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Insight into Innovative Decentralized
Wastewater Technologies
Barbara Siembida-Lösch
Gordon Balch, Heather Broadbent
Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment, Fleming College,
Lindsay,
2015 Annual OOWA Conference & Trade Show, Tuesday, March 24th, 2015, Niagara
Falls, Ontario
Outline
• Advanced Treatment Technologies
– residential, communal, and commercial systems
• Legal Framework and Performance Validation
Standards
• CAWT - Applied Research
 case study on phosphorus removal
• Future of Decentralized Treatment
2
Advanced Treatment Systems
3
SepticSmart 2010
or suspended
Advanced Treatment Systems
4
Conventional
Systems
Advanced
Systems
Septic tank or
advanced
treatment unit
30-50% 50-70%
Soil ca. 90% ca. 10%
Legal Framework for Advanced
Treatment Systems
• The Ontario Building Code, Part 8: Sewage
Systems, regulates a number of different classes of
onsite sewage systems up to 10,000 l/d (larger
systems are regulated by the Ministry of the
Environment)
• Class 4, typically applied to conventional onsite
systems, is intended to minimize pathogens
released into the environment
– may also include secondary and tertiary (advanced)
treatment systems located between septic tank and
leaching bed
5
Approval of Advanced Treatment
Systems
• Several advanced systems, listed under the
Supplementary Standards SB-5 to the
Building Code were evaluated by the Ministry
of the Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH)
• The following performance criteria must be
met:
– testing and certification by the NSF
International (U.S.-based) standard
– consideration of Ontario’s
environmental/climatic conditions
– evidence of in-field performance
6
Approval Performance Criteria
• As of January1, 2014, the treatment unit effluent
criteria have changed
• These performance criteria now match up with
the national CAN/BNQ 3680-600, “Onsite
Residential Wastewater Treatment technologies”
• The SB-5 units must meet the CAN/BNQ 3680-
600 before January 1, 2017!
7
Secondary quality
effl.
Tertiary quality effluent
SB-5 Advanced Treatment Systems
8
9
Advanced Treatment Systems
• Homeowners may want to consider the advanced
systems when:
- properties have inadequate conditions for conventional
systems (e.g., heavy clays, shallow soils, high water
table, etc.)
- limited space to accommodate the size of a
conventional leaching bed
- wanting to provide additional protection to groundwater
by additional nitrate reduction (only some of the
treatment units can reduce nitrate)
Enhanced Nitrogen Removal
(stationary fixed film)
10
Anoxic Aerobic Clarifier
Denitrification Nitrification
+
BOD removal
Denitrification
• 2.3 g BOD per g NO3-N
• 3.02 g organic matter per g NO3-N
• Heterotrophic bacteria for generation of carbon source
• Significant portion of BOD generally consumed during nitrification, leaving little
for denitrification
High in
BOD &
NH4
Return unconsumed
Carbon
Moving Bed BioReactor
(MBBR)
11
• Small foot
print
• Very efficient
• Up to 5Xs
biofilm
• Does require
pumps and
aeration
Treatment Options
Domestic
 Conventional Septic Systems
 Advanced Wastewater Treatment
• Microbial (suspended or fixed) ± aeration
• Physical filtration ± aeration
Alternative
 Constructed Wetlands
 Engineered Bio Reactors (e.g., S-reducing Bacteria for
Arsenic)
 Sorptive media for Phosphorus removal
 Moving Bed Bio Reactors for Oxidized N
 Ozone
 UV
 Membrane Bioreactors
 others
12
CAWT is active in the
following sectors:
• Mining
• Agriculture
• Aquaculture
• Oil & gas
• Pulp & paper
• Food, etc.
