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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
In a finished product, out of most of the industries only one particular company, provide a very little
amount of the total value. Hence to improve the process within the company lean techniques are
used so that the total impact will not be high when it is applied to a broader supply chain. Figure 1.
Increasing vehicle outsourcing (% of car value). The above fig represents the birth place of lean,
which is an automotive industry and it shows the trend towards outsource and vehicle's total value.
And, it represents the trend of the three European makers accordingly. Lean techniques have shown
a positive trend within the companies and in broader supply chain. To understand across a broader
chain supply, the three principles namely pull, level–loaded work and synchronization helps
understanding the interaction between the suppliers and customers or within a company. The trend
of implementing lean technology has grown into a broader spectrum. The Toyota production the
TPS were applied where only manufacturing efficiency was the aim. Later in 1970 and 1980's
supply complexity, market and distribution, service was concentrated when the company became
more globalized, and the aim was to improve the quality, control over effective process. In 1990's,
lean supply chain was extended to a wider enterprise which included subsidiaries, contractors of
third party, distributors. In the last decade, starting from the supplier of the raw material to end
customer, lean theory
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Facilitating Agile Software Development With Lean...
Facilitating Agile Software Development with Lean Architecture in DCI Paradigm Term Paper
Spring 2015 CIS 580 Arsalan Hafiz 01498800 Introduction: Programming advancement is a lavish,
and regularly a troublesome methodology. It is all around recorded that product activities are
ordinarily over timetable, over spending plan and regularly don 't meet client prerequisites. The
fundamental issues are all connected with individual's related issues. To address this issue, the Agile
theory was presented in the mid 90 's with a related arrangement of Agile routines. These techniques
are particularly intended to enhance programming venture group administration. Readiness in short
intends to strip away however much of the largeness, generally connected with conventional
programming advancement techniques, as could be expected, so as to elevate speedy reaction to
evolving situations, changes in client prerequisites, quicken venture due dates, thus on [1]. Agile
application is just constrained to execution and early testing. Numerous agile practices, for example,
every day standup meeting, pair programming and test–first coding are practiced amid usage stage,
and few agile practices bring mature domain knowledge forward in a way that reduces the cost and
effort of later decisions during implementation [2]. "Lean" fundamentally refers an approach in the
manufacturing world that was originally developed by Toyota in the 1950 's. At this time Japanese
industry was
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Learning Systems Development And Software Construction And...
According to the textbook, there are at least two (2) approaches to the SDLC, two (2) approaches to
software construction and modeling, and many techniques and models. The following could be
possible reasons for such a diversity of approaches:
The field is young.
The technology changes quickly.
Different organizations have different needs.
There are many types of systems.
Developers have widely different backgrounds
The two basic approaches within the SDLC include the predictive approach which assumes that the
project can be organized and planned with well–defined requirements and carried out with no major
setbacks. The adaptive approach looks at a project that is less defined and can't be planned.
Developers must be more flexible and adapt to the needs of the users as they are identified. This
paper will look at the above listed potential reasons to determine their validity in defining why there
is diversity in system development and software construction and modeling.
When assessing the reason "the field is young", one may surmise that newer developers may adopt
more modern methodologies. Agile modeling came about after more traditional practices. However,
less experienced developers may lean toward a more known and proven theory like the waterfall
approach which uses successive phases to be completed and finalized. The waterfall is rigid but
more predictable and may be easier to manage for new project managers. Using different types of
techniques may confuse a
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Lean Thinking : Banish Waste And Create Wealth
Authors of the book Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, James P.
Womack and Daniel T. Jones, focus on Lean thinking, the five principles of Lean with details on
how to implement these ideals in their text. Additionally it provides evidence as to how creating a
Lean factory will boost productivity and reduce inventories. Womack and Jones define Lean
thinking as providing "a way to make work more satisfying by providing immediate feedback on
efforts to convert muda into value." (Womack and Jones, 1996) Through this, the five principles
were created. The Lean values that are used to reduce Muda, the Japanese word for waste, are
addressed in the first part of the book as being: value, value stream, flow, ... Show more content on
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When the waste is eliminated in the value stream, ideally, the steps would flow together without any
stoppages. A few other items would need to be changed in order for production to flow smoothly.
Those include: the elimination of specialized departments, smaller machines closer in proximity to
one another if they are creating a single product, and redesigning the processes that have had extra
steps or create stoppages. The next principle is pull. This is the "first visible effect of converting
from departments and batches to product teams and flow" in which the amount of time that was
needed for a product that would ordinarily take years to design. (Womack and Jones, 1996) With the
concept of pull, customers are only delivered what they want, when it is asked for, instead of
pushing the products at the customers and hoping for the best as they had previously done. By this
logic, "no one upstream should produce a good or service until the customer downstream asks for
it." (Womack and Jones, 1996) Lastly in the principles comes perfection. The process of
improvement is constant; there should always be pushes to improve and reduce more waste. The
idea is that even if the company is more successful than the competition today, there is no plausible
reason to settle; one day they will surpass the company. Even more importantly,
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
The Project Of Cathedral Hill Hospital With Lean Culture
Figure 11. The Project of Cathedral Hill Hospital with Lean Culture Other Lean techniques that the
researcher obtained through analyzing collected data are "customer–supplier" standpoints and the
Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) approach. Fundamentally projects utilized Lean principles will pay more
attention on the demands of customers to supply exactly what they need and require; therefore, this
technique significantly reduce needlessly waste of the project. Likewise, PDSA is mentioned in the
continuous improvement of the project life cycle with the following definitions of each factor: Plan:
Adjustments or innovations in consideration of achieving the project improvement. Do: Execution
of necessary changes and modifications. Study: Outcomes of the changes. What are needed to
improve? What are required to eliminate? Act: Acceptances or declines of changes. Owner
participation in LIB. The responsibility of owners unquestionably affects the project performance
and objectives, particularly in LIB–cooperating ones as a result of IPD and Lean characteristics that
need to be decided as the beginning of the project. One of the owner's ability is to notice the
expecting changes in design and construction phases as well as the life–cycle and services. In
reality, the early participation and well–timed decisions of the owner obviously reduce a
considerable amount of time during the whole planning, designing, and constructing processes. As
reported by project team members from
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Current State VSM Essay
MEMORANDUM
November 15, 2013
TO: Sarah McDougal, Manager of Disbursements at Ramsville
FROM: Team 5
SUBJECT: Process Improvements for Ramsville
______________________________________________________________________________
Team 5 will be analyzing and providing recommendations on how to improve the issue of overdue
payments to suppliers at Ramsville. After walking the process, creating a current value stream
analyzing data, Team 5 has suggestions on how to increase efficiency by eliminating muda that will
improve customer satisfaction and supplier relationships.
ANALYSIS
Team 5 identified the key issues by creating a Current Value Stream Mapping (Table 1, Page 3).
Ramsville's pay now invoices have a total lead time of 196,200 ... Show more content on
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The next recommendation Team 5 has is to increase the processing time at the PFR Check to 600
seconds. Team 5 believes this will increase the accuracy of invoice checking because an additional
four minutes will be dedicated to the task and employees will have more time allotted to double
check the accuracy of the invoices being passed to the next activity. This will assure the practice of
quality at the source is being used so that incorrect information is not being passed onto subsequent
processes.
