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The Japan Society for Speech Sciences 
Open Forum 2014, Symposium 
October 12, 2014 at KG Umeda Campus 
Corpus-based analysis of lexical 
bundles: Its potential applications 
in English language teaching 
1 
! 
Atsushi MIZUMOTO 
Kansai University
Lexical bundles 
1. Definition and what we 
know about LB 
2. My research 
3. Teaching LB
Lexical bundles 
Definition
Lexical bundles 
Definition 
Formulaic sequence (language) 
(Schmitt, 2004) 
• chunks 
• multiword units 
• clusters 
• idioms 
• collocations 
• formulas 
• prefabricated routines 
• conventionalized forms 
• lexical bundles 
• etc.
Formulaic sequence 
• Ubiquitous in language use (Nattinger & 
Decarrico, 1992) 
• Constitute more than 50% of spoken and 
written discourse (Erman & Warren, 2000) 
• Important component of language learning 
and use (Schmitt, 2005) 
• appear to be stored in the mind as holistic 
units (Schmitt & Carter, 2004)
Lexical bundles 
Definition 
Formulaic sequence (language) 
(Schmitt, 2004) 
• chunks 
• multiword units 
• clusters 
• idioms 
• collocations 
• formulas 
• prefabricated routines 
• conventionalized forms 
• lexical bundles 
• etc.
Lexical bundles 
Definition 
"Lexical bundles are recurrent expressions, 
regardless of their idiomaticity, and 
regardless of their structural status. That is, 
lexical bundles are simply sequences of 
word forms that commonly go together in 
natural discourse" (Biber et al., 1999, 
Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written 
English, Chapter 13)
Lexical bundles 
Definition 
• A building block of discourse 
= shows that the writer belongs to the 
discourse community (Biber & Barbieri, 
2007; Biber, Conrad, & Cortes, 2004; 
Cortes, 2004; Hyland, 2008a; 2008b) 
• Examples of LB: 
the extent to which, it is likely to, 
on the other hand, the role of the, 
at the end of, as well as the
Lexical bundles 
Definition 
• How do we analyze them? 
N-gram: 3-gram (tri-gram), 4-gram, 5-gram 
• 4-gram is often used 
“they are far more common than 5-word 
strings and offer a clearer range of structures 
and functions than 3-word bundles” 
(Hyland, 2008). 
"many four-word bundles hold three-word 
bundles in their structures" (Cortes, 2004).
How do we do that?
BNC Baby Edition (Hyland, 2008a)
Lexical bundles 
• 3- and 4-word lexical bundles made up 
28 percent of the conversation and 20 
percent of the academic prose (Biber et 
al., 1999) 
• Stored and processed as single units 
(Tremblay et al., 2011) 
• Functions of bundles (Biber et al., 2004; 
Hyland, 2008).
My research
My research 
Mizumoto (2009) 
• Articles in 10 international journals from 
1995 to 2008 (31 million words) 
• Applied Linguistics, ELT Journal, 
International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 
Language Learning, Language Teaching 
Research, Modern Language Journal, RELC 
Journal, Second Language Research, 
System, TESOL Quarterly
4-grams (Top 250) 
Examples
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 
as a lingua franca 
that is to say 
the way in which 
in the light of 
in the sense of 
can be seen as 
in the first place 
that there is a 
is likely to be 
it is necessary to 
does not seem to 
it is possible to 
more likely to be 
the validity of the 
in the sense that 
a small number of 
it was found that 
of a number of 
the structure of the 
at the level of 
as can be seen 
the in other the same hand way 
the 
that there is no 
that it is not 
when it comes to 
can be used to 
on the assumption that 
in relation to the 
at the expense of 
can be found in 
to do with the 
are likely to be 
can be seen in 
in this case the 
to the extent that 
shown in figure # 
does not mean that 
is one of the 
the rest of the 
it is not clear 
it is clear that 
should be noted that 
the question of whether 
the use of English a large in the in number the course fact next that of 
of 
section 
the 
it should be noted 
in terms of the 
as a the meanit part sis of o df the 
ifficult to 
of the fact that 
a high degree of 
in a number of 
as part of the 
to the fact that 
as a way of 
it may be that 
the form of a 
to the use of 
are more likely to 
the difference between the 
they were asked to 
a wide to range boen a tbhlee in otone the hand 
use of 
it is possible that 
due to the fact 
is based on the 
in such a way 
the case of the 
of the use of 
and on the part of 
the two types of 
by the fact that 
ini tt hise imforpmor otafnt to 
despitet athblee f#a csth tohwats that 
to ensure that the 
ways in which the 
inth teh ero plero ocfe tshse of 
the use of a 
extent to which that the use thein p tuhrep aorseea o of fthis 
one hand and 
a great deal ofthe basis tables # and # 
in an attempt to 
the importance of the 
of some of the 
for the first time 
the extent to which 
in the context of 
may or may not 
an over for in as example analysis order atsh a one important period ea uretsheseu with the tiot of analysis in of ism the 
o of 
regard lntf laikkeely aothtfuere the 
to note thapt to of of the 
that 
lay the 
a role in 
the 
the relationship between the 
to the development of 
of the nature of 
in spite of the 
significant difference between the 
of the importance of 
RELC 
in addition to the 
on the use of 
through the use of 
for the use of 
in this study the 
an important role in 
abothuet trhees unlatstu oref aof 
in contrast to the 
as the basis for 
the meaning of the 
as well as to 
theu fsoecdu sin o tfh tihse study 
in this study were 
the development of the 
a widefo vra trhieet yp uorfpose of 
table # shows the 
a better of understanding the role of 
of 
a total ## 
for the development of 
ibne tthwee estnu d#y# oafnd ## 
a nthaetirvee wspaes ankoe rs iogfnificant 
in view of the 
at the beginning of 
there was a significant 
in the classroom and 
within the context of 
inp aeraticchip aonf ttsh ewere asked to a number of studies 
a discussion of the 
in the development of 
in the acquisition of 
differenecaecsh b oeft wtheee nth trheee 
the content of the 
for each the 
in table # the 
at thteh eti mtoeta ol fnumber of 
with the exception of 
to the teaching of 
thefr omma it is jtohreit interesting yp oefr sthpeective to 
of 
an understainnd riensgp oofn tshee to the 
the effect of the 
the degree to which 