Phosphorous adsorptive media
for Stormwater runoff
15
• Monitoring studies have identified issues pertaining to leaching of
phosphorus from compost-containing bioretention installations
• A pilot study was conducted to assess the phosphorus removal
performance of bioretention soil mix amended with Imbrium Systems
Sorbtive®Media AI 28x48
• Sorbtive®Media is an engineered granular media containing aluminum
oxide and iron oxide
Material and Methods
16
Header Tank 3
Header Tank 2
Header Tank 1
Bioretention Cell 3
Bioretention Cell 2
Bioretention Cell 1
Ball valve
Sump pump with series of ball
valves to control flow rate
Well water inflow
Outflow to Retention
Pond
Side view
Bioretention Cell 4Header Tank 4
Header Tank 5 Bioretention Cell 5
Collection
Tank
Artificial Stormwater Composition
17
• 1000 L stormwater was spiked with KH2PO4
• Four target concentrations applied in order the lowest to the highest
(0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 mg/L)
• Ionic compounds were added to simulate the typical matrix of
stormwater
Target P-basis
concentration
Average TDP
measured value
% of
target
Average TP
measured value
% of
target
(mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
0.2 0.11 56 0.16 78
0.4 0.28 70 0.36 89
0.6 0.46 76 0.54 90
0.8 0.65 82 0.72 90
• Measured phosphorus concentrations were consistently lower than
the target
• The deviations decreased as the target concentration increased
• Dissolved phosphorus concentrations were consistently lower than
total
Bioretention Soil Mix Composition
18
Cell Number
Soil Mix Composition (% by volume)
Sand Peat Moss Sorbtive®Media
Bioretention Cell 1
(control)
85% 15% 0%
Bioretention Cell 2 82% 15% 3%
Bioretention Cell 3 80% 15% 5%
Bioretention Cell 4 75% 15% 10%
Bioretention Cell 5 68% 15% 17%
Layers
• Bottom layer: 15 cm of ½-inch stone
• Middle layer: 3 cm of sand
• Top layer: 50 cm of soil mix
Phosphorus Removal Performance
19
• The measured concentration difference between
the effluent and header tank was multiplied by five
to estimate phosphorus retained for a given week
• Calculated values were summed for all twenty
weeks
Cumulative Retained Phosphorus Mass
20
Cumulative mass of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) retained in
each bioretention cell
21
Cumulative mass of total phosphorus (TP) retained in each
bioretention cell
Phosphorus Removal Performance
22
• The percent removal efficiency = (header tank
concentration – effluent concentration)/(header
tank concentration)
• Calculated percent values were averaged for five
weeks
Percent Removal of Phosphorus
23
Percent removal of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) for each
bioretention cell at each of four different target phosphorus
concentrations
24
Percent removal of total phosphorus (TP) for each bioretention
cell at each of four different target phosphorus concentrations
Conclusions
25
• Phosphorus removal using a sand/peat
soil mix can be greatly enhanced
through amendment with Sorbtive®
Media.
• Sorbtive® Media amended bioretention
cells demonstrated much greater
removal of dissolved and total
phosphorus.
• Removal efficiency of the amended
cells reached upwards to 99% and at
least 84% for the duration of the study.
• Effluent pH is relatively unaffected.
Thank you!
Future of Decentralized Treatment
27
• Growth of cluster and other decentralized
systems
• Recycling treated effluents
• Management program for onsite systems
• May see greater need for advanced treatment
systems for Nitrate and Phosphorous in
relationship to source water protection
• The global warming potential of septic tanks and
other advanced technologies
Questions?
Contact information:
Barbara Siembida-Lösch
barbara.siembida-losch@flemingcollege.caollege.cac
Ionic Compound
Quantity of salt
added per 990 L
(g)
Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 123.81
Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 ) 24.50
Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) 23.35
Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) 2.81
Potassium Chloride (KCl) 2.59
Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate ( MgCl2.6H2O) 5.66
Quantity of salts added to 990 L of well water to create artificial
stormwater
• Ionic compounds were added to simulate the typical matrix of
stormwater
• The matrix remained standardized

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Insight into Innovative Decentralized Wastewater Technologies

  • 1. Insight into Innovative Decentralized Wastewater Technologies Barbara Siembida-Lösch Gordon Balch, Heather Broadbent Centre for Alternative Wastewater Treatment, Fleming College, Lindsay, 2015 Annual OOWA Conference & Trade Show, Tuesday, March 24th, 2015, Niagara Falls, Ontario
  • 2. Outline • Advanced Treatment Technologies – residential, communal, and commercial systems • Legal Framework and Performance Validation Standards • CAWT - Applied Research  case study on phosphorus removal • Future of Decentralized Treatment 2
  • 4. Advanced Treatment Systems 4 Conventional Systems Advanced Systems Septic tank or advanced treatment unit 30-50% 50-70% Soil ca. 90% ca. 10%
  • 5. Legal Framework for Advanced Treatment Systems • The Ontario Building Code, Part 8: Sewage Systems, regulates a number of different classes of onsite sewage systems up to 10,000 l/d (larger systems are regulated by the Ministry of the Environment) • Class 4, typically applied to conventional onsite systems, is intended to minimize pathogens released into the environment – may also include secondary and tertiary (advanced) treatment systems located between septic tank and leaching bed 5
  • 6. Approval of Advanced Treatment Systems • Several advanced systems, listed under the Supplementary Standards SB-5 to the Building Code were evaluated by the Ministry of the Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH) • The following performance criteria must be met: – testing and certification by the NSF International (U.S.-based) standard – consideration of Ontario’s environmental/climatic conditions – evidence of in-field performance 6
  • 7. Approval Performance Criteria • As of January1, 2014, the treatment unit effluent criteria have changed • These performance criteria now match up with the national CAN/BNQ 3680-600, “Onsite Residential Wastewater Treatment technologies” • The SB-5 units must meet the CAN/BNQ 3680- 600 before January 1, 2017! 7 Secondary quality effl. Tertiary quality effluent
  • 9. 9 Advanced Treatment Systems • Homeowners may want to consider the advanced systems when: - properties have inadequate conditions for conventional systems (e.g., heavy clays, shallow soils, high water table, etc.) - limited space to accommodate the size of a conventional leaching bed - wanting to provide additional protection to groundwater by additional nitrate reduction (only some of the treatment units can reduce nitrate)
  • 10. Enhanced Nitrogen Removal (stationary fixed film) 10 Anoxic Aerobic Clarifier Denitrification Nitrification + BOD removal Denitrification • 2.3 g BOD per g NO3-N • 3.02 g organic matter per g NO3-N • Heterotrophic bacteria for generation of carbon source • Significant portion of BOD generally consumed during nitrification, leaving little for denitrification High in BOD & NH4 Return unconsumed Carbon
  • 11. Moving Bed BioReactor (MBBR) 11 • Small foot print • Very efficient • Up to 5Xs biofilm • Does require pumps and aeration
  • 12. Treatment Options Domestic  Conventional Septic Systems  Advanced Wastewater Treatment • Microbial (suspended or fixed) ± aeration • Physical filtration ± aeration Alternative  Constructed Wetlands  Engineered Bio Reactors (e.g., S-reducing Bacteria for Arsenic)  Sorptive media for Phosphorus removal  Moving Bed Bio Reactors for Oxidized N  Ozone  UV  Membrane Bioreactors  others 12
  • 13. CAWT is active in the following sectors: • Mining • Agriculture • Aquaculture • Oil & gas • Pulp & paper • Food, etc.