Another recommendation is to eliminate the batch process so that payments can get to the suppliers
at a faster rate and decrease the number of supplier complaints, summarized on Table 7 (Page 7).
This will eliminate the muda of the extra time needed to un–batch the invoices so that information
can be relayed to suppliers quicker.
Team 5 also recommends implementing an automated process system that automatically scans and
enters invoices into the payment processing software. With the implementation of this software, Pay
Later Invoices and Pay Now Invoices can be eliminated from the process. Additionally, Team 5
suggests moving the two employees from Pay Now and Pay Later Invoices to the Final Check
activity. This will eliminate the bottleneck of over utilization at the Final Check because the number
of employees increases to three. Although the utilization decreases by over 30%, it leaves room for
variability and decreases the stress put
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Logistics And Supply Chain Practices Essay
Logistics and Supply Chain Practices
Introduction
We have several logistics and supply chain management practices that increase the competitive
advantage of a business. They include among others lean thinking, information quality, customer
relations, strategic alliance and information sharing (Elizabeth, p.14). This section discusses lean
thinking and customer relations in the manufacturing and retail markets respectively. The discussion
is also based on a critical analysis of recent literature review in logistics and supply chain
management.
Critical Analysis
Lean thinking is essential to improve supply chain management. This is because lean thinking
ensures things are done just as they should. As an example, Toyota has demonstrated superior results
with regard to quality, cost and lead–time compared to most (if not all) of its competitors. This
accomplishment has led to a widespread interest in the Toyota System of Production and its way of
doing business. Subsequently, various reviews of "The Toyota Way" have been done. This has led to
the characterization of lean production, which can now be seen as a generic description of the
Production System at Toyota. Despite there being many, diverse perceptions of what exactly has led
to Toyota 's success, Toyota itself proposes that its system is based on considering the time from
getting the client 's orders to cash collection and shorten this lead–time by eradicating waste
(Chiarini 2011).
Customer relationship is also a key
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Software Development: Lean + Agile = Results Essay
Lean on Agile
In this competitive world of software development speed, accuracy and reliability play an important
role during the development of a product. Traditional software development models like waterfall
model lack these features which makes them not so feasible with the current scenario. The
characteristics which traditional methods failed to address were achieved by agile methodologies,
which are rapid, flexible, efficient and iterative. Lean, which was proven to be useful in the
manufacturing industry is now has its applications even in software industry and is referred as Lean
Software Development. Lean is known for its principles, which when applied optimizes the work.
Both agile and lean have their own/individual set of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
1.1 Agile Software Development:[1]
Agile software development is defined as "set of methods that support incremental software
development" [1]. Agility means responding to changes quickly and efficiently, flexible production
system. Possible changes required in software projects are in requirements, budget, schedule,
resources, technology and team. For successful software these changes should be reflected in the
product. The term agile software development and the agile golden principles were defined in agile
alliance meeting in 2001.
1.1.1 Characteristics of agile:
Incremental, Cooperative, Adaptive, Iterative, Concurrent Phase development, Minimal
Documentation .
1.2 Lean Software Development:
Lean Software Development (LSD) is the application of lean principles to software development.
It is more a set of guidelines than a formal methodology. It was introduced by **Toyota systems , a
leading automobile manufacturing organization. Although it originated in automobile manufacturing
systems it is now used in software development successfully. The primary focus of lean is
continuous improvement and flow of the value from the inception of the idea all the way to the
customer.
2. AGILE TO LEAN
With the introduction of principles of lean in to the software development, there has been a
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Global Warming, Resource Scarcity, And High Energy Costs
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1 INTRODUCTION
According the 2010, Sustainability Report by the President and Chief Operating Officer of
Bombardier transportation (André Navarri) [2], around the globe, everyone is faced with significant
challenges including global warming, resource scarcity, and high–energy costs. Cities continue to
exhibit explosive growth, leading to the pressing need for more effective transportation systems.
Bombardier Transportation finds itself at the confluence of these environmental and social
challenges.
The report also mention that, in 2006, BT launched an integrated approach to align their operations
with industry world–class standards and to formalize the sharing of best practices among all
Bombardier ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The majority of articles are theoretical rather than practical in nature. In the recent years the number
of experiential articles is increasing drastically compared to previous years [4].
Customized products describe manufacturing in the Twenty–first century. This has led to the
complex production planning and control systems making mass production of goods interesting.
Many organizations, particularly railway and automotive organizations, struggled in the new
customer driven and globally competitive markets. These factors present a big challenge to
organizations to look for new tools and methods to continue moving up the ladder in the changed
market situation [5]. This creates more problems for new companies that are eager to break into the
markets.
Supply chain is one of the critical aspects that can make or break any company. The research will
also concentrate on aspects of supply chain.
1.1 LEAN AND ITS PURPOSE
Lean is an idea or process of creating value for customers by reducing waist. The increase of
production output with less labour. The purpose is to be able to fulfil customers' needs with less
cost.
The five Lean principles are:
1.1.1 SPECIFY VALUE FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE CUSTOMER
This addresses the common way manufactures work by giving the customer what is convenient for
the manufacture. The Twenty–first century demands and requirements from customers are complex
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Virginia Mason Hospital
What were reasons for implementing lean management at Virginia Mason Hospital? Lean thinking
begins with driving out waste so that all work adds value and serves the customer's needs.
Identifying value–added and non–value–added steps in every process is the beginning of the journey
toward lean operations. In order for lean principles to take root, leaders must first work to create an
organizational culture that is receptive to lean thinking. The commitment to lean must start at the
very top of the organization, and all staff should be involved in helping to redesign processes to
improve flow and reduce waste. Although health care differs in many ways from manufacturing,
there are also surprising similarities: Whether building a car or ... Show more content on
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The time saved increases the time a physician can spend with a patient. Most of the cost of medical
care involves clogs in the flow of information –– paper forms, lab results, phone messages, often
leading to irritated patients. Two details on this list bear further explanation. The No–Layoff Policy
is critical to the success of implementing lean management. People will more fully commit and
engage in improvement work if they are not worried about improving themselves out of a job.
Attrition, typically steady in health care, will enable most organizations to reassign staff to other
necessary work. A culture shift is important here as well: Staff, especially in health care, do not
typically view themselves as working for the organization, but for their individual department and/or
care team. In lean thinking, the patient/customer drives all processes, and staff/providers must come
to understand that they work for the patient. This means they may be reassigned depending on the
needs of the patients. Secondly, the defect alert system is a fundamental element of the TPS, known
as "stopping the line." Every worker in the Toyota plant has the power and the obligation to stop the
assembly line when a defect or error is identified or even suspected. Workers pull a cord, a light
goes on, music plays as a signal for supervisors to come and help, and the
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Lean On Lean Software Development
Lean Summary Lean Software Development (LSD) is an implementation of Lean Principles in
software development. In sum, every action that does not produce value is considered waste (muda)
(Liker, 2005). The goal is to create a system (software development or otherwise) that is waste free.