as well as in 
the purpose of the 
as shown in table 
students were ians tkheed n tuomber of 
in the target language 
for the most part 
in this article we 
in a varitehtey orefsults of this 
the teaching and learning 
significant differences between the 
the complexity the 
the nthuem cboeur rosfe w oof rtdhse 
between the two groups 
from ## to ## 
in the language classroom 
from a variety of 
as well as for 
in light of the 
the end of each 
a case study of 
−2 0 2 4 6 
0 5 10 
Dimension 1 
Dimension 2 
on the other hand 
in the case of 
at the same tiomne the basis of 
tahte t heen as de well nodf tohfethe as the 
results of the 
in the present study 
the ways in which 
in the field of 
shown in table # 
the beginning of the 
with respect to the 
one of the most 
in other words the 
of the present study 
in the current study 
speakers of other languages 
in the absence of 
## per cent of 
ina a r ewsauylt tohdfa ittfhfeerence between the two 
on the role of 
the time of the 
to rtehseu slttsu doyf tohfis study 
the students in the 
presented in table # 
as a function of 
the quality of the 
in the teaching of 
is important to note 
the participants in the 
the development of a 
on the development of 
by over them eenadn the osf course and standard of 
deviations 
of the present perfect 
a high level of 
participants in this study 
focus on form in 
as in the case 
languages other than English 
to account for the 
will be able to 
in which they are 
the findings of the 
−2 0 2 4 6 
AL 
ELT IJAL 
LL 
LTR 
MLJ 
SLR 
System 
TESOLQ
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 
as a lingua franca 
that is to say 
the way in which 
in the light of 
in the sense of 
can be seen as 
in the first place 
that there is a 
is likely to be 
it is necessary to 
does not seem to 
it is possible to 
more likely to be 
the validity of the 
in the sense that 
a small number of 
it was found that 
of a number of 
the structure of the 
at the level of 
as can be seen 
the in other the same hand way 
the 
that there is no 
that it is not 
when it comes to 
can be used to 
on the assumption that 
in relation to the 
at the expense of 
can be found in 
to do with the 
are likely to be 
can be seen in 
in this case the 
to the extent that 
shown in figure # 
does not mean that 
is one of the 
the rest of the 
it is not clear 
it is clear that 
should be noted that 
the question of whether 
the use of English a large in the in number the course fact next that of 
of 
section 
the 
it should be noted 
in terms of the 
as a the meanit part sis of o df the 
ifficult to 
of the fact that 
a high degree of 
in a number of 
as part of the 
to the fact that 
as a way of 
it may be that 
the form of a 
to the use of 
are more likely to 
the difference between the 
they were asked to 
a wide to range boen a tbhlee in otone the hand 
use of 
it is possible that 
due to the fact 
is based on the 
in such a way 
the case of the 
of the use of 
and on the part of 
the two types of 
by the fact that 
ini tt hise imforpmor otafnt to 
despitet athblee f#a csth tohwats that 
to ensure that the 
ways in which the 
inth teh ero plero ocfe tshse of 
the use of a 
extent to which that the use thein p tuhrep aorseea o of fthis 
one hand and 
a great deal ofthe basis tables # and # 
in an attempt to 
the importance of the 
of some of the 
for the first time 
the extent to which 
in the context of 
may or may not 
an over for in as example analysis order atsh a one important period ea uretsheseu with the tiot of analysis in of ism the 
o of 
regard lntf laikkeely aothtfuere the 
to note thapt to of of the 
that 
lay the 
a role in 
the 
the relationship between the 
to the development of 
of the nature of 
in spite of the 
significant difference between the 
of the importance of 
RELC 
in addition to the 
on the use of 
through the use of 
for the use of 
in this study the 
an important role in 
abothuet trhees unlatstu oref aof 
in contrast to the 
as the basis for 
the meaning of the 
as well as to 
theu fsoecdu sin o tfh tihse study 
in this study were 
the development of the 
a widefo vra trhieet yp uorfpose of 
table # shows the 
a better of understanding the role of 
of 
a total ## 
for the development of 
ibne tthwee estnu d#y# oafnd ## 
a nthaetirvee wspaes ankoe rs iogfnificant 
in view of the 
at the beginning of 
there was a significant 
in the classroom and 
within the context of 
inp aeraticchip aonf ttsh ewere asked to a number of studies 
a discussion of the 
in the development of 
in the acquisition of 
differenecaecsh b oeft wtheee nth trheee 
the content of the 
for each the 
in table # the 
at thteh eti mtoeta ol fnumber of 
with the exception of 
to the teaching of 
thefr omma it is jtohreit interesting yp oefr sthpeective to 
of 
an understainnd riensgp oofn tshee to the 
the effect of the 
the degree to which 
as well as in 
the purpose of the 
as shown in table 
students were ians tkheed n tuomber of 
in the target language 
for the most part 
in this article we 
in a varitehtey orefsults of this 
the teaching and learning 
significant differences between the 
the complexity the 
the nthuem cboeur rosfe w oof rtdhse 
between the two groups 
from ## to ## 
in the language classroom 
from a variety of 
as well as for 
in light of the 
the end of each 
a case study of 
−2 0 2 4 6 
0 5 10 
Dimension 1 
Dimension 2 
on the other hand 
in the case of 
at the same tiomne the basis of 
tahte t heen as de well nodf tohfethe as the 
results of the 
in the present study 
the ways in which 
in the field of 
shown in table # 
the beginning of the 
with respect to the 
one of the most 
in other words the 
of the present study 
in the current study 
speakers of other languages 
in the absence of 
## per cent of 
ina a r ewsauylt tohdfa ittfhfeerence between the two 
on the role of 
the time of the 
to rtehseu slttsu doyf tohfis study 
the students in the 
presented in table # 
as a function of 
the quality of the 
in the teaching of 
is important to note 
the participants in the 
the development of a 
on the development of 
by over them eenadn the osf course and standard of 
deviations 
of the present perfect 
a high level of 
participants in this study 
focus on form in 
as in the case 
