89%
  • 45. PROMOTION AND RETENTION • Promotion and Retention of students shall be by subject • Students whose proficiency level is Beginning (B) at the end of the quarter or grading period shall be required to undergo remediation after class hours so that they can immediately catch up as they move to the next grading period • If by the end of school year, the students are still at the Beginning level, then they shall be required to
  • 48. UNDERSTANDING • Understanding as expressed using any three of the six facets of understanding • The facets are explained (adapted from the paper, “Understanding by Design Framework in the Philippines” by Mc Tighe and Grant Wiggins, p.5)
  • 50. FACET # 01 “EXPLANATION” • Concepts, principles, and processes by putting them in their own words, teaching them to others, justifying their answers and showing their reasoning.
  • 51. • By making sense of data, text, and experience through images, analogies, stories and models; FACET # 02 “INTERPRETATION”
  • 52. • Effectively using and adapting what they know in new and complex texts FACET # 03 “APPLICATION”
  • 53. • Demonstrate perspective by seeing the big picture and recognizing different points of view. FACET # 04 “PERSPECTIVE”
  • 54. FACET # 05 “EMPATHY” • Display empathy by perceiving sensitively and putting one’s self in someone else’s shoes;
  • 55. • Have self knowledge by showing met cognitive awareness, using productive habits of mind and reflecting on the meaning of the learning and FACET # 06 “SELF KNOWLEDGE”
  • 56. UNDERSTANDING MAYBE ASSESSED BASED ON THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA
  • 59. TRANSFER OF UNDERSTANDING • Transfer of understanding to life situations maybe assessed as demonstrated through the following: 1. PRODUCTS – Outputs which are reflective of learner’s creative application of understanding; 2. PERFORMANCES – skillful exhibition or creative execution of a process, reflective of masterful application of learning
  • 60. STUDENT IS EXPECTED TO DEMONSTRATE HIS/HER UNDERSTANDING BY MEANS OF: • Self Understanding • Self Monitoring • Self Assessment
  • 61. SELF UNDERSTANDING • Also known as Self knowledg e • Is the ability to understan d one's
  • 62. SELF MONITORING • Used in behavioral management where a person will keep a record of behavior patterns. • A personality trait for the ability to
  • 63. • It is the process of gathering information about yourself in order to make an informed career decision. • A self assessment should include a look at the SELF ASSESSMENT
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 68. PRE ASSESSMENT TOOL • Pre-assessment allows the teacher and student to discover what is already known in a specific topic or subject. • It is critical to recognize prior knowledge so students can engage in questioning, formulating, thinking and theorizing in order to construct new knowledge appropriate to their level.
  • 70. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT• The goal of formative assessment is to gather feedback that can be used by the instructor and the students to guide improvements in the ongoing teaching and learning context. These are low stakes assessments for students and instructors. Examples: 1. Asking students to submit one or two sentences identifying the main point of a lecture 2. Have students submit an outline for a paper. 3. Early course evaluations 4. Giving quizzes to check student understanding
  • 71. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT • The goal of summative assessment is to measure the level of success or proficiency that has been obtained at the end of an instructional unit, by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. • The outcome of a summative assessment can be used formatively, however, when students or faculty take the results and use them to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses. • Examples of summative assessments include:  a midterm exam  a final project  a paper
  • 72. PROTOTYPE SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TOOL THROUGH AUTHENTIC PERFORMANCE TASK
  • 73. Presented to: DR. BELLA LAUREANO And the students under Professional Education of The Divine Mercy College Foundation Inc (Batch2013)

Editor's Notes

  1. To provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
  2. Prototype – means example Rubric is a guide listing specific criteria for grading or scoring academic papers, projects, or tests
  3. WHAT WILL I ASSESS – COMPETENCIES (THE ABILITY OR THE SKILL) HOW WILL I ASSES – TOOLS HOW WILL I SCORE – BY MEANS OF RUBRICS
  4. FACET - : any of the definable aspects that make up a subject (as of contemplation) or an object (as of consideration)
  5. This Facet from the teacher’s point-of view: ·       This understanding emerges from providing students with a well-developed and supported theory – “the why,” “the what,” and “the how.” ·       Requires through assignments and assessments an explanation of what the students know and solid reasoning to support it. ·       The teacher is a tour guide. ·       Calls for students to explain answers so that they can justify how they arrived at them and why they are right. ·       Makes a purposeful attempt at a better balance between knowledge delivery [teacher and text] and student theory building and testing. ·       Builds units around overarching [essential and unit] questions, issues, and problems that demand student theories and explanations, such as those found in problem-based learning and effective hands-on and minds-on programs.   Understanding this Facet helps a student to answer the questions: ·       Why is that so? ·       What explains such events? ·       What accounts for such action? ·       How can we prove it? ·       To what is this connected? ·       How does this work? ·       What is implied?  