"Several Agile techniques can be used to achieve this in software development, making LSD and
Agile similar at first glance (Austad, 2011)". Origin/History It is important to note the history of
Lean and the history of Lean Software development (LSD) are two different histories. Lean and
LSD are related but their histories are different. This history will focus on LSD. The term lean
software development originated in a book written by Mary Poppendieck and ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
Empower the Team – In a traditional work environment, decisions are made from the top down. In a
LSD, it works in reverse of that. "The lean approach favors the aphorism 'find good people and let
them do their own job,' encouraging progress, catching errors, and removing impediments, but not
micro–managing (Liker, 2005)." Defer Commitment – By deferring critical/irreversible, you keep
your options open for as long as possible (Liker, 2005). Pros/Cons Pros o Delivering the product
early means that the development team can deliver more functionality in a shorter period of time,
hence enabling more projects to be delivered. o Empowerment of the development team helps in
developing the decision making ability of the team members which in turn creates more motivation
among team members ( 'Top 12 Software Development Methodologies And Its
Advantages/Disadvantages ', 2014). Cons o Lean does not do very well in small dev teams where
the projects are small and unpredictable (job shop and/or lots of support). o " The project sponsors
and clients need to know what they want and make decisions they will stick to. In lean software
development these decisions can be made later. But the problem is that project sponsors tend to be
paralyzed by fear when it comes to making the tough decisions. And in lean the whole objective of
using this over say agile methodology is to enable your development to be done faster and
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
The Management Philosophy of Gemba Kaizen Essay
Introduction
Masaaki Imai, author of Gemba Kaizen, states that companies, particularly in manufacturing field,
can become more profitable by continuously looking for efficiencies. In Western style management
it is more common to seek huge leaps. In Japanese style "Kaizen" businesses must try to eliminate
anything that is inefficient thus cutting waste. Imai gives impressive examples from real world
situations and supports them with case studies that show "Kaizen" in work.
Discussion
1) The theme. Gemba Kaizen is divided into two major parts. The first part is well organized and
deeply explained, very easy to read and understand overview of lean management concepts. Author
has done a great job of reviewing the key concepts of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Every manager wants to increase revenues with low expenses involved. Being familiar and actual
usage of "Gemba Kaizen" at the production facility will help managers to improve the work process
and get respect of growing number of satisfied customers.
3) "Gemba" and Delivery. "Gemba" is where the customers come into contact with the services
offered. "Gemba" is present in the workplace of every company whether it is administrative or bank
worker. The problem with modern western managers is that they prefer to sit at there desks with the
desire to distance themselves from real events. They contact with reality only through their reports.
(Masaaki, Imai: Gemba Kaizen. Mc Graw Hill, 1997, p. 3–5).
"Gemba" means the "real place" or the place where value is added. In manufacturing it is the shop
floor. It is the centre of what is right and what is wrong with all plant processes. Practicing of kaizen
(improvement) in "Gemba" may improve not only the plant performance, but also the delivery
system as well. Constantly improving the work place where actual production is done will increase
the quality of products and thus the way they are delivered to customers. Going to "Gemba"
provides real information, not the one manager sees in the reports.
4) "Kaizen" and Lean Management. In the context of "Kaizen" management has two major
functions: (1) maintenance or activities directed toward maintaining
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Competitive Advantages Of HRM
Gaining Competitive Advantage through Lean Practices in HRM Dr.Dolly Dolai*
ABSTRACT
Current business conditions mandate greater competitive advantage from HR agendas and
processes. HR must contribute strategic value to add greater competitive advantage either reactively
or proactively. In its strategically reactive mode, HR assumes the existence of a business strategy
and adds value by linking HR practices to the business strategy and by managing change. In its
strategically proactive mode, HR creates competitive advantage by creating cultures of creativity
and innovation, and by linking internal processes and structures with ongoing changes in the
marketplace. This article defines and describes one such practice like lean management ... Show
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Some of the advantages are: Increased productivity ( some have reported up to 50% in some
processes), better control on quality, lower cost, and improved employee involvement; all these,
concurrently resulting in greater customer satisfaction. However for this to result in a sustained
Competitive Advantage, the impact on HRM and the corresponding modifications required on the
HRM policies and practices needs a study.
Mr Taichi Ohno first developed the Lean Concepts at Toyota ( Womack, 1998) The principles he
developed are applicable both to the manufacturing and the service sectors(
A.Lakshminarasimha,2005). To enable a proper perspective on the concepts of Lean, an attempt is
made to briefly recapitulate on them.
What is "lean?" There are basically two definitions of "lean;" it is a systematic approach to
eliminating waste through continuous improvement, and, it is a total business process – not just
manufacturing. The measurement is from once an order is taken to receipt of payment. And really,
"lean" is all about continuous
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Doing A Project More Effectively And Efficiently Using...
Topic: How to run a project more effectively and efficiently using lean management.
Introduction:
The main purpose of this research is to define better handling of ongoing project by complying with
the principles of lean management to obtain maximum efficiency in production processing. During
the project production lifecycle, many projects go through various challenges and to ensure that
projects are handled in better ways, organisation perform different actions and approaches to retain
project within budget and specified requirements. Today organizations face challenges in the form of
intense international competition, rapid technology evolution, maturing customer expectations and
quality demands. Therefore, to meet the customers expectation and finish project more efficiently,
lean management approach can be more helpful in identifying bottlenecks and project causes at
earlier stages of project development. This proposal will highlight issues and key solutions to the
problems faced by projects these days by applying lean principles.
Problem Statement
Projects these days require extra monitoring to retain efficiency in project during its production, they
are always tricky to organise but they get worse when project managers are under pressure to deliver
a successful outcome within specified constraints. However, in recent years, there has been an
increasing amount of literature consistently showing that projects often fail by going into frequent
cost overruns, delays,
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
Agile Web Development Works Of The World Breathed A Sigh...