languages other than English 
to account for the 
will be able to 
in which they are 
the findings of the 
−2 0 2 4 6 
AL 
ELT IJAL 
LL 
LTR 
MLJ 
SLR 
System 
TESOLQ 
to the teaching of 
as a lingua franca 
speakers of other languages 
in the teaching of 
the teaching and learning 
significant differences between the 
in the acquisition of 
to account for the 
there was a significant 
with respect to the
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 
as a lingua franca 
that is to say 
the way in which 
in the light of 
in the sense of 
can be seen as 
in the first place 
that there is a 
is likely to be 
it is necessary to 
does not seem to 
it is possible to 
more likely to be 
the validity of the 
in the sense that 
a small number of 
it was found that 
of a number of 
the structure of the 
at the level of 
as can be seen 
the in other the same hand way 
the 
that there is no 
that it is not 
when it comes to 
can be used to 
on the assumption that 
in relation to the 
at the expense of 
can be found in 
to do with the 
are likely to be 
can be seen in 
in this case the 
to the extent that 
shown in figure # 
does not mean that 
is one of the 
the rest of the 
it is not clear 
it is clear that 
should be noted that 
the question of whether 
the use of English a large in the in number the course fact next that of 
of 
section 
the 
it should be noted 
in terms of the 
as a the meanit part sis of o df the 
ifficult to 
of the fact that 
a high degree of 
in a number of 
as part of the 
to the fact that 
as a way of 
it may be that 
the form of a 
to the use of 
are more likely to 
the difference between the 
they were asked to 
a wide to range boen a tbhlee in otone the hand 
use of 
it is possible that 
due to the fact 
is based on the 
in such a way 
the case of the 
of the use of 
and on the part of 
the two types of 
by the fact that 
ini tt hise imforpmor otafnt to 
despitet athblee f#a csth tohwats that 
to ensure that the 
ways in which the 
inth teh ero plero ocfe tshse of 
the use of a 
extent to which that the use thein p tuhrep aorseea o of fthis 
one hand and 
a great deal ofthe basis tables # and # 
in an attempt to 
the importance of the 
of some of the 
for the first time 
the extent to which 
in the context of 
may or may not 
an over for in as example analysis order atsh a one important period ea uretsheseu with the tiot of analysis in of ism the 
o of 
regard lntf laikkeely aothtfuere the 
to note thapt to of of the 
that 
lay the 
a role in 
the 
the relationship between the 
to the development of 
of the nature of 
in spite of the 
significant difference between the 
of the importance of 
RELC 
in addition to the 
on the use of 
through the use of 
for the use of 
in this study the 
an important role in 
abothuet trhees unlatstu oref aof 
in contrast to the 
as the basis for 
the meaning of the 
as well as to 
theu fsoecdu sin o tfh tihse study 
in this study were 
the development of the 
a widefo vra trhieet yp uorfpose of 
table # shows the 
a better of understanding the role of 
of 
a total ## 
for the development of 
ibne tthwee estnu d#y# oafnd ## 
a nthaetirvee wspaes ankoe rs iogfnificant 
in view of the 
at the beginning of 
there was a significant 
in the classroom and 
within the context of 
inp aeraticchip aonf ttsh ewere asked to a number of studies 
a discussion of the 
in the development of 
in the acquisition of 
differenecaecsh b oeft wtheee nth trheee 
the content of the 
for each the 
in table # the 
at thteh eti mtoeta ol fnumber of 
with the exception of 
to the teaching of 
thefr omma it is jtohreit interesting yp oefr sthpeective to 
of 
an understainnd riensgp oofn tshee to the 
the effect of the 
the degree to which 
as well as in 
the purpose of the 
as shown in table 
students were ians tkheed n tuomber of 
in the target language 
for the most part 
in this article we 
in a varitehtey orefsults of this 
the teaching and learning 
significant differences between the 
the complexity the 
the nthuem cboeur rosfe w oof rtdhse 
between the two groups 
from ## to ## 
in the language classroom 
from a variety of 
as well as for 
in light of the 
the end of each 
a case study of 
−2 0 2 4 6 
0 5 10 
Dimension 1 
Dimension 2 
on the other hand 
in the case of 
at the same tiomne the basis of 
tahte t heen as de well nodf tohfethe as the 
results of the 
in the present study 
the ways in which 
in the field of 
shown in table # 
the beginning of the 
with respect to the 
one of the most 
in other words the 
of the present study 
in the current study 
speakers of other languages 
in the absence of 
## per cent of 
ina a r ewsauylt tohdfa ittfhfeerence between the two 
on the role of 
the time of the 
to rtehseu slttsu doyf tohfis study 
the students in the 
presented in table # 
as a function of 
the quality of the 
in the teaching of 
is important to note 
the participants in the 
the development of a 
on the development of 
by over them eenadn the osf course and standard of 
deviations 
of the present perfect 
a high level of 
participants in this study 
focus on form in 
as in the case 
languages other than English 
to account for the 
will be able to 
in which they are 
the findings of the 
−2 0 2 4 6 
AL 
ELT IJAL 
LL 
LTR 
MLJ 
SLR 
System 
TESOLQ 
can be used to 
as can be seen 
on the assumption that 
more likely to be 
on the other hand 
it is possible to 
in the first place 
that is to say 
participants in this study 
in the current study 
a case study of 
over the course of 
the students in the 
by the end of 
of the present study 
in light of the
(Hyland, 2008, p.12)
https://scn.jkn21.com/~percinfo/index.html
−3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 
Telecommunications 
Mathematics 
in this paper we 
Nuclear.Science.Technology 
in the next section 
Electrical.Electronic.Engineering 
figure # shows the 
Metallurgy.Metallurgical.Engineering 
can be used to in fig # the 
in the sense that 
can be found in 
Computer.Science 
to the number of 
it is assumed that 
it is possible to 
in such a way 
the the way part in of which the 
the the complexity in terms quality ians of of of f the 
iag the urrees the 
it u#l can tt hthee 
be seen 
in other in words the same theit way 
is necessary to 
at the expense of 
the form of a 
