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Individual Case Instructions
You will identify a problem that requires a change initiative
through an organization with which you are associated. You will
develop the final case by clearly explaining the problem, by
including background, and by completing all of the tasks that
are identified below. If you are uncomfortable with using your
organization or do not have sufficient visibility to a problem in
your organization, you may use theNo Good Deedcase instead.
Here are the tasks to be completed:
1. Use the 6681 case outline mar9'17 (1).docxDownload 6681
case outline mar9'17 (1).docx to help you structure the case in a
logical manner.
2. Identify the symptoms that trigger your awareness of the need
for change. This is a short explanation that does not require you
to describe everything about your organization. Instead, list the
set of symptoms that arise from your organization’s current
manner of doing business.
3. Choose one of the following diagnostic models and explain
each and every component of that model to fully analyze where
the real problem exists.
1. The diagnostic models that you may use are: Six-Box, 7-S, or
Star. To use these models correctly, you must discuss,
comprehensively, each component of the model as it relates to
the case.
2. Do not describe the model for the reader. Instead, explain
why you chose the model that you chose as the diagnostic guide.
3. Then, explain your analysis of each model component.
4. Do NOT give recommendations in this section. This section
is about analysis only. The analysis section describes current
conditions.
4. Explain, in detail, the external factors that are impacting
change as they relate to this case. Complete the external table
found in Elements of a case.docxDownload Elements of a
case.docx using the external factors table and the 6681 PESTLE
Analysis.docxDownload 6681 PESTLE Analysis.docx that
specifically describe the factors of the external environment. If
you have a gap in the information in the table, look it up, and
provide current information to complete the table. Again,
do NOT make recommendations in this section of the
case/change plan. Do not tell me what should happen or what
you want to see. Describe ONLY what you find as you analyze
the information you have looked about the external environment
of this industry. Follow the instructions from the lecture videos.
5. Explain, in detail, why the external forces so important to
this situation.
6. Explain, in detail, the internal factors that are impacting
change as the relate to this case. Complete the internal tables
found in Elements of a case.docxDownload Elements of a
case.docxthat specifically describe the factors of the internal
environment. You will find two internal tables that you will
complete. If you have a gap in the information in the table, look
it up, and provide current information to complete the table.
7. Analyze/ Map the organization’s culture by explaining each
component of the Cultural Web as it relates to the case. What
are the notable aspects of the culture?
8. Diagnose structural dilemmas by using Table 5.10. You will
need to reproduce the table to show your analysis. (Did you
include your findings here in your large diagnosis model in
question 6 above? If not, you missed something.) You MUST
interpret the meaning of the score for your client, not in generic
terms, but in terms that apply directly to your client.
9. Assess the organization’s readiness to change by using the
table found in exercise 4.3. You will need to reproduce the table
to show your analysis. Interpret the results of the table.
I. Note: At this point, analysis is completed. You should see all
of the pieces fitting neatly together, such that readiness for
change is noted as either a strength or weakness, structural
dilemmas are classified as either a strength or weakness, and
opportunities and threats are all conditions over which the
organization has no control. They simply exist and must be
taken into consideration before you make you recommendations.
1. Identify your recommendation for either first-order or
second-order change and provide a short explanation about why
you chose this level of change. Be explicit.
1. Design and include a plan for addressing resistance to
change.
1. Explain the lessons that you want learned from your story of
how your organization needs to change. Tell them why.
1. Explain the image of change management that you are using
and why.
1. Using Kotter's 8 Step plan as a model, create an
implementation plan. Be specific by giving dates, timelines,
accountable parties, champions, and anything else that will help
your plan be completed as you intend for it to be completed.
Spell your plan out with steps and graphics. Do NOT give a
generic description of what you wish will happen. Instead, give
the reader a well-developed set of action steps and dates to
guide the organization through the change.
1. Design a communication plan for this change initiative. Be
very specific about how this will be handled.
1. Design an evaluation plan. How will you evaluate your plan?
That is, how will you know that your initiative is successful?
What are the specific markers that will indicate the success of
your change plan? Higher revenues? More transfer of training?
Fewer complaints. You must be specific about what your
measures of success will be.
1. Format, format, format. Make your paper easy to read by
including subheadings for each new piece. Without formatting,
your case is just a jumble of words that lose meaning and
context. Use color. Use graphics. Use figures. Use tables. Use
whatever it takes to keep your reader engaged and wanting to
read more. If the reader looks at a page that is all words and
more words on the next page, your reader will get lost and
disengage from the presentation.
1. Write a conclusion to this piece.
DBA 705 IEE Statement Paper Guidelines
Based on your own interest, choose a contemporary management
issue. Locate four related peer-reviewed articles. You will be
using these same four articles for each of the following
statements.
1. A ONE PAGE integrativestatement of the major themes,
similarities, and differences that run though the articles you
found for each module. This should synthesize, and not just
summarize the summaries. No more than one page per set of
readings.
2. A ONE PAGE evaluativestatement of your perception of the
state of the literature on the topic. A critical evaluation, not
just a summary of the summaries. No more than one page per
set of readings.
3. A ONE PAGE extensionstatement, outlining future research
directions (including theoretical directions) for each module.
This should be creative and flow from your extension statement.
No more than one page per set of readings. Questions it should
address could include:
· Where does the research need to go?
· What are unanswered questions that should be addressed?
· What are the implications for the field?
· Are there any trends suggested?
IEE Paper 1 – is due Wednesday by 8 am (before class starts)
IEE Paper 2 – is due Thursday by 8 am (before class starts)
IEE Paper 3 – is due Friday by 8 am (before colloquia starts)
Case Outline
I. Introduction – Take the perspective that you are a consultant
to the organization and they have hired you to help with their
problem. Do not repeat the text of the case. Set assumptions.
For example, when did this happen? Yesterday? Last year?
Describe the environment relative to the time, place, and
industry involved. Introduce the work that will be accomplished
to provide a full plan.