Agile Web Development Works First, and foremost, agile web development is not a specific process,
action, or exercise. it's a mindset –– an attitude with which a project is delivered. The agile
methodology puts customer first, enabling development teams to work collaboratively and readily
respond to change, and to deliver the best possible product. Being agile means focused on delivering
streamlined projects, not wasting time documenting every meticulous detail of a product. Instead of
documentations, development teams begin working almost immediately on delivering small
incremental products. These incremental products enable customers and design teams to perform
frequent sanity checks, making sure they are not spending an inordinate amount of time (and
money) on features that deliver little to no value. Begin agile, enable teams to deliver the most
value; in less time and with least amount of headaches. Flexibility and Agility meets Web Design
Typical web development process circa 2000–2007. Developers across the world breathed a sigh of
relief when Jesse James Garrett and Steve Krug first introduced us to their usability/user–centered
design books in 2002. Not because they were new and innovative, but because they articulated the
subject so well, even nontech–savvy individuals could digest the material. Using the agile approach,
designers, and developers are able to eliminate up to 80% of the prep–work allowing us to pass on
that savings to you. Modern
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
A Report On The And Mielke
Johnson, Patterson, and O 'Connell (2013) noted that A3 report incorporation effectively addresses
process improvement in the healthcare industry. Dombrowski and Mielke (2013) discussed the
foundational principle of Gemba in the workplace. Gemba is a Japanese term applied to
organizational leaders who observe the workplace to gain knowledge and make decisions based on
data and observations (Hossen, 2015). In the development of the product or service, organizational
leaders observe the process to identify the root cause of problems or opportunities (Dombrowski &
Mielke, 2013). Organizational leaders avoid defects by identifying and addressing problems through
the Gemba process (Hossen, 2015). Critchley (2015) discussed the spaghetti diagram as a tool to
document movement of a product or individual. To develop a spaghetti diagram, Tu et al. (2012)
wrote that the observer needs an outline and create a structural diagram of the physical location. The
observer outlines and traces the steps that an individual takes or the flow of the process in the
development of the spaghetti diagram (Tu et al., 2012). The observer develops the spaghetti diagram
to visually identify wasted steps or flow throughout the process, to address opportunities to improve
the physical layout of the workplace (Critchley, 2015). Industry leaders utilize standard work to
implement the automation of a particular process (Lu & Yang, 2014). Lu and Yang (2014) noted that
organizational managers created the
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Executive Summary : Executive Report
Executive Summary– summary report purpose and findings Revision History
Date Changes made To what
30/10/2015
04/12/2015
05/12/2015
06/12/2015
07/12/2015
08/12/2015
09/12 /2015
Table of Contents
Executive Summary– summary report purpose and findings 1
Revision History 1
Introduction – motivation for report and description of structure 3
Part 1 Critical Discussion of Agile and software quality 3
Part 1.1 Strengths and Weaknesses of agile in a project 3
Part 2 Discussion of Function Point Measures 4
Advantages of function point analysis 4
Disadvantages of function point analysis 4
For what types of projects (size, development process) is it a) best b) not well suited (explain)? 5
Where should function ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The general strengths and weaknesses differ from project to project but these one are the main
aspects of it.
Agile development is used in a team of five – six developers which work closely together and
interact with each other. Before the project starts user requirements are collected from the user. The
scrum master will be responsible that the whole team works and also get the customer involved to
get more feedback for the project. This is a very good approach because the developers can share
their knowledge and learn new skills from each other. The team member should be highly skilled in
order to work together to avoid any lack of skills in the development. Ones the requirements are
collected a target can be planned but it can also very difficult to know form the beginning how the
project will be looking because changes are welcome in any stage of the development. Changes can
occur during the development process which can change the whole process but is also very flexible.
A strong developer and customer can be established during every iteration which can help to
identify the user needs and make clearer about project and what the user actually wants from the
project and what his or her expectations are. Faults can be detected in better because of the
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Lean Software Development and Enhancing Software...
Lean Software Development and Enhancing Software Development Projects Introduction Lean
Software Development is essentially a transformation of lean manufacturing and IT principles and is
a branch of agile development framework. The core concept here being eliminating waste. At the
same time CMMI is a capability maturity model integration which is a process improvement
technique that is used to bring about an improvement in a project, process or the entire organization
for that matter. In this paper, we will first start, first, the background of lean will be explored i.e.,
Agile and CMMI. After that, how Lean and CMMI, although two techniques for an entirely different
purpose could still work in conjunction to enhance a software ... Show more content on
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Agile methods also help teams meet the industry standards with less overheads than other software
development methodologies because of the timeboxed iterations and the critical benefit here is that
the entire project can easily adapt to even radical changes with much less costs. Whereas on the
other then, a CMMI or capability maturity model integration for development is a particular type of
process improvement maturity model for development of products and services which are developed
by software engineering institute or SEI. Capability Maturity Model integration intention is actually
not to impose a list of practices on the organization and similarly its intention is neither to apply as a
standard so that every other organization ends up complying it. It is something rather different and
specific, if it's used appropriately, CMMI is meant to help locate very specific areas where the
change in the organization can provide some greatest value in their processes, projects and the
organization overall based on the business's objectives. Before understanding how the conjunction
between Lean and CMMI could work it's important to understand how do they differ fundamentally
i.e., how CMMI and Agile differs. CMMI evaluates the organization as a single and whole entity
and its development processes. In comparison, the agile method is actually a single development
process. This means that both of the concepts are fundamentally different and not comparable by
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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay
The Approach At High Level
DevOps has been a buzzword for a while now in the tech industry, with many organizations joining
the bandwagon and working towards embracing the DevOps practices. Wiki describes Devops as "a
practice that emphasizes the collaboration and communication of the IT professionals across the
value chain while automating the process of software delivery and infrastructure changes. The aim is
to deliver the software quickly and reliably."
However, in an enterprise scenario with the complexity involved, the journey to implement DevOps
comprehensively is evolutionary. Hence, it is only sensible to drive along an incremental adoption
path. Each increment has to provide the most benefits through the MVP (Minimum Viable Product)
delivered towards the DevOps journey.
In this context, this article attempts to explain the initial steps towards the larger DevOps journey
and helps to get a head start.
The approach at high–level consists of four major steps:
Value stream mapping – Mapping the existing process workflows
Future state value stream mapping – Identify the immediate goals and visualize the optimized value
stream map
Execution – Incremental approach towards the implementation
Retrospection – Review and learn
Ok, let's get started!
Value Stream Mapping
Value stream mapping is a lean improvement strategy that maps the processes and information flows
of a product from source to delivery. For a software delivery, it is the pre–defined path an idea takes
to transform into a
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Case Study Of KKTM Mara
KKTM Mara, located on 0,96 acre at Petaling Jaya, Selangor, is one of the institutions providing
studies in the field of Electronic Engineering. KKTM was established in 1972 and known as Institut
Kemahiran MARA, Petaling Jaya. Preliminary courses provided at first year establishment are
related to the courses such as Sewing, Make–up and fashion. Starting in 1982, the programs offered
have been converted into a program of Mechanical and Architectural Drawings and next in 1986, to
Electronics Industry and Instrument programs.
The ultimate aim KKTM establishment is to increase the number of professional semi–skilled
employment and high technology in order to increase Bumiputera teknoprenuer. KKTM MARA has
continues its programmes in 1995 with ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) was used to identify the root cause and solution of
their problem. This project took about 6 month to complete and come out the best solution using
Information System (IS). This online system allows processes implemented more quickly and
efficiently. LEAN has contributed to better quality process. In addition, it can shorten time of
searching and examination the applications' received. In this case, Online Application (Online Sub–
store System) is implemented at KKTM with new standard to ensure smooth process
implementation. Lecturers don't have to walk to the Sub Store (counters) for submitting and
reviewing applications. After reviews via online on application status, lecturers will take the training
material at the counter. This new process has reduced employee's motion from one place to
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The Value Stream Analysis ( Vsa ) Essay
spent several years in the military trying to convince leaders to use Lean principles to improve their
operations. But even when presented with an action plan based on the Value Stream Analysis (VSA)
of a costly process, the action plan was rarely implemented by the very organizational leaders who
requested the analysis in the first place.
There always seemed to be resistance to using Lean tools that could have led to some very big
improvements. At first, I couldn 't figure out why. But after a while, I started noticing certain
patterns in the language of reluctant leaders that pointed to some key underlying causes for
resistance.