thatt hthroeu ugshe t hoef use of 
on the toon bee h aabnled to 
is based on the 
the rest of the 
for the purpose of 
Physics 
Engineering 
the case of the 
the sum of the 
the cetnhtee rr aotfi oth oef the 
the other hand the 
ELTIJAL 
in the 
context of 
the as part usein of o tfh the 
teh eform of 
of the oufs teh eo ffact that 
Civil.Engineering 
by means of a 
that there is no 
at the same time 
a function of the 
with respect to the 
due to the fact 
at the beginning of 
for example in the 
to the use of 
is related to the 
the influence of the 
the fact that the 
the size of the 
as a means of 
thatto t htheere f aisc ta that 
the basis of the 
can bteh es esetrnu cinture of the 
in terms of theirto the analysis ensure that of the 
the 
as in theb cea nsoeted that the 
one of thea m laorsgte number of 
and the use of 
in the use of RELC 
the difference between the 
the extent to which 
TESSOysLtQem 
the degree to which 
the development of a 
it is important to 
the purpose of the 
table # shows the 
Oceanography 
it is clear that 
is one of the 
a wide range of 
Materials.Science 
is important to note arteh eg itvoepn o ifn t htaeble 
the relationship between the 
Earth.Science 
as well as the 
the differences between the 
difference table # between shows that 
the two 
important to note that 
in relation to the 
it should be noted 
should bteh en oetfefedc tt hoaf tthe 
in addition to the 
the end of the 
in spite of the 
as well as to 
as well as a 
the role of the 
the length of the 
it was found that 
by fact that 
General.Science 
the development of the 
than that of the 
the importance the 
for the first time 
the results otaf bthleiss # and # 
in view the 
as a result of 
in an attempt to 
the effects of the the surface of the 
the majority of the 
in a number of 
Chemistry 
to that of the 
of a number of 
despite the fact that 
to the presence of 
are presented in table 
between the two groups 
is interesting to note 
for the development of 
the taimree l iokfe tlyh eto be 
with the exception of 
it is not clear 
Forestry 
Fisheries 
a total of ## 
in the number of 
the magnitude of the 
with the use from ## to ## 
be due to the 
be related to the 
there was a significant 
Construction.Building.Technology 
was found to be 
## and ## respectively 
an important role in 
it has been shown 
the level of the 
it is likely that 
Medicine 
Food.Science 
−2 −1 0 1 2 3 
−4 −2 0 2 4 
Dimension 1 
Dimension 2 
on other hand 
in the case of 
shown in fig # 
on the basis of 
in the presence of 
at end of 
as a function of 
in the present study 
in the absence of 
the results of the 
the nature of the 
as shown in fig 
shown in table # 
it is possible that 
is shown in fig 
the total number of 
in table # the 
at the time of 
has been shown to 
the beginning of the 
in this case the 
for each of the 
in the field of 
the use of a 
in contrast to the 
figs # and # 
of the present study 
shown in figure # 
between ## and ## 
fig # shows the 
as can be seen 
the presence of a 
at the level of 
given in table # 
is consistent with the 
in process of 
in the development of 
used in this study 
an increase in the 
in the target language 
it is difficult to 
the ways in which 
a result of the 
the presence of the 
as well as in 
on the part of 
is likely to be 
have been shown to 
in a variety of 
are shown in table 
with regard to the 
similar to that of 
the meaning of been shown to be 
a great deal of 
a wide variety of 
the performance of the 
to the development in this section we 
the purpose of this 
presented in table # 
is due to the 
the position of the 
play a role in 
is the number of 
in the coiut risse in otef resting to 
in this study the 
the value of the 
and the number of 
the context of the 
as shown in table 
were found to be 
on the use of 
in the current study 
of the number of 
may be due to 
there was no significant 
listed in table # 
in each of 
the 
is assumed to be 
in the range of 
in area of 
to account for the 
these results suggest that 
of the role of 
illustrated in fig # 
a small number of 
results otfh teh icso sutursdseyu omf mthaerized in table # 
by the presence of 
in this study were 
can be seen that 
for the purposes of 
the existence of a 
each the three 
play an important role 
of the effects of 
in a way that 
in this study we 
in light of 
interesting to note that 
of this study was 
presence or absence of 
of the order of 
that it is not 
in response to the 
studies have shown that 
−4 −2 0 2 4 
AL 
LL 
LTR 
MLJ 
SLR 
Agriculture 
Biology 
Environmental.Sciences 
Applied Linguistics PERC
Koyama and Mizumoto (2010)
Teaching lexical bundles
Teaching lexical bundles 
• Word combinations “are so common, it might 
be assumed that lexical bundles are simple 
expressions, and that they will therefore be 
acquired easily” (Biber & Conrad, 1999, p. 188). 
• Professional vs. novice writers (Cortes, 2004) 
→ "the use of these expressions by the 
students in this study, who were all native 
speakers of English at different university 
levels, was extremely rare."
Teaching lexical bundles 
http://www.tesol.org/connect/tesol-resource-center/search-details/activities/ 
2013/10/18/teaching-lexical-bundles-to-low-level-proficiency
JSSS2014 Symposium (Atsushi Mizumoto)
! 
Depending on the purpose and level
Teaching lexical bundles 
• ESP / EAP — LBs are useful and 
especially important in academic writing.! 
• Cortes, V. (2006). Teaching lexical 
bundles in the disciplines: An 
example from a writing intensive 
history class. Linguistics and 
Education, 17, 391–406. doi:10.1016/ 
j.linged.2007.02.001
Teaching lexical bundles 
• Cortes (2006) 
- History class (writing-intensive) 
- 20-minute (5 times in 10 weeks) 
- Exercises (e.g., fill in the blanks, MC, 
error correction)—Lexical approach (Lewis, 2000) 
- Target bundles: on the other hand, 
as well as the, some of the most, 
as part of the, as a matter of, 
as a result of, on the basis of, 
by the end of, in the age of
Cortes (2006)
Cortes (2006)
Teaching lexical bundles 
• Cortes (2006, p. 391) 
"The findings of the study reflected no 
difference between pre- and post-instruction 
production of lexical bundles 
but they indicated an increase in 
students’ awareness of and interest in 
these expressions."! 