  • 14.
  • 15. Phosphorous adsorptive media for Stormwater runoff 15 • Monitoring studies have identified issues pertaining to leaching of phosphorus from compost-containing bioretention installations • A pilot study was conducted to assess the phosphorus removal performance of bioretention soil mix amended with Imbrium Systems Sorbtive®Media AI 28x48 • Sorbtive®Media is an engineered granular media containing aluminum oxide and iron oxide
  • 16. Material and Methods 16 Header Tank 3 Header Tank 2 Header Tank 1 Bioretention Cell 3 Bioretention Cell 2 Bioretention Cell 1 Ball valve Sump pump with series of ball valves to control flow rate Well water inflow Outflow to Retention Pond Side view Bioretention Cell 4Header Tank 4 Header Tank 5 Bioretention Cell 5 Collection Tank
  • 17. Artificial Stormwater Composition 17 • 1000 L stormwater was spiked with KH2PO4 • Four target concentrations applied in order the lowest to the highest (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 mg/L) • Ionic compounds were added to simulate the typical matrix of stormwater Target P-basis concentration Average TDP measured value % of target Average TP measured value % of target (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) 0.2 0.11 56 0.16 78 0.4 0.28 70 0.36 89 0.6 0.46 76 0.54 90 0.8 0.65 82 0.72 90 • Measured phosphorus concentrations were consistently lower than the target • The deviations decreased as the target concentration increased • Dissolved phosphorus concentrations were consistently lower than total
  • 18. Bioretention Soil Mix Composition 18 Cell Number Soil Mix Composition (% by volume) Sand Peat Moss Sorbtive®Media Bioretention Cell 1 (control) 85% 15% 0% Bioretention Cell 2 82% 15% 3% Bioretention Cell 3 80% 15% 5% Bioretention Cell 4 75% 15% 10% Bioretention Cell 5 68% 15% 17% Layers • Bottom layer: 15 cm of ½-inch stone • Middle layer: 3 cm of sand • Top layer: 50 cm of soil mix
  • 19. Phosphorus Removal Performance 19 • The measured concentration difference between the effluent and header tank was multiplied by five to estimate phosphorus retained for a given week • Calculated values were summed for all twenty weeks Cumulative Retained Phosphorus Mass
  • 20. 20 Cumulative mass of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) retained in each bioretention cell
  • 21. 21 Cumulative mass of total phosphorus (TP) retained in each bioretention cell
  • 22. Phosphorus Removal Performance 22 • The percent removal efficiency = (header tank concentration – effluent concentration)/(header tank concentration) • Calculated percent values were averaged for five weeks Percent Removal of Phosphorus
  • 23. 23 Percent removal of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) for each bioretention cell at each of four different target phosphorus concentrations
  • 24. 24 Percent removal of total phosphorus (TP) for each bioretention cell at each of four different target phosphorus concentrations
  • 25. Conclusions 25 • Phosphorus removal using a sand/peat soil mix can be greatly enhanced through amendment with Sorbtive® Media. • Sorbtive® Media amended bioretention cells demonstrated much greater removal of dissolved and total phosphorus. • Removal efficiency of the amended cells reached upwards to 99% and at least 84% for the duration of the study. • Effluent pH is relatively unaffected.
  • 27. Future of Decentralized Treatment 27 • Growth of cluster and other decentralized systems • Recycling treated effluents • Management program for onsite systems • May see greater need for advanced treatment systems for Nitrate and Phosphorous in relationship to source water protection • The global warming potential of septic tanks and other advanced technologies
  • 29. Ionic Compound Quantity of salt added per 990 L (g) Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 123.81 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 ) 24.50 Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) 23.35 Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) 2.81 Potassium Chloride (KCl) 2.59 Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate ( MgCl2.6H2O) 5.66 Quantity of salts added to 990 L of well water to create artificial stormwater • Ionic compounds were added to simulate the typical matrix of stormwater • The matrix remained standardized