These causes seemed to boil down to the following:
1. Lack of Understanding of Lean Language
2. "We Are Different Because We Are Not A Manufacturing Organization"
3. Organizational Stove–Pipes
4. The True Cost Of Wasteful Processes Not Measured
5. Mobility Of Leadership Personnel
Lean principles can help organizations improve profitability through improved cycle times,
productivity and quality, by removing waste from work processes and systems. The resulting
reduction in waste also leads to reductions in operating costs. But Lean was born in the
manufacturing world. So some of the core concepts pertain to assembly–line set–ups and still use
that language (work–in–process inventory, flow cells, kanban–based pull systems, etc.).
Even so, there are many examples of service companies successfully using Lean tools. One of the
largest and well
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Sample Resume On Value Stream Mapping
Contents
Introduction 2
Steps for preparing VSM 2
VSM to develop Facility Layouts 4
Facility Layout – Micro 5
Facility Layout – Macro 8
Exhibit1 11
Exhibit 2 11
Exhibit 3 12
Exhibit 4 12
Introduction
Mike Rother and John Shook were asked to use their knowledge of Toyota practices to create a
simple tool for managers to enable them to see the flow of value. They came up with Value Stream
Mapping. This lean tool can help companies optimize their production in such a way that it results in
drastic reduction in cost and throughput time and also improved quality.
Value Stream Mapping (VSM) allows user to create a concrete plan to make most efficient use of
the available resources. VSM is one of the most powerful lean tool for an organization in
implementing and improving on its lean journey. VSM shows the all the process from order entry to
delivery. The value stream in a VSM is the point at which value is actually added to the product or
service by changing its market form or function. Value adding activities can be things like:
machining, assembly, welding, folding and so on.
Scope of Value Stream
Value Stream Map can be drown for three different levels: An extended level map as the view of the
values stream at 60,000 feet, the facility level map at 30,000 feet and the process level map at
10,000 feet.
Steps for preparing VSM
Forming the team: For creating VSM it is very important to create a proper cross functional team
consisting of supervisory or
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History, Uses, And Alternative Methods Of Kanban
Kanban in Japanese means "visual signal" or "card" according to LearnIt.com. The following
document discusses the history, uses, and alternative methods of Kanban. The term Kanban
originally was coined as a phrase to describe process work flows in the 1940s at a Toyota factory.
Kanban uses have now expanded beyond manufacturing and into project management. Alternative
methods that might use Kanban are waterfall, scrum, and eXtreme programming. There are a lot of
best practices to follow in Kanban such as being flexible to incremental changes throughout the
project and encouraging leadership at all management levels. It is also important visualize the
workflow and then to manage it. This will help for everyone to understand the logic and make the
flows consistent. Kanban can be really beneficial to Project Management because it allows everyone
to see the progress of all the phases of the project and how their part plays into the big picture. This
process also allows flexibility with its ability to make additional tasks and changes continuously.
There are also some downsides to Kanban in project management. When projects have too many
specialized workflows for tasks it makes it hard to have consistent workflows, and Kanban doesn't
always account for two or more people working on a task. Kanban can be a valuable tool for Project
Management and other Just–In–Time processes. The Kanban method is really useful for visualizing
the process flows for which each task must go
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Lean Manufacturing And Process Improvement Essay
LEAN MANUFACTURING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT
ASSIGNMENT – 1
(PAPER REVIEW)
Singh, Harwinder&Singh,Amandeep,(2013),"Application of lean manufacturing using value stream
mapping in an auto–parts manufacturing unit", Journal of advances in Management Research,
Vol.10 iss 1 pp. 72–84
Submitted to: Submitted by:
SardarAsif Khan Simarjot Singh
Student ID : 104514634
BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND PROBLEM DESCRIPTION
The given mentioned research paper basically features the implementation of process improving
Lean Manufacturing methodologies especially Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in a auto–part
manufacturer located in outskirts of Ludhiana, Punjab, India which has 300 employees and 0.33
million dollar annual turnover. Now a days with ever increasing competition it has become
Herculean task for industries to manufacture wide range of products with world class quality
atminimum wastage of resources.The Lion's share part of research has been done on application of
Lean Manufacturing tools in large industries or organizations. But in most of the nations Small and
Medium Enterprises(SME) are backbone for nation's economical growth. Hence it become more
important for those industries to nurture and flourish not at organizational level but at global phase.
The said organization is fabricating 10 different variety of products. Weldon Ball end and
Replacement Ball were chosen as most critical product families because of
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The Process Cycle Will Involve 4 Steps
The process cycle will involve 4 steps. These steps are In–checking, Pulling/ system Processing,
System Moving & Labeling, Physical Moving. The average time for this process cycle from the time
that an Item is in checked to when the Items is move to the Pickup & Delivery Bins takes 375
seconds which is 6 Minutes and 15 Seconds. The estimated Takt time is depending on whether it is a
priority item or a general cargo item. According to policy, priority items must be in the customer's
hand within one hour (3,600 seconds) of receipt by TMO. The takt time will vary depending on the
proximity of the customer to the TMO Warehouse, so location will affect TMO ability to meet takt
time. Therefore if the customer is located 40 minutes away, out takt time for priority times will be
20 minutes, if our customer is 55 minutes away, out takt time will be 5 minutes. Leadership Policy
indicate that general cargo items must be available to the customer within 72 Hours of Receipt and
seaport items within a 168 hours (a week). Process Cycle Steps Process Cycle Tasks Process Cycle
Time InChecking Check for Damage Check Quantity Check Item Number/ Part Number Check Item
was sent to proper Location Check Shelf Life has not expired Check for Item classification Assign
Temporary Location Walk to office to process 15 secs 20 secs 7 secs 5 secs 15 secs 5 secs 5 secs 25
secs Total: 97 secs Pulling/ System Processing o Search
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Personal Narrative : My Life Of Lean
Stephen Sanders Dr. Jahan Muhammad AMS 394 Lean Manufacturing My Life of Lean I come
from a long line of craftsman's and only being 31 years of age, I have been really fortunate to stay
working and not just working with one job either. Various trades, customizing, production, back
braking, you name it I have done. My name is Stephen Sanders II and at 16 years old I practically
begged my father to show me the ways of building a custom set of stairs, trim, put crown molding
up and base down. Needless to say that my father owned his own custom trim carpentry business.
My father had and still has a reputation producing high quality, forever lasting works–of–art. No
house was the same but the guarantee was. Now I was part of the pack. Learning the in's and out's to
carpentry is very valuable and my father would pick up different jobs when he wasn't covered up
with trim work. The jobs would range from weed eating the yard to complete ground–breaking––
start to finish on residential and commercial buildings. Learning the necessary carpentry skills
comes with its ups and downs. Usually at the beginning of every year through fall. Construction
would stay afloat and we usually were covered up with work. When old man winter came, work
slowed, sometimes completely come to a stop. Having 5–6 years of training under my belt and now
at the ripe age of 23, I know that I couldn't keep working this way. I couldn't spread my wings and
fly. I wanted a place of my own. I wanted my own
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Le An Objective For Prohibition
Abstract: Lean is a conspicuous theory and application which expects the use of a wide range of
assets for any reason, other than the production of significant worth for the end client to be
inefficient, and subsequently an objective for prohibition. The theory and mindset communicated by
an arrangement of standards, supplemented by various devices and systems helps for waste
abolition, equipped execution change, stock diminishment, and ideal quality level to the end clients.