• In general: results are not very positive
Schmitt (2005, p. 37) 
"their use as ‘building blocks’ of language (i.e., 
often not realizing meaning content in their 
own right) suggests that they may be less 
amenable to explicit teaching, simply because 
the form-meaning relationship is less 
transparent. However, some of the lexical 
bundles identified by Biber et al. (1999), entail 
a clear meaning (e.g., I don’t know, I want to, 
on the other hand), and these cases may well 
be worth teaching."
Teaching LB = Plagiarism? 
"When I first began teaching writing, I often 
focused on helping students be creative. I 
encouraged more diversity in vocabulary and 
more creative word use. From corpus-based 
research, I have learned that using the typical 
language structures for certain meanings is 
actually a sign of proficiency. Using these 
bundles is not plagiarism; it is a matter of giving 
readers expected forms that they read 
efficiently" (Conrad, 2008, p. 125).
Teaching LB = Plagiarism? 
"Skillful incorporation of academic-sounding 
lexical bundles will help students sound more 
like they belong in the academic discourse 
community of which they they wish to be 
members . . . As to the plagiarism question, no 
one could reasonably argue that phrases such 
as studies have shown that are copyrighted 
and owned by any author in particular" 
(Ferris, 2011).
Ways to maximize the 
effects of teaching LB 
• Data-driven learning (DDL) 
• Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
Ways to maximize the 
effects of teaching LB 
• Data-driven learning (DDL) 
• Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
Ways to maximize the 
effects of teaching LB 
• Data-driven learning (DDL) 
Chujo et al. 
(2012)
DDL 
• Cobb and Boulton (in press) 
Pre/post-test (k = 8) 
d = 1.68, 95% CI [1.36, 2.00] 
Experimental/control (k = 13) 
d = 0.73, 95% CI [0.83, 1.25] 
• Chujo et al. (2013) 
Pre/post-test (k = 9) 
d = 1.26, 95% CI [1.05, 1.47] 
* Low level 
* Computer-/ 
Paper-based
Ways to maximize the 
effects of teaching LB 
• Data-driven learning (DDL) 
• Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
Ways to maximize the 
effects of teaching LB 
• Data-driven learning (DDL) 
• Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
Typical Lexical Bundles for 
Hedging (Conrad, 2008) 
it is possible that 
it is likely that 
it may be that 
may be due to 
is/are likely to be 
does not seem to be 
does not appear to be 
What section do 
they most occur in? 
- Introduction 
- Methods 
- Results 
- Discussion*
"moves" 
• CARS (Create a Research Space) 
• IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, 
and Discussion)
(Cortes, 2013, p. 37)
"Thank you very much." 
The 4-word lexical bundle dedicated to 
Dr. Hiroaki "Keiroh" Maeda (1974–2014). 
He will be remembered always and forever.
Highlights 
• Lexical bundles 
= More than just n-grams 
= disciplinary/discourse variations 
• Teaching LB is important and necessary in 
academic writing (EAP/ESP). 
• Effects of teaching LB could be enhanced 
by using DDL and focusing on moves.

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JSSS2014 Symposium (Atsushi Mizumoto)

  • 1. The Japan Society for Speech Sciences Open Forum 2014, Symposium October 12, 2014 at KG Umeda Campus Corpus-based analysis of lexical bundles: Its potential applications in English language teaching 1 ! Atsushi MIZUMOTO Kansai University
  • 2. Lexical bundles 1. Definition and what we know about LB 2. My research 3. Teaching LB
  • 4. Lexical bundles Definition Formulaic sequence (language) (Schmitt, 2004) • chunks • multiword units • clusters • idioms • collocations • formulas • prefabricated routines • conventionalized forms • lexical bundles • etc.
  • 5. Formulaic sequence • Ubiquitous in language use (Nattinger & Decarrico, 1992) • Constitute more than 50% of spoken and written discourse (Erman & Warren, 2000) • Important component of language learning and use (Schmitt, 2005) • appear to be stored in the mind as holistic units (Schmitt & Carter, 2004)
  • 6. Lexical bundles Definition Formulaic sequence (language) (Schmitt, 2004) • chunks • multiword units • clusters • idioms • collocations • formulas • prefabricated routines • conventionalized forms • lexical bundles • etc.
  • 7. Lexical bundles Definition "Lexical bundles are recurrent expressions, regardless of their idiomaticity, and regardless of their structural status. That is, lexical bundles are simply sequences of word forms that commonly go together in natural discourse" (Biber et al., 1999, Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Chapter 13)
  • 8. Lexical bundles Definition • A building block of discourse = shows that the writer belongs to the discourse community (Biber & Barbieri, 2007; Biber, Conrad, & Cortes, 2004; Cortes, 2004; Hyland, 2008a; 2008b) • Examples of LB: the extent to which, it is likely to, on the other hand, the role of the, at the end of, as well as the
  • 9. Lexical bundles Definition • How do we analyze them? N-gram: 3-gram (tri-gram), 4-gram, 5-gram • 4-gram is often used “they are far more common than 5-word strings and offer a clearer range of structures and functions than 3-word bundles” (Hyland, 2008). "many four-word bundles hold three-word bundles in their structures" (Cortes, 2004).
  • 10. How do we do that?
  • 11. BNC Baby Edition (Hyland, 2008a)
  • 12. Lexical bundles • 3- and 4-word lexical bundles made up 28 percent of the conversation and 20 percent of the academic prose (Biber et al., 1999) • Stored and processed as single units (Tremblay et al., 2011) • Functions of bundles (Biber et al., 2004; Hyland, 2008).