II. Analysis
a. External Analysis – no bullets, explain why you included the
factors as opportunities or threats. Support this portion of the
case with research.
b. Internal Analysis- no bullets, explain why you included the
factors as opportunities or threats
i. Diagnostic model that fits the problem. Talk about each piece
of the model as it relates to the organization. Support this
portion of the case with research. Justify your decision to use
your model. Use the models that are in the text.
ii. Cultural Web
iii. Structural Dilemmas
III. Formulation – strategy(ies)/initiatives that will be used to
resolve the problem. Do not suggest a remedy, e.g. using the
phrase “the company should…”. Instead, tell the organization
directly what must happen for them to succeed. These are
recommendations that follow directly from your analysis. For
example, if you determine that the organization is functioning
in a changing industry, e.g. radio and television, your initiatives
need to address that problem as it relates to the central issue. In
the case of McDs, how would using television and radio remedy
the problem of lack of consumer information?
IV. Implementation – Kotter’s Eight Step Model. Each step
defines the action steps that must happen for EACH initiative to
take place. Be very specific – for example, if you want training
to happen, you need to say how many hours of training, who
will be trained, the date by which everyone must be trained,
and any other details that will help the organization do exactly
what it needs to do to successfully change.
a. Plan to address resistance
b. Communication plan
c. Image of change
d. Lessons learned
V. Evaluation – who collects the data? What are the measures?
When are they due? To whom are the results reported? Again,
be very specific. Make this a table that follows all other
portions of your
VI. Conclusion
A Case for Change
Every change plan has several elements. When treated
appropriately, those elements work together to create a change
plan that is aligned from the moment the consumer begins
reading or listening. Everything must work with everything else
to keep the plan on track as a fundamental guide to how you
want a specific change or set of changes to take place. Those
elements are analysis, formulation, implementation, and
evaluation. You will see that the chapters in your text support
your work as you learn to develop each of these elements.
Analysis
The analysis phase of the case deals with a scan of external
factors that impact the organization as well as an internal scan
of factors. Below, you will see a table that is designed for your
use in categorizing external factors that impact the organization.
You can type into this table as you work through your analysis
to help organize your work.
Opportunities are advantages that belong to an entire industry,
and the individual organization does not have control over
them. OPEC reduces the price of crude, so oil companies can
reduce the price of gas. The result is that more people buy more
gas. The fuel industry has the opportunity to sell more gas.
Threats are disadvantages that belong to an entire industry, and
the individual organization does not have control over them. For
example, the crash of the housing bubble caused many
companies to fail if they were associated with housing. The
housing industry suffered. Higher gas prices cause people to
buy fewer and smaller cars. The automobile industry suffered. A
health conscious society results in the consumption of fewer
soft drinks. The soft drink industry suffered.
Environmental Pressures
Opportunity
Threat
Fashion
Mandate
Geopolitical
Market decline
Hypercompetition
Below, you will see a table that is designed for your use in
categorizing internal factors that impact the organization.
Strengths are advantages that belong to a single company, and
the company exercises control over the ability to build this
advantage. For example, no matter where I go in the world, I
can recognize a Coca-Cola can. Coke has the strongest brand
identity in the world, because they spent countless dollars
building and exporting their brand. Troy University is #3 in the
United States for technology and information security, because
we have spent many man hours as well as dollars to insure the
safety and security of our information.
Weaknesses are disadvantages that belong to a single company,
and the company exercises control over the ability to build this
disadvantage. For example, a university (not in the U.S.)
recently told me that they had been through four presidents in
the last five years. The impact is that this university is suffering
from new broom changes, many of which have not been allowed
to play out over the course of time. The university is struggling
to keep enrollments up and to provide good service to their
students.
Organizational Pressures
Strength
Weakness
Growth
Integration and collaboration
Identity
New broom
Power and politics
Below, you will see a table that is designed for your use in
categorizing organizational functions that can support or impede
change.
Organizational functions
Strength
Weakness
Management
Marketing
Accounting/Finance
Information systems
Research and development
Analysis is a description only of the factors that will impact the
organization’s need to change. This is not the place to discuss
what strategies need to take place nor is this the place to
introduce your recommendations. Analysis is only a description,
albeit a very detailed description. This is the place to do some
research on the industry and the environment, because many
organizations are simply not familiar with the overall
environment of the industry. Often, they internalize their
problems as “I’m just not good enough” when there are other
factors that contribute to the problem.
Formulation
This is the piece that addresses the goals and strategies that you
recommend for change. Take on the persona of an outside
consultant, and set goals and strategies in an assertive manner.
For example, do not tell the organization that it should improve
sales. That is far too generic and will not help the organization
improve its bottom line. Instead, tell the organization HOW to
improve its sales. Give the organization a set of goals and
strategies that help it to improve sales. Make recommendations
in a straightforward and knowledgeable manner that will help
people in the organization want to change.
Implementation
This is the piece that describes the set of action steps that you
want to see to fulfill the goals and strategies that you created in
the formulation phase. For example, if the goal is to improve
sales and if the strategy is to improve sales through market
penetration, you want to hire more sales people to help cover
the market. The first step in this is to have the HR department
hire more sales people. Tell HR how many people you want to
hire and when those people need to be on the job. In this phase,
you need to be very specific about dates, timelines, who is
responsible, how many of what, and all the details that will help
your change plan become a reality.
Evaluation
Evaluation is a simple phase if your work in the implementation
phase was detailed and provided quantitative expectations. For
example, if you told the company to hire 10 sales people by
Nov. 1, 2013, the measure is quite simple. Did the company hire
10 sales people by Nov. 1, 2013? If not, why not?
For evaluation, I suggest that you create a table that includes
the following columns:
Which action step are you measuring? Who is responsible for
reporting results? To whom is that person reporting? When is
the outcome expected? How will the outcome be measured?
What is the expected outcome? Was the outcome met? (This is a
yes or no. Keep it simple and straightforward.)