It is one of the principal and far reaching ideas that add to organizations everywhere throughout the
globe to increase upper hand and thrive on the global market. (Čiarnienė & Vienažindienė, 2015)
Introduction: These day's organizations everywhere throughout the world are confronting with
expanding demands from clients and competitors. Clients have higher desires, and makers can meet
these desires by expanding item 's quality, diminishing conveyance time, and reducing costs – or a
mix of these three categories. These push business organizations to actualize new generation
methodologies to upgrade their intensity in the worldwide commercial center. Lean is a coordinated
arrangement of standards, practices, apparatuses, and procedures which expect the consumption of a
wide range of assets for any reason other than the making of significant worth for the end client to
be inefficient, and in this manner an objective for avoidance. The end of non–quality included
exercises decreases expenses and process
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Value Stream Mapping
Value Stream Mapping
Prof. N.Raghavan
Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
Definitions
Value: What the Client wants from the process
Value stream: Includes all the processes and activities used to design, produce and deliver the
product or service to the Client. ––– All the steps
– both value added and non value added – required to take a product or service from its raw
materials state into the waiting arms of a happy customer. Value Stream Map: Special type of flow
chart that uses symbols from the "Language of Lean" to depict and improve the flow of inventory
and information. Typ. VSM
Value Stream
"Whenever there is a product for a customer, there is a value stream. The challenge lies in seeing it."
–Learning ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Create a Future State Value Stream
Map
Now that we have a better understanding of the current state of affairs, we are ready to draw a
picture of how we would like things to look in the future.
Typically, as an example, we aim to make things flow and reduce the amount of inventory or waiting
in between steps.
It's at this point that we can create an ideal work process.
Create an Action Plan
Now that we know how things are working today and how we would like to see them working in the
future it's time to form a plan.
There are a variety of templates available for this. We should know exactly what needs to happen
and when it needs to happen.
In short, we form the plan... then execute the plan!
VSM procedures
For making the improvements, some examples:
– Use Work (Time, Motion, ..) studies to identify NVAs & eliminate them
– Modularisation / Standardisation
– Design changes to improve Constructability
– Off–site fabrication and assembly
– Reducing Batch size – E.g., going in for multiple smaller batching plants in the site to enhance
flexibility in delivery of concrete mix.
– Bringing closely interconnected operations (E.g. Formwork, reinforcement and concreting) under
supervision of one agency
– Implementing pull system through Kanban Cards (E.g. Block work, formwork etc) for better
control on inventory management at the central storage yard, smooth logistics within site and for
avoiding
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What is the Lean Startup Methodology in Research?
The Lean startup methodology was used for this study.Software process models are getting changed
constantly; this is with a belief that well defined process models always help to get the success to
any company. (Ries, n.d.) Lean Startup provides a scientific approach to creating and managing
startups and gets a desired product to customers' hands faster. There are multiple methodologies
which have been in software development for last several years. Waterfall, Agile development
methodology being considered two important methodologies.Lean and Agile share many of the
same principles and many agile principles are borrowed from Lean thinking (Chan, July 25,
2013).Lean startup is an approach to business development that is based on the principles of lean
production, a manufacturing methodology that values a business' ability to change quickly. The lean
startup methodology is a set of strategies designed to unwind the uncertainties in and around
innovation. Lean startup (Rouse, n.d.)is building a prototype quickly, getting it to market to gauge
success of the product without expending unnecessary resources and use the data generated by early
marketing testing to influence the next build phase. In programming, the approach is called Agile.
Lean/Agile culture is the belief that feedback cycles rapidly – where feedback is meant to be in the
form of reactions from the clients, prospects and users importantly – are required to discover the
important but false assumptions often
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The Current Economic Environment Of Lean Manufacturing
The current economic environment we are in, shared with increasing guidelines has placed
manufacturers in the challenging position of having to reduce waste, improve processes, and
increase productivity. Although lean manufacturing can well enough be the answer, some companies
have found lean manufacturing implementation to be an ongoing battle. Which is not to say,
however, that there have not been some major success stories. There are many obstacles to lean
implementations.
Two Major Obstacles for Lean Manufacturing Implementation
One obstacle is the perception that the use of lean manufacturing solutions is, at best, nothing more
than a trend. In addition, at worst, a brief craze. It is often observed as nothing more than a
repackaging of fundamental industrial engineering principles dressed up in new clothes, and
flaunted in new terms to appeal to a new industry. Lean manufacturing is sometimes seen in many
industries as a collection of techniques, known to be effective in the auto industry, which some
people are now trying to impose on a completely different industry. This means that perceptions
have to be changed.
Another major obstacle is gaining management and employee buy–in. For example, decreasing
batch size is easy to see and not hard to influence in most industries. However, in many industries,
altering batch size also involves reducing the size of the blend, which, in turn, runs into renewed
testing, and several layers of approval. There will, of
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Banking(Lean)
Fundamentally, Lean is about eliminating waste. Some waste is unavoidable, but the objective is to
identify all activities that are non–value–added, and reduce as many as possible. General examples
of waste include over–producing, waiting, defects/ rework, over–processing, inventory, motion, and
transport. A few specific examples of waste sometimes found in financial services include: Rework
due to lost files or processing errors Over–processing due to duplicate client records, or redundant
data entry requirements Movement due to physical dispersion of process participants Printing,
copying, and transporting of documents instead of transmitting/storing electronically Identifying,
eliminating, or reducing such waste will ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Communication is the most important step in change management. A bank needs to share a common
goal and set of expectations of value that the lean program will deliver. Teaching and coaching Lean
techniques to employees is a needed investment to sustain the Lean culture. The concept of the
"internal client" should also be introduced for non–customer–facing departments. This approach will
ensure a customer–centered attitude at every level of the bank. Finally, Lean managers must spend
more time on the floor to observe and capture improvement ideas The case for Lean banking The
focus of Lean lies on building a client–centered organization. Banks have always struggled to
deliver excellent customer experience due to processes that are not adapted to the customer's need.
Moreover, it is mostly a negative perception of the banking industry that hurts customer satisfaction.
Lean initiatives are rising rapidly in banking, yet their approach is still too much focused on
reaching operational excellence. A focus on the cultural aspects of Lean would ensure, in the first
place, that the entire organization is working together in improving its customer service, but more
importantly, all employees will be inspired to deliver continuously excellent customer service. Here
is some of the challenge in banking management and benefit of lean. Challenge | Benefit of Lean |
Systems and Management
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The Principles Of Lean Manufacturing
The primary use of lean principles was in the manufacturing domain earlier, later it spread to various
processes across various industries. It was believe that the idea of lean originated in japan (Toyota),
but there is evidence that the Mr. Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motor Company has been using
the principles of lean in the early 1920's.
Henry ford thought that shortening the time a product takes in a production is a key solution to
reduce the overall cost of the product [4]. If a product spends large amounts of time in a process of
manufacturing, the overall costs goes high, one of the reasons being more material handling.
There are primarily 5 principles of lean manufacturing [9]. Those 5 principles are as follows:
1) Specifying ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Most people tend to misunderstand lean by identifying the non–value added processes and working
on them to eradicate them which in turn increases the amount of non–value added tasks.