  • 14. My research Mizumoto (2009) • Articles in 10 international journals from 1995 to 2008 (31 million words) • Applied Linguistics, ELT Journal, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Language Learning, Language Teaching Research, Modern Language Journal, RELC Journal, Second Language Research, System, TESOL Quarterly
  • 15. 4-grams (Top 250) Examples
  • 16. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 as a lingua franca that is to say the way in which in the light of in the sense of can be seen as in the first place that there is a is likely to be it is necessary to does not seem to it is possible to more likely to be the validity of the in the sense that a small number of it was found that of a number of the structure of the at the level of as can be seen the in other the same hand way the that there is no that it is not when it comes to can be used to on the assumption that in relation to the at the expense of can be found in to do with the are likely to be can be seen in in this case the to the extent that shown in figure # does not mean that is one of the the rest of the it is not clear it is clear that should be noted that the question of whether the use of English a large in the in number the course fact next that of of section the it should be noted in terms of the as a the meanit part sis of o df the ifficult to of the fact that a high degree of in a number of as part of the to the fact that as a way of it may be that the form of a to the use of are more likely to the difference between the they were asked to a wide to range boen a tbhlee in otone the hand use of it is possible that due to the fact is based on the in such a way the case of the of the use of and on the part of the two types of by the fact that ini tt hise imforpmor otafnt to despitet athblee f#a csth tohwats that to ensure that the ways in which the inth teh ero plero ocfe tshse of the use of a extent to which that the use thein p tuhrep aorseea o of fthis one hand and a great deal ofthe basis tables # and # in an attempt to the importance of the of some of the for the first time the extent to which in the context of may or may not an over for in as example analysis order atsh a one important period ea uretsheseu with the tiot of analysis in of ism the o of regard lntf laikkeely aothtfuere the to note thapt to of of the that lay the a role in the the relationship between the to the development of of the nature of in spite of the significant difference between the of the importance of RELC in addition to the on the use of through the use of for the use of in this study the an important role in abothuet trhees unlatstu oref aof in contrast to the as the basis for the meaning of the as well as to theu fsoecdu sin o tfh tihse study in this study were the development of the a widefo vra trhieet yp uorfpose of table # shows the a better of understanding the role of of a total ## for the development of ibne tthwee estnu d#y# oafnd ## a nthaetirvee wspaes ankoe rs iogfnificant in view of the at the beginning of there was a significant in the classroom and within the context of inp aeraticchip aonf ttsh ewere asked to a number of studies a discussion of the in the development of in the acquisition of differenecaecsh b oeft wtheee nth trheee the content of the for each the in table # the at thteh eti mtoeta ol fnumber of with the exception of to the teaching of thefr omma it is jtohreit interesting yp oefr sthpeective to of an understainnd riensgp oofn tshee to the the effect of the the degree to which as well as in the purpose of the as shown in table students were ians tkheed n tuomber of in the target language for the most part in this article we in a varitehtey orefsults of this the teaching and learning significant differences between the the complexity the the nthuem cboeur rosfe w oof rtdhse between the two groups from ## to ## in the language classroom from a variety of as well as for in light of the the end of each a case study of −2 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 Dimension 1 Dimension 2 on the other hand in the case of at the same tiomne the basis of tahte t heen as de well nodf tohfethe as the results of the in the present study the ways in which in the field of shown in table # the beginning of the with respect to the one of the most in other words the of the present study in the current study speakers of other languages in the absence of ## per cent of ina a r ewsauylt tohdfa ittfhfeerence between the two on the role of the time of the to rtehseu slttsu doyf tohfis study the students in the presented in table # as a function of the quality of the in the teaching of is important to note the participants in the the development of a on the development of by over them eenadn the osf course and standard of deviations of the present perfect a high level of participants in this study focus on form in as in the case languages other than English to account for the will be able to in which they are the findings of the −2 0 2 4 6 AL ELT IJAL LL LTR MLJ SLR System TESOLQ
  • 17. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 as a lingua franca that is to say the way in which in the light of in the sense of can be seen as in the first place that there is a is likely to be it is necessary to does not seem to it is possible to more likely to be the validity of the in the sense that a small number of it was found that of a number of the structure of the at the level of as can be seen the in other the same hand way the that there is no that it is not when it comes to can be used to on the assumption that in relation to the at the expense of can be found in to do with the are likely to be can be seen in in this case the to the extent that shown in figure # does not mean that is one of the the rest of the it is not clear it is clear that should be noted that the question of whether the use of English a large in the in number the course fact next that of of section the it should be noted in terms of the as a the meanit part sis of o df the ifficult to of the fact that a high degree of in a number of as part of the to the fact that as a way of it may be that the form of a to the use of are more likely to the difference between the they were asked to a wide to range boen a tbhlee in otone the hand use of it is possible that due to the fact is based on the in such a way the case of the of the use of and on the part of the two types of by the fact that ini tt hise imforpmor otafnt to despitet athblee f#a csth tohwats that to ensure that the ways in which the inth teh ero plero ocfe tshse of the use of a extent to which that the use thein p tuhrep aorseea o of fthis one hand and a great deal ofthe basis tables # and # in an attempt to the importance of the of some of the for the first time the extent to which in the context of may or may not an over for in as example analysis order atsh a one important period ea uretsheseu with the tiot of analysis in of ism the o of regard lntf laikkeely aothtfuere the to note thapt to of of the that lay the a role in the the relationship between the to the development of of the nature of in spite of the significant difference between the of the importance of RELC in addition to the on the use of through the use of for the use of in this study the an important role in abothuet trhees unlatstu oref aof in contrast to the as the basis for the meaning of the as well as to theu fsoecdu sin o tfh tihse study in this study were the development of the a widefo vra trhieet yp uorfpose of table # shows the a better of understanding the role of of a total ## for the development of ibne tthwee estnu d#y# oafnd ## a nthaetirvee wspaes ankoe rs iogfnificant in view of the at the beginning of there was a significant in the classroom and within the context of inp aeraticchip aonf ttsh ewere asked to a number of studies a discussion of the in the development of in the acquisition of differenecaecsh b oeft wtheee nth trheee the content of the for each the in table # the at thteh eti mtoeta ol fnumber of with the exception of to the teaching of thefr omma it is jtohreit interesting yp oefr sthpeective to of an understainnd riensgp oofn