  6. This Facet from the Teacher’s Point of View ·       Meaning, stories, translations, reading between the lines. ·       More concentration on the substance and significance of what is learned. ·       Tells students stories of what things are about, the purpose of which is understanding, not explanation.  Recognizes and communicates to students that a good story both enlightens and engages and helps them find meaning rather than just see scattered facts and abstract ideas.  Helps students realize that the best stories can make their lives more understandable and focused. ·       Incorporates into instruction narratives, translations, metaphors, images, and artistry: recognizing they provide meaning to the student. ·       While teaching relevant facts and theoretical principles, still always asks, “What does it mean?  What is its importance – to you, to us? ·       In math and science, more investigation into the importance of particular concepts, facts, theorems, and formulae. ·       Helps students recognize that a text or a speaker’s words will always have different valid readings and leads them to an appreciation that all interpretations are bound by the personal, social, cultural, and historical contexts in which they arise. ·       Coaches students to organize and contextualize essentially contestable, incompletely verifiable propositions in a disciplined way. ·       Appreciates that the challenge in teaching is to bring the text to life by revealing, through study and discussion, that the text speaks to their concerns. ·       Is aware that this narrative building is the true meaning of constructivism and that the teacher must avoid trying to test and find a single “right” answer or push a partisan point of view.  Realizes it is counterproductive to hand students pre-packaged “significance” or “interpretations” without letting them work through the problem to where they observe for themselves that these explanations and interpretations are valid. ·       Values that learning cannot be primarily or exclusively the process of learning what someone else says is the meaning of something.  To educate students to be able to think for themselves as adults, it is realized the teacher must teach them to build stories and interpretations, not just passively take in official ones.  ·       Helps students build knowledge from the inside.   Understanding in this facet helps a student answer the questions: ·       What doe sit mean? ·       Why doe sit matter? ·       What of it? ·       What does it illustrate or illuminate in human experience? ·       How doe sit relate to me? ·       What makes sense?   This facet from the student’s point of view: ·       Interprets by telling meaningful stories. ·       Offers appropriate interpretations. ·       Provides an enlightening historical or personal dimension to ideas and events. ·       Personalizes through images, anecdotes, analogies, and models. ·       Brings comprehension to concepts by constructing or quoting stories, descriptions, myths, legends, parables, analogies, etc., and critically reviewing them.  
  7. This Facet from the teacher’s point of view: ·       Knowledge in context – authentic application. ·       Develops in students the ability to sue knowledge in deciding how their thinking and actions should be modified to meet the demands of a particular situation.  Situations are provided that involve matching their ideas or actions to the context. ·       Recognizes that student understanding is revealed as performance know-how, the ability to accomplish tasks successfully, with grace under pressure, and with tact. ·       Realizes this is a context-dependent understanding requiring the use of new problems and diverse situations in assessment.  The problems used for assessment are as close as possible to real-world situations encountered by real-world situations encountered by real-world people in their real-world jobs and lives. ·       Testing of this understanding involves neither repetition of information learned nor performance of practices mastered, but rather the appropriate application of concepts and principles to questions or problems that are newly posed – performance needs to be central to evaluation and instruction.   Understanding is this facet helps a student answer the questions: ·       How and where can I use this knowledge, skill, process? ·       How should my thinking and action be modified to meet the demands of this particular situation?   This facet from the student’s point of view: ·       Applies and effectively uses and adopts what s/he knows in new situations and diverse contexts with defined audiences, purposes, and situations. ·       Has a sufficient grasp of concepts, principles, or skills so that s/he can bring them to bear on new problems and situations, deciding in which ways their present competencies can suffice and in which ways they may require new skills or knowledge.  