As you work through your cases we will add a piece to each
case. The “No Good Deed” case focuses on analysis and
formulation. In McDonald’s, we will add implementation.
Finally, in your personal project case, we will add evaluation.
The key to developing a case for change is organization, so
keep this as organized and straightforward as you can. This is
not meant to be tricky, because if it is too tricky, people will
not understand your plan and become resistant immediately. I
prefer plans that answer questions before they can be asked.
Imagine you presenting this case and having the following
conversation during the presentation.
“Why do we need to do this?”
“We need to do this because….. You will find that on page 14.”
If you want to learn to think outside of the box, this is the time
to do it. Anticipate questions and give details. Stay away from
generic directions, such as “You should do more marketing”
and go toward, “We need to spend X dollars on your marketing
over the next 6 months to improve your market share.” When
you evaluate your plan, you can measure dollars, time, and
market share.
PAGE
1
WHEN NO GOOD DEED GOES UNPUNISHED:
THE CASE OF THE MISPRINTED PHONE NUMBER
ABSTRACT
Mark volunteered to help with the community arts festival; he
was supporting the not-for-profit organization as he had in the
past. However, he did not know his good intentions as a
volunteer would cost him his job as an assistant manager. The
retail store’s phone number was printed in the festival
advertising in error and ticket requests overloaded the phone
lines, causing loss of business and annoyed the store manager.
As a result, Mark was seen as the cause of the problems and
terminated. The Board of Directors did not respond to his
request for an investigation, leaving Mark without a job and
wondering what had happened to cause an unhappy experience
when he had such good intentions.
Teaching objectives:
· Identify the impact of substantive areas of organizational
behavior in a realistic scenario
· Define how various leadership and motivational models may
be used best to improve productivity and job satisfaction within
organizations.
· Demonstrate how various leadership and motivational models
may be used best to improve productivity and job satisfaction
within organizations
· Demonstrate the importance of an ethical approach to business
· Provide an example of how various aspects of organizational
life can create negative impacts internal and external to the
organization
· Provide an opportunity for critical thinking as noted through
multiple opportunities to incorporate theory and resolve
problems
· Apply organizational-behavior strategies to management
scenarios utilizing a systems approach
· Discuss methods for undertaking planned-change programs
within organizations.
· Create realistic problem resolutions
· Create realistic action plans
Mark, the Volunteer
Mark is an employee of a small community drugstore and has
volunteered for different assignments with nonprofit agencies.
One of the assignments he thinks that he will enjoy the most is
working as a member of the core committee which organizes
and runs the yearly community festival for the neighborhood.
Because of his experience with community events, Mark has
been placed in charge of logistics coordination, planning,
security, and public safety. While this appears to be an
extensive workload, Mark has a great deal of previous
experience and understands the tasks that need to be completed.
Because the planning for the festival started a year in advance,
he knows that as the festival grows closer there will be
additional volunteers to assist him, so he will not be
individually responsible for each one of these areas; for now,
the workload is sufficient for one person.
The Community Festival
The community festival is a nonprofit organization that has a
tax exempt status as well as a history of over 20 years. The
organization and the event are run by a board of directors and a
small, permanent staff composed of no more than five
employees at any given time. The goal of the festival is to
promote local arts and crafts and to support local artists by
providing a venue through which they can sell their work,
advertise their work, and develop and expand their customer
base. Because the festival has been held for many years, it is
well-known in the area and typically attracts supporters of the
arts and owners of small and independent art galleries as well as
boutique and specialty stores owners who are in search of
unique forms of art for clientele. As a result, the festival has
established a reputation as a well-known venue for local art.
One of the unique aspects of this festival is that it has enjoyed
growth and continuity within the community even though the
community itself was part of a much larger metropolitan area in
the southwestern United States. The identity of the festival has
remained intact and is considered a part of the local community.
Part of the mission of the community festival Board of
Directors is to educate the community about art in addition to
creating a venue for creative expression. During its growth, the
festival’s mission gradually expanded to include educational
and other programs which run throughout the year. However, in
recent times local artists who used to be yearly participants
have drifted away and local funding used to support the festival
is diminishing, because fewer and fewer local artists were
participating. As a result, the Board of Directors focused on
bringing in a nationally known talent and artists in various
fields to attract more participants. Because local funding was
lost, more funding now is being sought through grants. The
focus of the festival is gradually changing from community
artists to a broader scope and more national talent.
The Community Festival Organization
The nonprofit agency that was charged with running the
community festival was made up of a Board of Directors
consisting of 10 appointed positions, including three to five
permanent staff members, one of whom is the supervisor. The
supervisor works at many of the same jobs as the staff members
to support the agency. The supervisor believes that ever yone
who works at the agency shares her love of the arts and uses a
laissez-faire management style with the other staff members.
The supervisor believes everyone hired at the non-profit
understands the need to support the organization, and employees
should not need specific instructions to do so; this is the general
opinion also held by the Board. Because the permanent staff is
so small, formal training for the supervisor and staff is not
conducted, primarily because of the lack of funds for training.
All funds are used for the festival and the programs, and the
prevailing attitude is that employees can learn from each other.
Although the nonprofit agency has a mission to support local
artists, the Board of Directors sees no need to take the time to
develop specifics such as rules of conduct, expected behaviors,
or guidelines. The supervisor follows this example, because she
believes that it is important to use their time for the festival and
the programs instead of the permanent staff, especially because
the staff can be managed one-on-one if training needs are
identified. The primary support for the agency initially came
from individual donators and, later on, more grants which
supported the annual event and the ongoing educational
programs. The Board of Directors itself consists primarily of
those who support the arts and the community. Some are serving
as political appointees and none of the members has any
experience in running a business. Volunteers have noted in the
past how there are inconsistencie s in the decisions coming from
the Board of Directors, depending on personal interests and
sometimes as favors for friends.