tshee to the the effect of the the degree to which as well as in the purpose of the as shown in table students were ians tkheed n tuomber of in the target language for the most part in this article we in a varitehtey orefsults of this the teaching and learning significant differences between the the complexity the the nthuem cboeur rosfe w oof rtdhse between the two groups from ## to ## in the language classroom from a variety of as well as for in light of the the end of each a case study of −2 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 Dimension 1 Dimension 2 on the other hand in the case of at the same tiomne the basis of tahte t heen as de well nodf tohfethe as the results of the in the present study the ways in which in the field of shown in table # the beginning of the with respect to the one of the most in other words the of the present study in the current study speakers of other languages in the absence of ## per cent of ina a r ewsauylt tohdfa ittfhfeerence between the two on the role of the time of the to rtehseu slttsu doyf tohfis study the students in the presented in table # as a function of the quality of the in the teaching of is important to note the participants in the the development of a on the development of by over them eenadn the osf course and standard of deviations of the present perfect a high level of participants in this study focus on form in as in the case languages other than English to account for the will be able to in which they are the findings of the −2 0 2 4 6 AL ELT IJAL LL LTR MLJ SLR System TESOLQ to the teaching of as a lingua franca speakers of other languages in the teaching of the teaching and learning significant differences between the in the acquisition of to account for the there was a significant with respect to the
  • 18. −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 as a lingua franca that is to say the way in which in the light of in the sense of can be seen as in the first place that there is a is likely to be it is necessary to does not seem to it is possible to more likely to be the validity of the in the sense that a small number of it was found that of a number of the structure of the at the level of as can be seen the in other the same hand way the that there is no that it is not when it comes to can be used to on the assumption that in relation to the at the expense of can be found in to do with the are likely to be can be seen in in this case the to the extent that shown in figure # does not mean that is one of the the rest of the it is not clear it is clear that should be noted that the question of whether the use of English a large in the in number the course fact next that of of section the it should be noted in terms of the as a the meanit part sis of o df the ifficult to of the fact that a high degree of in a number of as part of the to the fact that as a way of it may be that the form of a to the use of are more likely to the difference between the they were asked to a wide to range boen a tbhlee in otone the hand use of it is possible that due to the fact is based on the in such a way the case of the of the use of and on the part of the two types of by the fact that ini tt hise imforpmor otafnt to despitet athblee f#a csth tohwats that to ensure that the ways in which the inth teh ero plero ocfe tshse of the use of a extent to which that the use thein p tuhrep aorseea o of fthis one hand and a great deal ofthe basis tables # and # in an attempt to the importance of the of some of the for the first time the extent to which in the context of may or may not an over for in as example analysis order atsh a one important period ea uretsheseu with the tiot of analysis in of ism the o of regard lntf laikkeely aothtfuere the to note thapt to of of the that lay the a role in the the relationship between the to the development of of the nature of in spite of the significant difference between the of the importance of RELC in addition to the on the use of through the use of for the use of in this study the an important role in abothuet trhees unlatstu oref aof in contrast to the as the basis for the meaning of the as well as to theu fsoecdu sin o tfh tihse study in this study were the development of the a widefo vra trhieet yp uorfpose of table # shows the a better of understanding the role of of a total ## for the development of ibne tthwee estnu d#y# oafnd ## a nthaetirvee wspaes ankoe rs iogfnificant in view of the at the beginning of there was a significant in the classroom and within the context of inp aeraticchip aonf ttsh ewere asked to a number of studies a discussion of the in the development of in the acquisition of differenecaecsh b oeft wtheee nth trheee the content of the for each the in table # the at thteh eti mtoeta ol fnumber of with the exception of to the teaching of thefr omma it is jtohreit interesting yp oefr sthpeective to of an understainnd riensgp oofn tshee to the the effect of the the degree to which as well as in the purpose of the as shown in table students were ians tkheed n tuomber of in the target language for the most part in this article we in a varitehtey orefsults of this the teaching and learning significant differences between the the complexity the the nthuem cboeur rosfe w oof rtdhse between the two groups from ## to ## in the language classroom from a variety of as well as for in light of the the end of each a case study of −2 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 Dimension 1 Dimension 2 on the other hand in the case of at the same tiomne the basis of tahte t heen as de well nodf tohfethe as the results of the in the present study the ways in which in the field of shown in table # the beginning of the with respect to the one of the most in other words the of the present study in the current study speakers of other languages in the absence of ## per cent of ina a r ewsauylt tohdfa ittfhfeerence between the two on the role of the time of the to rtehseu slttsu doyf tohfis study the students in the presented in table # as a function of the quality of the in the teaching of is important to note the participants in the the development of a on the development of by over them eenadn the osf course and standard of deviations of the present perfect a high level of participants in this study focus on form in as in the case languages other than English to account for the will be able to in which they are the findings of the −2 0 2 4 6 AL ELT IJAL LL LTR MLJ SLR System TESOLQ can be used to as can be seen on the assumption that more likely to be on the other hand it is possible to in the first place that is to say participants in this study in the current study a case study of over the course of the students in the by the end of of the present study in light of the
  • 21. −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 Telecommunications Mathematics in this paper we Nuclear.Science.Technology in the next section Electrical.Electronic.Engineering figure # shows the Metallurgy.Metallurgical.Engineering can be used to in fig # the in the sense that can be found in Computer.Science to the number of it is assumed that it is possible to in such a way the the way part in of which the the the complexity in terms quality ians of of of f the iag the urrees the it u#l can tt hthee be seen in other in words the same theit way is necessary to at the expense of the form of a thatt hthroeu ugshe t hoef use of on the toon bee h aabnled to is based on the the rest of the for the purpose of Physics Engineering the case of the the sum of the the cetnhtee rr aotfi oth oef the the other hand the ELTIJAL in the context of the as part usein of o tfh the teh eform of of the oufs teh eo ffact that Civil.Engineering by means of a that there is no at the same time a function of the with respect to the due to the fact at the beginning of for example in the to the use of is related to the the influence of the the fact that the the size of the as a means of thatto t htheere f aisc ta that the basis of the can bteh es esetrnu cinture of the in terms of theirto the analysis ensure that of the the as in theb cea nsoeted that the one of thea m laorsgte number of and