VALUE STREAMS: Value stream is a map of processes in the order of which they run. Creating a
value stream is of key importance in understanding the value added and non–value added processes.
Value streams help us identify the whole production process as a whole while giving us insight on
all the sub processes that go through. Value stream processes may also depict the flow of
information. VSM requires various departments to come together and prepare the map, it is not an
individual job.
FLOW: We continuously try to establish a flow between values added processes. A value added
process must not be hindered by a process which of no value. If possible, non–value added
processes must be done in parallel.
PULL: lean concentrates on pull system. Pull system is making the product when it is required. This
tends to minimize the wastage and also has minimal inventory. Employees stay idle when there is no
order but the value is from the final product. Industries following push system can face a few
problems in the form of over production and inventory wastages. Producing first and storing it in
warehouse eats up the capital that is invested and is a considerable waste.
PERFECTION: Perfection is achieved when the
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Explain The Scope And Scope Of Operations Management
1.1 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
Operations management can be defined as managing the available resources in the best possible way
that are dedicated to the production process and to have highest level of efficiency in an
organization. Operations managers are the people who are responsible for managing the resources
and that guide the system by decision making. The operations function of an organization is
responsible for understanding customer demands and fulfil their needs through the delivery of
products and services.
Operations management can also be referred as a business practice that are used to generate profit
for an organization with the use of optimal resources. It includes function such as material
requirement planning, managing purchases, storage, logistic and evaluation of processes. The focus
is on efficiency and effectiveness while performing these functions. Thus it can be concluded that
operations management involves measurement and analysis of processes. ... Show more content on
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It also has other levels which deal with the issues of the layout the plant, tools & techniques and
project management methods. Quality control domain also comes in operations management which
deals with producing products according to customer specifications.
Operations management function is focused mainly of production of goods and services and for this
it needs support from other departments such as finance and marketing. The scope of operations
management can vary from organization to organization. Operations function consist of interrelated
activities that are directly focused on production and delivery of goods and services. Thus it can be
present in manufacturing as well as service industry such as healthcare and
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Research: Improving Patient flow in Outpatient Department...
Improving Patient flow in Outpatient Department At Apollo Main Hospital, Chennai
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Orthopedic Department at Apollo Main Hospitals, Chennai has been facing problems in patient
flow due to increased delays in other processes like registration, waiting time, other diagnosis etc.
This has led to patient flow delays, disruptions and inefficiencies, and it has caused dissatisfaction
among some patients and employees resulting in a loss of potential revenue and safety concerns for
these patients. In order to combat these challenges, we analyzed data and conducted interviews to
establish a comprehensive understanding of the hospital's orthopedic department, strengthened the
existing processes and protocol through ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In light of these challenges, a need for review and reform of our healthcare practices has become
apparent.
LEAN IN HEALTHCARE
Lean is one way in which these issues can be addressed. The basic concept of lean is "using less to
do more"‖ (Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2005). For healthcare, in particular, one can apply
the principles of lean thinking to improve such processes as patient wait time, levels of staffing, and
quality of care. Improvements to such processes can greatly impact the health of the community.
Lean operations is all about adding value and removing waste. Lean is a management strategy that
seeks to improve operational performance in terms of customer satisfaction, cost, quality, and
delivery by focusing on the customer and eliminating waste, variability and inflexibility. It is based
on an operational strategy for manufacturing which originated in the Japanese automotive industry,
and has now been successfully applied to a range of service businesses. The use of Lean and Six
Sigma can help companies position themselves for sustainable growth and profitability through
improved efficiencies across the entire enterprise.
The first step in lean thinking is the identification of
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Business and Management
UVA–OM–1497 Authorized for use only in the course EMBA 816 Production and Operations
Management at University of Regina taught by James Mason from Jan 03, 2015 to Apr 30, 2015.
Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Rev. Apr. 7, 2014 DARDEN BUSINESS
PUBLISHING GETS LEAN (A) Darden Business Publishing (DBP) prepared business case studies
for use in the Darden classroom and, simultaneously, for publication and sales worldwide through
both its own website and those of partner distributors. The case collection was a key manifestation
of Darden's intellectual capital and value proposition; new cases kept the MBA curriculum relevant
and imparted thought leadership by Darden faculty and researchers. But Steve Momper, DBP's ...
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Personal feelings certainly affect CPI. I know we don't live in an ideal world, but if we did,
everyone would engage in CPI with the attitude of, "If it smells like muda, it's muda.1 We can work
together to eliminate it." We could plan a series of half–day workshops–perhaps five, over the
course of a week–during which we could walk through a set of group analysis exercises. These
would help the group understand more about the work process, what your products are, who your
customers are, and which actions might help you build a more consistent flow. Throughout the
workshops, I will encourage participants to discuss common problems and even to get things that
are irking them off their chests. The group will collect their comments on sticky notes on the board.
Then, we'll spend some time grouping the sticky notes into categories. These categories will be
instrumental in helping us determine which of these groupings of problems pinpoints the larger
issues that your value stream faces. I'm not here to tell you how to do your job, or, at this point, to
delve too deeply into the intricacies of your work. I see your current challenges as being more
fundamentally about process and about your relationships with your upstream and downstream
stakeholders.2 Momper readily agreed, and they planned for a week of half–day
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What Are The Root Causes Of Subway Customers
12. Mixed/level loaded production for advanced scheduling and production activities. 13. Self–
directed work teams which help the individual franchisees that contribute to the company. This
directive brings out self–management responsibilities in the individual franchisees. 14. Pull system
is implemented to attract customers on demand to reduce waste. 15. Value added activities such as
perfect quality, short lead–time, reduced cost and innovation. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW The main
objective of research work conducted in this paper is to identify the root causes of the declining
Subway's customers. Lean principles are already adapted in Subway's working process and we
would like to identify additional continuous improvement methods that can be implemented to
increase the customer satisfaction and increase sales. Lean is said to be a process improvement
methodology used to deliver service and product in a faster way with lower cost. Womack and Jones
(1996) identified lean as "A way to specify value, line up value creating actions in the best sequence,
conduct those activities without interruption whenever someone requests them more and more
effectively". Womack and Jones (1996) further elaborated saying that activities in lean thinking
provides a way to do more and more with less and less, including less human effort, less human
equipment, less time, less space, while coming closer and closer providing customer with exactly
what they want. A research paper on Takt time stating,
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Visual Management, Single Minute Exchange Of Die ( Smed )...
Introduction:
In today's world, opening or managing a company is very difficult. The Economic crisis, heavy
taxation and barriers of entrance in some countries, make it more difficult. But all blame can't be
given to external factors. Most of the times the critical factors are inside the company. So what is the
right way of managing a company? In this assignment I studied and analyzed three tools that can
help me and are fundamental to success in this business world that is ruled by time and efficiency.
The tools I selected are: Visual Management, Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) and Value
Stream Mapping.
VISUAL MANAGEMENT:
In order to continuously improve and progress as an organization, people need to observe,
communicate and sharing information. The visual management is a strategy that make information
easier to interpret and immediately available. Is such an intuitive strategy, many people don't even
realize that they used it in their daily lives and despites this prevalent outside of work place most of
organizations don't know how to take follow advantage of it. The simplicity of visual management
causes many people to overlook its usefulness.