Volunteers and Staffing
Staffing is always a challenge for supervisor and the Board of
Directors. Many who have the interest and the inclination to
volunteer hold full-time jobs, and many of those jobs were
outside of the community in the larger metropolitan area;
therefore, they have little time to donate because of the time it
takes to commute back and forth from their jobs. Nonetheless,
there are always some volunteers available, but there is turnover
from year to year depending on how much time individuals
could contribute, whether or not they have taken a full-time job
in another location, or whether they still remain in the
community.
In the past, a member of the Board of Directors has
acknowledged that staffing is a concern, because those who are
truly interested are not available, and sometimes, when seeking
volunteers, the organization has to “settle” for whoever shows
up. One of the primary concerns is that some of the volunteers
and the permanent staff have exhibited more interest in being
"in charge" than actually supporting the community festival.
When individuals are more worried about who is in charge
rather than what needs to be done, there has been an issue about
what priorities could actually be accomplished and whether
those were personal priorities or festival priorities.
Nevertheless, volunteers are still needed, so all volunteers are
accepted. Some volunteers have known each other for several
years, because they have worked together through the festival
organization, but there was always enough turnover to provide
the need for new volunteers every year.
Internal Issues
Some volunteers have speculated openly over the last few years
on the reasons why volunteers leave. The general consensus
among the volunteers is that personality conflicts or authority
conflicts with other volunteers, and even other staff members,
drove people away. On some occasions staff members were also
aware of political appointees by the Board of Directors. These
appointees were perceived by the general staff and volunteers to
be "untouchable" and their behavior beyond reproach. Poor
interpersonal experiences and ineffective conversations between
volunteers and staff members suggest that staff members are
frequently ineffective in their interactions with volunteers. Such
incidents, when they occur, are shared widely and quickly
among the volunteers through the organizational grapevine, a
highly effective communication method for relaying personal
dissatisfaction and personal events with the permanent staff and
other volunteers. One example of a personal experience is a
conversation where a permanent staff member told a volunteer
"if you don't like the way I do things….then you can just leave.
We can always get more volunteers". A witness to that
conversation indicates that the permanent staff member has this
same attitude with other volunteers and has repeated the same
comment or similar comments to other individuals in the
organization on various occasions. Permanent staff members
have also developed a tendency to blame volunteers if
something does not go as planned or if something unplanned
occurs in a manner that causes problems. Volunteers have the
perception that they are the ‘scapegoats’ for the staff and, by
default, for the Board of Directors. This has precipitated a
perception that staff members hold themselves in higher esteem
and at a different level than the volunteers. Volunteers have
become very sensitive to this and discuss it frequently.
External Issues
Local artists who have regularly participated in the festival
provide anecdotal support about similar interactions with
permanent staff. One of the artists indicates that he feels as if
he is an "intruder" when trying to obtain information about
dates and events for the upcoming festival. Others report a
similar lack of responsiveness; more specifically, phone calls
are not returned while other artists note a ‘rude’ tone of voice
and curt treatment by staff members. A number of the artists
who have participated in the past have now elected not to apply
for a vendor position for the upcoming festival. The loss of
local artists has also contributed to the community festival ne ed
to focus on nationally known talent to generate revenues and
interest that have been forfeited through the loss of local artists.
Implementing the Community Festival
About six months before the community festival was scheduled,
the Board of Directors proceeded with the normal activities
required to facilitate the festival. Some of these activities
included activating an 800 phone number to facilitate ticket
ordering, publishing the brochure for the festival, and
proceeding with efforts to advertise both inside the community
and outside the community about the upcoming festival. The
Board approved the brochures before they were printed and
distributed, reviewed all information for accuracy and
correctness, and then proceeded with the brochure printing.
The Brochure Incident
One day, Mark is at work in the drugstore where he serves as an
assistant manager when the first call comes through to order
tickets for the festival. Mark is quite surprised, because the
drugstore has nothing to do with the festival. Mark advises the
caller that this is the wrong number if the caller wishes to
purchase tickets. That same day, many more calls come in with
requests to purchase tickets for the festival. Mark is puzzled by
the number of phone calls, because he is certain that the phone
number is incorrect. He can think of no reason why people are
calling the 800 number of the drugstore and asking for festival
tickets. He checks with a member of the Board of Directors the
following day and discovers that the 800 number to order
tickets that is printed in the festival brochure is actually the 800
number of his drugstore. The phone calls have been very
disruptive to business in the drugstore.
After numerous complaints and pleas from the drugstore
manager to adjust the 800-number, the Board of Directors
discuss the problem and decide that the best interests of the
festival are served taking over the 800 phone number at the
drugstore and using it for the festival. This is completely
unacceptable for the drugstore, because it has used this 800
number for many years. The 800 number is integral to the
identity of the drugstore within the community. The drugstore
refuses to give the number to the community festival agency,
and the calls continue. Finally, the festival Board of Directors
request a correction be printed in the brochure, and the
correction to the 800-number is made on the front of the
brochure. None of the corrections are made inside the brochure
where the 800-number is listed multiple times. The Board of
Directors considers the "brochure incident" resolved. The calls
still continue at the drugstore.
Several days later Mark calls in to check on the days he is
scheduled to work in the coming week. At that time he is
informed by one of the drugstore employees that he has been
removed from the schedule, and the rumors are that the store
manager blames Mark for the phone number problem as well as
the lost business that resulted from the phone lines being tied
up by calls seeking tickets to the community festival. Mark is
fired because the store manager blames him as being ultimately
responsible for the incorrect phone number, the misdirected
phone calls, and the resulting loss of business.
What Happened?