the use of in the use of RELC the difference between the the extent to which TESSOysLtQem the degree to which the development of a it is important to the purpose of the table # shows the Oceanography it is clear that is one of the a wide range of Materials.Science is important to note arteh eg itvoepn o ifn t htaeble the relationship between the Earth.Science as well as the the differences between the difference table # between shows that the two important to note that in relation to the it should be noted should bteh en oetfefedc tt hoaf tthe in addition to the the end of the in spite of the as well as to as well as a the role of the the length of the it was found that by fact that General.Science the development of the than that of the the importance the for the first time the results otaf bthleiss # and # in view the as a result of in an attempt to the effects of the the surface of the the majority of the in a number of Chemistry to that of the of a number of despite the fact that to the presence of are presented in table between the two groups is interesting to note for the development of the taimree l iokfe tlyh eto be with the exception of it is not clear Forestry Fisheries a total of ## in the number of the magnitude of the with the use from ## to ## be due to the be related to the there was a significant Construction.Building.Technology was found to be ## and ## respectively an important role in it has been shown the level of the it is likely that Medicine Food.Science −2 −1 0 1 2 3 −4 −2 0 2 4 Dimension 1 Dimension 2 on other hand in the case of shown in fig # on the basis of in the presence of at end of as a function of in the present study in the absence of the results of the the nature of the as shown in fig shown in table # it is possible that is shown in fig the total number of in table # the at the time of has been shown to the beginning of the in this case the for each of the in the field of the use of a in contrast to the figs # and # of the present study shown in figure # between ## and ## fig # shows the as can be seen the presence of a at the level of given in table # is consistent with the in process of in the development of used in this study an increase in the in the target language it is difficult to the ways in which a result of the the presence of the as well as in on the part of is likely to be have been shown to in a variety of are shown in table with regard to the similar to that of the meaning of been shown to be a great deal of a wide variety of the performance of the to the development in this section we the purpose of this presented in table # is due to the the position of the play a role in is the number of in the coiut risse in otef resting to in this study the the value of the and the number of the context of the as shown in table were found to be on the use of in the current study of the number of may be due to there was no significant listed in table # in each of the is assumed to be in the range of in area of to account for the these results suggest that of the role of illustrated in fig # a small number of results otfh teh icso sutursdseyu omf mthaerized in table # by the presence of in this study were can be seen that for the purposes of the existence of a each the three play an important role of the effects of in a way that in this study we in light of interesting to note that of this study was presence or absence of of the order of that it is not in response to the studies have shown that −4 −2 0 2 4 AL LL LTR MLJ SLR Agriculture Biology Environmental.Sciences Applied Linguistics PERC
  • 24. Teaching lexical bundles • Word combinations “are so common, it might be assumed that lexical bundles are simple expressions, and that they will therefore be acquired easily” (Biber & Conrad, 1999, p. 188). • Professional vs. novice writers (Cortes, 2004) → "the use of these expressions by the students in this study, who were all native speakers of English at different university levels, was extremely rare."
  • 25. Teaching lexical bundles http://www.tesol.org/connect/tesol-resource-center/search-details/activities/ 2013/10/18/teaching-lexical-bundles-to-low-level-proficiency
  • 27. ! Depending on the purpose and level
  • 28. Teaching lexical bundles • ESP / EAP — LBs are useful and especially important in academic writing.! • Cortes, V. (2006). Teaching lexical bundles in the disciplines: An example from a writing intensive history class. Linguistics and Education, 17, 391–406. doi:10.1016/ j.linged.2007.02.001
  • 29. Teaching lexical bundles • Cortes (2006) - History class (writing-intensive) - 20-minute (5 times in 10 weeks) - Exercises (e.g., fill in the blanks, MC, error correction)—Lexical approach (Lewis, 2000) - Target bundles: on the other hand, as well as the, some of the most, as part of the, as a matter of, as a result of, on the basis of, by the end of, in the age of
  • 32. Teaching lexical bundles • Cortes (2006, p. 391) "The findings of the study reflected no difference between pre- and post-instruction production of lexical bundles but they indicated an increase in students’ awareness of and interest in these expressions."! • In general: results are not very positive
  • 33. Schmitt (2005, p. 37) "their use as ‘building blocks’ of language (i.e., often not realizing meaning content in their own right) suggests that they may be less amenable to explicit teaching, simply because the form-meaning relationship is less transparent. However, some of the lexical bundles identified by Biber et al. (1999), entail a clear meaning (e.g., I don’t know, I want to, on the other hand), and these cases may well be worth teaching."
  • 34. Teaching LB = Plagiarism? "When I first began teaching writing, I often focused on helping students be creative. I encouraged more diversity in vocabulary and more creative word use. From corpus-based research, I have learned that using the typical language structures for certain meanings is actually a sign of proficiency. Using these bundles is not plagiarism; it is a matter of giving readers expected forms that they read efficiently" (Conrad, 2008, p. 125).
  • 35. Teaching LB = Plagiarism? "Skillful incorporation of academic-sounding lexical bundles will help students sound more like they belong in the academic discourse community of which they they wish to be members . . . As to the plagiarism question, no one could reasonably argue that phrases such as studies have shown that are copyrighted and owned by any author in particular" (Ferris, 2011).
  • 36. Ways to maximize the effects of teaching LB • Data-driven learning (DDL) • Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
  • 37. Ways to maximize the effects of teaching LB • Data-driven learning (DDL) • Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
  • 38. Ways to maximize the effects of teaching LB • Data-driven learning (DDL) Chujo et al. (2012)
  • 39. DDL • Cobb and Boulton (in press) Pre/post-test (k = 8) d = 1.68, 95% CI [1.36, 2.00] Experimental/control (k = 13) d = 0.73, 95% CI [0.83, 1.25] • Chujo et al. (2013) Pre/post-test (k = 9) d = 1.26, 95% CI [1.05, 1.47] * Low level * Computer-/ Paper-based
  • 40. Ways to maximize the effects of teaching LB • Data-driven learning (DDL) • Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
  • 41. Ways to maximize the effects of teaching LB • Data-driven learning (DDL) • Focusing on (rhetorical) "moves"
  • 42. Typical Lexical Bundles for Hedging (Conrad, 2008) it is possible that it is likely that it may be that may be due to is/are likely to be does not seem to be does not appear to be What section do they most occur in? - Introduction - Methods - Results - Discussion*
  • 43. "moves" • CARS (Create a Research Space) • IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion)
  • 45. "Thank you very much." The 4-word lexical bundle dedicated to Dr. Hiroaki "Keiroh" Maeda (1974–2014). He will be remembered always and forever.
  • 46. Highlights • Lexical bundles = More than just n-grams = disciplinary/discourse variations • Teaching LB is important and necessary in academic writing (EAP/ESP). • Effects of teaching LB could be enhanced by using DDL and focusing on moves.