  8. This Facet from the teacher’s point of view: ·       Asks students, “How does it look from another point of view?”  For example, “How would my critic see things?” ·       Develops student fluency and flexibility in this understanding by providing them with a clear performance goal and keeping that goal in constant view as different points of view emerge. ·       Uses the case method and problem-based learning methods that exemplify this understanding. ·       Provides instruction and performance standards that require students to see things from the perspective of the ultimate standards, the various players, and the primary audience – not their own intentions – as they try to solve a particular problem. ·       Encourages students in their coursework to ask and answer, “What of it?  What is assumed?  What follows?” ·       Promotes the inclusion of explicit opportunities for students to confront alternative theories and diverse points of view regarding the big ideas – able to stand back and see things from a distance. ·       Realizes that this critical point of view defines a liberal education rather than the content.   Understanding in this facet helps a student answer the questions: ·       From whose point of view? ·       From which vantage point? ·       What is assumed or tacit that needs to be made explicit and considered? ·       What is justified or warranted? ·       Is there adequate evidence? ·       Is it reasonable? ·       What are the strengths and weaknesses of the idea? ·       Is it plausible?   This facet from the student’s point of view: ·       Sees and hears points of view through critical eyes and ears; sees the big picture – critical and insightful points of view. ·       Knows s/he is not “done” with a project or lesson simply because s/he worked hard, followed directions, and turned in a piece of work from a single point of view – his/her own. ·       Grasps the points of view behind teacher and textbook pronouncements. ·       Understands how ideas look from different vantage points. ·       Takes multiple points of view. ·       Ability to shift viewpoint and takes into account diverse, yet credible, perspectives.  
  9. This facet from the teacher’s point of view: ·       Walking in another’s shoes. ·       Helps students find value in what others might find odd, alien, or implausible. ·       Facilitates for students an understanding of another person, people, or culture. ·       Provides assignments where students must perceive sensitively on the basis of prior direct experience. ·       Presents students with actual or simulated occurrences of the concepts to be learned. ·       Confronts students deliberately with strange or alien texts, experiences, and ideas to see if they can get beyond what is off-putting about the work. ·       Makes it possible for students to see from inside another person’s worldview as s/he embraces the insights that can be found in the subjective and aesthetic realm. ·       Helps students find what is plausible, sensible, or meaningful in the ideas and actions of others – often resulting in a change of heart and mutual respect. ·       Grasps that learning needs to be more experiential, more geared toward making students directly confront the effects – and affect – of decisions, ideas, theories, and problems. ·       Recognizes that understanding through empathy implies an existential or experiential prerequisite. ·       Realizes that this understanding in the interpersonal sense suggests not merely an intellectual change of mind for the student but also a significant change of heart.   Understanding in this facet helps a student answer the questions: ·       How does it seem to you? ·       What do they see that I don’t? ·       What do I need to experience if I am to understand? ·       What was the artist or performer feeling, seeing, and trying to make me feel and see?   This facet from the student’s point of view: ·       Finds and communicates what is plausible, sensible, or meaningful in the ideas and actions of others. ·       Gets “inside the skin” of a person, a literary character, historical figure, noted thinker, and experience, or a work of art to discover purposes, motives, and feelings. ·       Moves beyond the odd, alien, seemingly weird opinions or people to find what is meaningful in them. ·       Distinguishes and feels historical occurrences and concerns as they were experienced by people of the time, rather than how they might be experienced in the present. 
  10. This facet from the teacher’s point of view: ·       Wisdom, “knowing thyself,” aware of prejudice. ·       Self-knowledge demands that a teacher help students self-consciously question their understandings to advance them. ·       Designs assignments and assessments that require self-reflection about and examination of intellectual preconceptions, and implicit beliefs. ·       Coaches students in the discipline of seeking and finding the inevitable blind spots or oversights in their thinking and in having the courage to face uncertainty and inconsistencies lurking underneath effective habits, naïve confidence, strong beliefs, and worldviews that only seem complete and final. ·       Grasps that students, to understand the world, must first understand themselves.  Through self-knowledge they also understand what they do not understand. ·       Recognizes that metacognition [thinking about our thinking to improve our thinking] refers to self-knowledge about how students think and why, and comprehends the relationship between their preferred methods of learning and their understanding. ·       Pays greater attention to the job of teaching and assessing self-reflection, metacognition, in its broadest sense. ·       Teaches and assesses intellectual honesty through student self-assessment.   Understanding in this facet helps a student answer these questions: ·       How does who I am shape my views? ·       What are the limits of my understanding? ·       What are my blind spots? ·       What am I prone to misunderstand because of prejudice, habit, or style?   This facet from the student’s point of view: ·       Perceives the personal style, prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape and impede his/her own understanding. ·       Aware of what s/he does not understand and why understanding is so hard. ·       Possesses and demonstrates the wisdom to know his/her own ignorance and how his/her patterns of thought and action inform as well as prejudice understanding. ·       Demonstrates the capacity to self-assess and self-regulate.
  11. Ongoing assessment throughout the learning process is also critical as it directs the teacher and student as to where to go next. Several assessment techniques are described in this section.
  12. Formative assessment need not be written all the time the teacher can check their students’ understanding in a variety of ways like: asking questions, group discussions, games and puzzles
  13. Information from summative assessments can be used formatively when students or faculty use it to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses. BENCHMARK – SCALE / YARDSTICK, LEVEL OR POINT OF REFERENCE