In an effort to "clear the air" and prove that he is not
responsible, Mark approaches a member of the Board of
Directors of the festival organization and explains that he lost
his job over the misprinted phone number in the community
festival brochure. The Director with whom he speaks apologizes
for the problems and advises Mark to blame the store. The
Director suggests that he, perhaps, consider filing a lawsuit
against the store, because this is not an issue of the community
festival organization or of the Board of Directors but, instead,
between Mark and the drugstore. The Director also offers to
write a letter of recommendation to Mark if he needs this to find
another job. However, when Mark needs a letter of
recommendation and approaches the Director several weeks
later, the Director refuses to provide the letter. Mark is
frustrated, because he believes he is not being treated fairly. He
now writes a letter to the entire Board of Directors and explains
what has happened and asks for an investigation. He never
receives a response or any acknowledgment from the Board of
Directors about his request for an investigation or about the
letter addressed to the Board.
Individual Case InstructionsYou will identify a problem that req

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Individual Case InstructionsYou will identify a problem that req

  • 1. Individual Case Instructions You will identify a problem that requires a change initiative through an organization with which you are associated. You will develop the final case by clearly explaining the problem, by including background, and by completing all of the tasks that are identified below. If you are uncomfortable with using your organization or do not have sufficient visibility to a problem in your organization, you may use theNo Good Deedcase instead. Here are the tasks to be completed: 1. Use the 6681 case outline mar9'17 (1).docxDownload 6681 case outline mar9'17 (1).docx to help you structure the case in a logical manner. 2. Identify the symptoms that trigger your awareness of the need for change. This is a short explanation that does not require you to describe everything about your organization. Instead, list the set of symptoms that arise from your organization’s current manner of doing business. 3. Choose one of the following diagnostic models and explain each and every component of that model to fully analyze where the real problem exists. 1. The diagnostic models that you may use are: Six-Box, 7-S, or Star. To use these models correctly, you must discuss, comprehensively, each component of the model as it relates to the case. 2. Do not describe the model for the reader. Instead, explain why you chose the model that you chose as the diagnostic guide. 3. Then, explain your analysis of each model component. 4. Do NOT give recommendations in this section. This section is about analysis only. The analysis section describes current conditions.
  • 2. 4. Explain, in detail, the external factors that are impacting change as they relate to this case. Complete the external table found in Elements of a case.docxDownload Elements of a case.docx using the external factors table and the 6681 PESTLE Analysis.docxDownload 6681 PESTLE Analysis.docx that specifically describe the factors of the external environment. If you have a gap in the information in the table, look it up, and provide current information to complete the table. Again, do NOT make recommendations in this section of the case/change plan. Do not tell me what should happen or what you want to see. Describe ONLY what you find as you analyze the information you have looked about the external environment of this industry. Follow the instructions from the lecture videos. 5. Explain, in detail, why the external forces so important to this situation. 6. Explain, in detail, the internal factors that are impacting change as the relate to this case. Complete the internal tables found in Elements of a case.docxDownload Elements of a case.docxthat specifically describe the factors of the internal environment. You will find two internal tables that you will complete. If you have a gap in the information in the table, look it up, and provide current information to complete the table. 7. Analyze/ Map the organization’s culture by explaining each component of the Cultural Web as it relates to the case. What are the notable aspects of the culture? 8. Diagnose structural dilemmas by using Table 5.10. You will need to reproduce the table to show your analysis. (Did you include your findings here in your large diagnosis model in question 6 above? If not, you missed something.) You MUST interpret the meaning of the score for your client, not in generic terms, but in terms that apply directly to your client.
  • 3. 9. Assess the organization’s readiness to change by using the table found in exercise 4.3. You will need to reproduce the table to show your analysis. Interpret the results of the table. I. Note: At this point, analysis is completed. You should see all of the pieces fitting neatly together, such that readiness for change is noted as either a strength or weakness, structural dilemmas are classified as either a strength or weakness, and opportunities and threats are all conditions over which the organization has no control. They simply exist and must be taken into consideration before you make you recommendations. 1. Identify your recommendation for either first-order or second-order change and provide a short explanation about why you chose this level of change. Be explicit. 1. Design and include a plan for addressing resistance to change. 1. Explain the lessons that you want learned from your story of how your organization needs to change. Tell them why. 1. Explain the image of change management that you are using and why. 1. Using Kotter's 8 Step plan as a model, create an implementation plan. Be specific by giving dates, timelines, accountable parties, champions, and anything else that will help your plan be completed as you intend for it to be completed. Spell your plan out with steps and graphics. Do NOT give a generic description of what you wish will happen. Instead, give the reader a well-developed set of action steps and dates to guide the organization through the change. 1. Design a communication plan for this change initiative. Be very specific about how this will be handled.
  • 4. 1. Design an evaluation plan. How will you evaluate your plan? That is, how will you know that your initiative is successful? What are the specific markers that will indicate the success of your change plan? Higher revenues? More transfer of training? Fewer complaints. You must be specific about what your measures of success will be. 1. Format, format, format. Make your paper easy to read by including subheadings for each new piece. Without formatting, your case is just a jumble of words that lose meaning and context. Use color. Use graphics. Use figures. Use tables. Use whatever it takes to keep your reader engaged and wanting to read more. If the reader looks at a page that is all words and more words on the next page, your reader will get lost and disengage from the presentation. 1. Write a conclusion to this piece. DBA 705 IEE Statement Paper Guidelines Based on your own interest, choose a contemporary management issue. Locate four related peer-reviewed articles. You will be using these same four articles for each of the following statements. 1. A ONE PAGE integrativestatement of the major themes, similarities, and differences that run though the articles you found for each module. This should synthesize, and not just summarize the summaries. No more than one page per set of readings. 2. A ONE PAGE evaluativestatement of your perception of the state of the literature on the topic. A critical evaluation, not just a summary of the summaries. No more than one page per set of readings. 3. A ONE PAGE extensionstatement, outlining future research directions (including theoretical directions) for each module. This should be creative and flow from your extension statement.
  • 5. No more than one page per set of readings. Questions it should address could include: · Where does the research need to go? · What are unanswered questions that should be addressed? · What are the implications for the field? · Are there any trends suggested? IEE Paper 1 – is due Wednesday by 8 am (before class starts) IEE Paper 2 – is due Thursday by 8 am (before class starts) IEE Paper 3 – is due Friday by 8 am (before colloquia starts) Case Outline I. Introduction – Take the perspective that you are a consultant to the organization and they have hired you to help with their problem. Do not repeat the text of the case. Set assumptions. For example, when did this happen? Yesterday? Last year? Describe the environment relative to the time, place, and industry involved. Introduce the work that will be accomplished to provide a full plan. II. Analysis a. External Analysis – no bullets, explain why you included the factors as opportunities or threats. Support this portion of the case with research. b. Internal Analysis- no bullets, explain why you included the factors as opportunities or threats i. Diagnostic model that fits the problem. Talk about each piece of the model as it relates to the organization. Support this portion of the case with research. Justify your decision to use your model. Use the models that are in the text. ii. Cultural Web iii. Structural Dilemmas
  • 6. III. Formulation – strategy(ies)/initiatives that will be used to resolve the problem. Do not suggest a remedy, e.g. using the phrase “the company should…”. Instead, tell the organization directly what must happen for them to succeed. These are recommendations that follow directly from your analysis. For example, if you determine that the organization is functioning in a changing industry, e.g. radio and television, your initiatives need to address that problem as it relates to the central issue. In the case of McDs, how would using television and radio remedy the problem of lack of consumer information? IV. Implementation – Kotter’s Eight Step Model. Each step defines the action steps that must happen for EACH initiative to take place. Be very specific – for example, if you want training to happen, you need to say how many hours of training, who will be trained, the date by which everyone must be trained, and any other details that will help the organization do exactly what it needs to do to successfully change. a. Plan to address resistance b. Communication plan c. Image of change d. Lessons learned V. Evaluation – who collects the data? What are the measures? When are they due? To whom are the results reported? Again, be very specific. Make this a table that follows all other portions of your VI. Conclusion A Case for Change Every change plan has several elements. When treated appropriately, those elements work together to create a change plan that is aligned from the moment the consumer begins reading or listening. Everything must work with everything else to keep the plan on track as a fundamental guide to how you want a specific change or set of changes to take place. Those elements are analysis, formulation, implementation, and
  • 7. evaluation. You will see that the chapters in your text support your work as you learn to develop each of these elements. Analysis The analysis phase of the case deals with a scan of external factors that impact the organization as well as an internal scan of factors. Below, you will see a table that is designed for your use in categorizing external factors that impact the organization. You can type into this table as you work through your analysis to help organize your work. Opportunities are advantages that belong to an entire industry, and the individual organization does not have control over them. OPEC reduces the price of crude, so oil companies can reduce the price of gas. The result is that more people buy more gas. The fuel industry has the opportunity to sell more gas. Threats are disadvantages that belong to an entire industry, and the individual organization does not have control over them. For example, the crash of the housing bubble caused many companies to fail if they were associated with housing. The housing industry suffered. Higher gas prices cause people to buy fewer and smaller cars. The automobile industry suffered. A health conscious society results in the consumption of fewer soft drinks. The soft drink industry suffered. Environmental Pressures Opportunity Threat Fashion Mandate Geopolitical Market decline
  • 8. Hypercompetition Below, you will see a table that is designed for your use in categorizing internal factors that impact the organization. Strengths are advantages that belong to a single company, and the company exercises control over the ability to build this advantage. For example, no matter where I go in the world, I can recognize a Coca-Cola can. Coke has the strongest brand identity in the world, because they spent countless dollars building and exporting their brand. Troy University is #3 in the United States for technology and information security, because we have spent many man hours as well as dollars to insure the safety and security of our information. Weaknesses are disadvantages that belong to a single company, and the company exercises control over the ability to build this disadvantage. For example, a university (not in the U.S.) recently told me that they had been through four presidents in the last five years. The impact is that this university is suffering from new broom changes, many of which have not been allowed to play out over the course of time. The university is struggling to keep enrollments up and to provide good service to their students. Organizational Pressures Strength Weakness Growth Integration and collaboration
  • 9. Identity New broom Power and politics Below, you will see a table that is designed for your use in categorizing organizational functions that can support or impede change. Organizational functions Strength Weakness Management Marketing Accounting/Finance Information systems Research and development Analysis is a description only of the factors that will impact the organization’s need to change. This is not the place to discuss what strategies need to take place nor is this the place to
  • 10. introduce your recommendations. Analysis is only a description, albeit a very detailed description. This is the place to do some research on the industry and the environment, because many organizations are simply not familiar with the overall environment of the industry. Often, they internalize their problems as “I’m just not good enough” when there are other factors that contribute to the problem. Formulation This is the piece that addresses the goals and strategies that you recommend for change. Take on the persona of an outside consultant, and set goals and strategies in an assertive manner. For example, do not tell the organization that it should improve sales. That is far too generic and will not help the organization improve its bottom line. Instead, tell the organization HOW to improve its sales. Give the organization a set of goals and strategies that help it to improve sales. Make recommendations in a straightforward and knowledgeable manner that will help people in the organization want to change. Implementation This is the piece that describes the set of action steps that you want to see to fulfill the goals and strategies that you created in the formulation phase. For example, if the goal is to improve sales and if the strategy is to improve sales through market penetration, you want to hire more sales people to help cover the market. The first step in this is to have the HR department hire more sales people. Tell HR how many people you want to hire and when those people need to be on the job. In this phase, you need to be very specific about dates, timelines, who is responsible, how many of what, and all the details that will help your change plan become a reality. Evaluation Evaluation is a simple phase if your work in the implementation phase was detailed and provided quantitative expectations. For example, if you told the company to hire 10 sales people by Nov. 1, 2013, the measure is quite simple. Did the company hire 10 sales people by Nov. 1, 2013? If not, why not?
  • 11. For evaluation, I suggest that you create a table that includes the following columns: Which action step are you measuring? Who is responsible for reporting results? To whom is that person reporting? When is the outcome expected? How will the outcome be measured? What is the expected outcome? Was the outcome met? (This is a yes or no. Keep it simple and straightforward.) As you work through your cases we will add a piece to each case. The “No Good Deed” case focuses on analysis and formulation. In McDonald’s, we will add implementation. Finally, in your personal project case, we will add evaluation. The key to developing a case for change is organization, so keep this as organized and straightforward as you can. This is not meant to be tricky, because if it is too tricky, people will not understand your plan and become resistant immediately. I prefer plans that answer questions before they can be asked. Imagine you presenting this case and having the following conversation during the presentation. “Why do we need to do this?” “We need to do this because….. You will find that on page 14.” If you want to learn to think outside of the box, this is the time to do it. Anticipate questions and give details. Stay away from generic directions, such as “You should do more marketing” and go toward, “We need to spend X dollars on your marketing over the next 6 months to improve your market share.” When you evaluate your plan, you can measure dollars, time, and market share. PAGE
  • 12. 1 WHEN NO GOOD DEED GOES UNPUNISHED: THE CASE OF THE MISPRINTED PHONE NUMBER ABSTRACT Mark volunteered to help with the community arts festival; he was supporting the not-for-profit organization as he had in the past. However, he did not know his good intentions as a volunteer would cost him his job as an assistant manager. The retail store’s phone number was printed in the festival advertising in error and ticket requests overloaded the phone lines, causing loss of business and annoyed the store manager. As a result, Mark was seen as the cause of the problems and terminated. The Board of Directors did not respond to his request for an investigation, leaving Mark without a job and wondering what had happened to cause an unhappy experience when he had such good intentions. Teaching objectives: · Identify the impact of substantive areas of organizational behavior in a realistic scenario · Define how various leadership and motivational models may be used best to improve productivity and job satisfaction within organizations. · Demonstrate how various leadership and motivational models may be used best to improve productivity and job satisfaction within organizations · Demonstrate the importance of an ethical approach to business · Provide an example of how various aspects of organizational life can create negative impacts internal and external to the organization
  • 13. · Provide an opportunity for critical thinking as noted through multiple opportunities to incorporate theory and resolve problems · Apply organizational-behavior strategies to management scenarios utilizing a systems approach · Discuss methods for undertaking planned-change programs within organizations. · Create realistic problem resolutions · Create realistic action plans Mark, the Volunteer Mark is an employee of a small community drugstore and has volunteered for different assignments with nonprofit agencies. One of the assignments he thinks that he will enjoy the most is working as a member of the core committee which organizes and runs the yearly community festival for the neighborhood. Because of his experience with community events, Mark has been placed in charge of logistics coordination, planning, security, and public safety. While this appears to be an extensive workload, Mark has a great deal of previous experience and understands the tasks that need to be completed. Because the planning for the festival started a year in advance, he knows that as the festival grows closer there will be additional volunteers to assist him, so he will not be individually responsible for each one of these areas; for now, the workload is sufficient for one person. The Community Festival The community festival is a nonprofit organization that has a tax exempt status as well as a history of over 20 years. The organization and the event are run by a board of directors and a small, permanent staff composed of no more than five employees at any given time. The goal of the festival is to
  • 14. promote local arts and crafts and to support local artists by providing a venue through which they can sell their work, advertise their work, and develop and expand their customer base. Because the festival has been held for many years, it is well-known in the area and typically attracts supporters of the arts and owners of small and independent art galleries as well as boutique and specialty stores owners who are in search of unique forms of art for clientele. As a result, the festival has established a reputation as a well-known venue for local art. One of the unique aspects of this festival is that it has enjoyed growth and continuity within the community even though the community itself was part of a much larger metropolitan area in the southwestern United States. The identity of the festival has remained intact and is considered a part of the local community. Part of the mission of the community festival Board of Directors is to educate the community about art in addition to creating a venue for creative expression. During its growth, the festival’s mission gradually expanded to include educational and other programs which run throughout the year. However, in recent times local artists who used to be yearly participants have drifted away and local funding used to support the festival is diminishing, because fewer and fewer local artists were participating. As a result, the Board of Directors focused on bringing in a nationally known talent and artists in various fields to attract more participants. Because local funding was lost, more funding now is being sought through grants. The focus of the festival is gradually changing from community artists to a broader scope and more national talent. The Community Festival Organization The nonprofit agency that was charged with running the community festival was made up of a Board of Directors consisting of 10 appointed positions, including three to five permanent staff members, one of whom is the supervisor. The supervisor works at many of the same jobs as the staff members to support the agency. The supervisor believes that ever yone
  • 15. who works at the agency shares her love of the arts and uses a laissez-faire management style with the other staff members. The supervisor believes everyone hired at the non-profit understands the need to support the organization, and employees should not need specific instructions to do so; this is the general opinion also held by the Board. Because the permanent staff is so small, formal training for the supervisor and staff is not conducted, primarily because of the lack of funds for training. All funds are used for the festival and the programs, and the prevailing attitude is that employees can learn from each other. Although the nonprofit agency has a mission to support local artists, the Board of Directors sees no need to take the time to develop specifics such as rules of conduct, expected behaviors, or guidelines. The supervisor follows this example, because she believes that it is important to use their time for the festival and the programs instead of the permanent staff, especially because the staff can be managed one-on-one if training needs are identified. The primary support for the agency initially came from individual donators and, later on, more grants which supported the annual event and the ongoing educational programs. The Board of Directors itself consists primarily of those who support the arts and the community. Some are serving as political appointees and none of the members has any experience in running a business. Volunteers have noted in the past how there are inconsistencie s in the decisions coming from the Board of Directors, depending on personal interests and sometimes as favors for friends. Volunteers and Staffing Staffing is always a challenge for supervisor and the Board of Directors. Many who have the interest and the inclination to volunteer hold full-time jobs, and many of those jobs were outside of the community in the larger metropolitan area; therefore, they have little time to donate because of the time it takes to commute back and forth from their jobs. Nonetheless, there are always some volunteers available, but there is turnover
  • 16. from year to year depending on how much time individuals could contribute, whether or not they have taken a full-time job in another location, or whether they still remain in the community. In the past, a member of the Board of Directors has acknowledged that staffing is a concern, because those who are truly interested are not available, and sometimes, when seeking volunteers, the organization has to “settle” for whoever shows up. One of the primary concerns is that some of the volunteers and the permanent staff have exhibited more interest in being "in charge" than actually supporting the community festival. When individuals are more worried about who is in charge rather than what needs to be done, there has been an issue about what priorities could actually be accomplished and whether those were personal priorities or festival priorities. Nevertheless, volunteers are still needed, so all volunteers are accepted. Some volunteers have known each other for several years, because they have worked together through the festival organization, but there was always enough turnover to provide the need for new volunteers every year. Internal Issues Some volunteers have speculated openly over the last few years on the reasons why volunteers leave. The general consensus among the volunteers is that personality conflicts or authority conflicts with other volunteers, and even other staff members, drove people away. On some occasions staff members were also aware of political appointees by the Board of Directors. These appointees were perceived by the general staff and volunteers to be "untouchable" and their behavior beyond reproach. Poor interpersonal experiences and ineffective conversations between volunteers and staff members suggest that staff members are frequently ineffective in their interactions with volunteers. Such incidents, when they occur, are shared widely and quickly among the volunteers through the organizational grapevine, a highly effective communication method for relaying personal
  • 17. dissatisfaction and personal events with the permanent staff and other volunteers. One example of a personal experience is a conversation where a permanent staff member told a volunteer "if you don't like the way I do things….then you can just leave. We can always get more volunteers". A witness to that conversation indicates that the permanent staff member has this same attitude with other volunteers and has repeated the same comment or similar comments to other individuals in the organization on various occasions. Permanent staff members have also developed a tendency to blame volunteers if something does not go as planned or if something unplanned occurs in a manner that causes problems. Volunteers have the perception that they are the ‘scapegoats’ for the staff and, by default, for the Board of Directors. This has precipitated a perception that staff members hold themselves in higher esteem and at a different level than the volunteers. Volunteers have become very sensitive to this and discuss it frequently. External Issues Local artists who have regularly participated in the festival provide anecdotal support about similar interactions with permanent staff. One of the artists indicates that he feels as if he is an "intruder" when trying to obtain information about dates and events for the upcoming festival. Others report a similar lack of responsiveness; more specifically, phone calls are not returned while other artists note a ‘rude’ tone of voice and curt treatment by staff members. A number of the artists who have participated in the past have now elected not to apply for a vendor position for the upcoming festival. The loss of local artists has also contributed to the community festival ne ed to focus on nationally known talent to generate revenues and interest that have been forfeited through the loss of local artists. Implementing the Community Festival About six months before the community festival was scheduled, the Board of Directors proceeded with the normal activities required to facilitate the festival. Some of these activities included activating an 800 phone number to facilitate ticket
  • 18. ordering, publishing the brochure for the festival, and proceeding with efforts to advertise both inside the community and outside the community about the upcoming festival. The Board approved the brochures before they were printed and distributed, reviewed all information for accuracy and correctness, and then proceeded with the brochure printing. The Brochure Incident One day, Mark is at work in the drugstore where he serves as an assistant manager when the first call comes through to order tickets for the festival. Mark is quite surprised, because the drugstore has nothing to do with the festival. Mark advises the caller that this is the wrong number if the caller wishes to purchase tickets. That same day, many more calls come in with requests to purchase tickets for the festival. Mark is puzzled by the number of phone calls, because he is certain that the phone number is incorrect. He can think of no reason why people are calling the 800 number of the drugstore and asking for festival tickets. He checks with a member of the Board of Directors the following day and discovers that the 800 number to order tickets that is printed in the festival brochure is actually the 800 number of his drugstore. The phone calls have been very disruptive to business in the drugstore. After numerous complaints and pleas from the drugstore manager to adjust the 800-number, the Board of Directors discuss the problem and decide that the best interests of the festival are served taking over the 800 phone number at the drugstore and using it for the festival. This is completely unacceptable for the drugstore, because it has used this 800 number for many years. The 800 number is integral to the identity of the drugstore within the community. The drugstore refuses to give the number to the community festival agency, and the calls continue. Finally, the festival Board of Directors request a correction be printed in the brochure, and the correction to the 800-number is made on the front of the brochure. None of the corrections are made inside the brochure where the 800-number is listed multiple times. The Board of
  • 19. Directors considers the "brochure incident" resolved. The calls still continue at the drugstore. Several days later Mark calls in to check on the days he is scheduled to work in the coming week. At that time he is informed by one of the drugstore employees that he has been removed from the schedule, and the rumors are that the store manager blames Mark for the phone number problem as well as the lost business that resulted from the phone lines being tied up by calls seeking tickets to the community festival. Mark is fired because the store manager blames him as being ultimately responsible for the incorrect phone number, the misdirected phone calls, and the resulting loss of business. What Happened? In an effort to "clear the air" and prove that he is not responsible, Mark approaches a member of the Board of Directors of the festival organization and explains that he lost his job over the misprinted phone number in the community festival brochure. The Director with whom he speaks apologizes for the problems and advises Mark to blame the store. The Director suggests that he, perhaps, consider filing a lawsuit against the store, because this is not an issue of the community festival organization or of the Board of Directors but, instead, between Mark and the drugstore. The Director also offers to write a letter of recommendation to Mark if he needs this to find another job. However, when Mark needs a letter of recommendation and approaches the Director several weeks later, the Director refuses to provide the letter. Mark is frustrated, because he believes he is not being treated fairly. He now writes a letter to the entire Board of Directors and explains what has happened and asks for an investigation. He never receives a response or any acknowledgment from the Board of Directors about his request for an investigation or about the letter addressed to the Board.