Image using a water faucet with impropriate mark handles. There is a blue handle for hot water and
red handle for cold water. This will be incredibly frustrating and confusing. Societies have
established the standard that the color blue indicates cold and color red indicates hot. Therefore the
colors are interpreted that
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New Ivory : An Effective System
Introduction
New Ivory is a private company which manufacture and produce packaged sauces. Based in the UK
they work in a competitive market supplying 50% of products to supermarkets and 50% to other
clients. New Ivory (NI) attempt to use lean principles in order to make their business more efficient.
Using these principles helps them to deliver their products to clients within the given lead time of 14
days; currently they rely heavily on forecasting sales. It is not an effective system and there is
potential to erase the waste they create, they still need to apply further lean principles to achieve
this. Kaizen is important with all the flows and processes; it will however take time to implement.
The theories need to be implemented carefully and within certain ideals to create continuous
improvement.
Observations on current working practices
New ivory have a 14 day lead time. This is high, and ideally should to be reduced to 7 days. This is
due to poor procedures on the manufacturing floor, such as time wasted waiting for products moving
from the next station to another because there are too many shared resources. A potential solution
for this is using the theory of 'first in first out' (FIFO) as explained by Bharath, R (and others, 2014)
'a method for organizing the component buffer where the oldest entry or bottom of the stack is
processed first which eliminates inventory which in turn reduces the lead time and Value Stream
Mapping (VSM) to map the present and the future
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Le Lean And Lean
Introduction Lean Principles have been essential to numerous organisations all over the world for
achieving outstanding results in terms of efficiency, quality and manufacturing times. Large
organisations are especially acknowledged to implement lean principles successfully. However, in
recent years small and medium sized enterprises have been in emphasis due to their flexibility and
capabilities that provides the necessary robustness in the global economic crisis (Matt , 2007).
Therefore, this paper will critically appraise and assess two separate case studies by authors Matt
and Rauch (2013) and Kumar et al. (2006) respectively. The two case studies, provided by these
respective authors, revolve around SMEs in two different countries. This paper will identify lean
elements along with their motivations behind their lean implementations and identify the main
differences and similarities between the two case studies in terms of general lean literature. Finally,
a list of recommendations will be given to each case study and how their individual companies can
improve the success of their lean adoption. The Case Studies' Lean Adoption The first case study is
a SME, situated in the north of Italy. The firm started in 1995 and employs around 25 persons. With
a small employee size it was very hard to commit too much time to develop a lean production with a
two year period in single steps. Since there was limited resource allocation, it was decided that the
firm will use a step
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay

  • 1. Increasing Vehicle Outsourcing ( % Of Car Value ) Essay In a finished product, out of most of the industries only one particular company, provide a very little amount of the total value. Hence to improve the process within the company lean techniques are used so that the total impact will not be high when it is applied to a broader supply chain. Figure 1. Increasing vehicle outsourcing (% of car value). The above fig represents the birth place of lean, which is an automotive industry and it shows the trend towards outsource and vehicle's total value. And, it represents the trend of the three European makers accordingly. Lean techniques have shown a positive trend within the companies and in broader supply chain. To understand across a broader chain supply, the three principles namely pull, level–loaded work and synchronization helps understanding the interaction between the suppliers and customers or within a company. The trend of implementing lean technology has grown into a broader spectrum. The Toyota production the TPS were applied where only manufacturing efficiency was the aim. Later in 1970 and 1980's supply complexity, market and distribution, service was concentrated when the company became more globalized, and the aim was to improve the quality, control over effective process. In 1990's, lean supply chain was extended to a wider enterprise which included subsidiaries, contractors of third party, distributors. In the last decade, starting from the supplier of the raw material to end customer, lean theory ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Facilitating Agile Software Development With Lean... Facilitating Agile Software Development with Lean Architecture in DCI Paradigm Term Paper Spring 2015 CIS 580 Arsalan Hafiz 01498800 Introduction: Programming advancement is a lavish, and regularly a troublesome methodology. It is all around recorded that product activities are ordinarily over timetable, over spending plan and regularly don 't meet client prerequisites. The fundamental issues are all connected with individual's related issues. To address this issue, the Agile theory was presented in the mid 90 's with a related arrangement of Agile routines. These techniques are particularly intended to enhance programming venture group administration. Readiness in short intends to strip away however much of the largeness, generally connected with conventional programming advancement techniques, as could be expected, so as to elevate speedy reaction to evolving situations, changes in client prerequisites, quicken venture due dates, thus on [1]. Agile application is just constrained to execution and early testing. Numerous agile practices, for example, every day standup meeting, pair programming and test–first coding are practiced amid usage stage, and few agile practices bring mature domain knowledge forward in a way that reduces the cost and effort of later decisions during implementation [2]. "Lean" fundamentally refers an approach in the manufacturing world that was originally developed by Toyota in the 1950 's. At this time Japanese industry was ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Learning Systems Development And Software Construction And... According to the textbook, there are at least two (2) approaches to the SDLC, two (2) approaches to software construction and modeling, and many techniques and models. The following could be possible reasons for such a diversity of approaches: The field is young. The technology changes quickly. Different organizations have different needs. There are many types of systems. Developers have widely different backgrounds The two basic approaches within the SDLC include the predictive approach which assumes that the project can be organized and planned with well–defined requirements and carried out with no major setbacks. The adaptive approach looks at a project that is less defined and can't be planned. Developers must be more flexible and adapt to the needs of the users as they are identified. This paper will look at the above listed potential reasons to determine their validity in defining why there is diversity in system development and software construction and modeling. When assessing the reason "the field is young", one may surmise that newer developers may adopt more modern methodologies. Agile modeling came about after more traditional practices. However, less experienced developers may lean toward a more known and proven theory like the waterfall approach which uses successive phases to be completed and finalized. The waterfall is rigid but more predictable and may be easier to manage for new project managers. Using different types of techniques may confuse a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Lean Thinking : Banish Waste And Create Wealth Authors of the book Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation, James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones, focus on Lean thinking, the five principles of Lean with details on how to implement these ideals in their text. Additionally it provides evidence as to how creating a Lean factory will boost productivity and reduce inventories. Womack and Jones define Lean thinking as providing "a way to make work more satisfying by providing immediate feedback on efforts to convert muda into value." (Womack and Jones, 1996) Through this, the five principles were created. The Lean values that are used to reduce Muda, the Japanese word for waste, are addressed in the first part of the book as being: value, value stream, flow, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When the waste is eliminated in the value stream, ideally, the steps would flow together without any stoppages. A few other items would need to be changed in order for production to flow smoothly. Those include: the elimination of specialized departments, smaller machines closer in proximity to one another if they are creating a single product, and redesigning the processes that have had extra steps or create stoppages. The next principle is pull. This is the "first visible effect of converting from departments and batches to product teams and flow" in which the amount of time that was needed for a product that would ordinarily take years to design. (Womack and Jones, 1996) With the concept of pull, customers are only delivered what they want, when it is asked for, instead of pushing the products at the customers and hoping for the best as they had previously done. By this logic, "no one upstream should produce a good or service until the customer downstream asks for it." (Womack and Jones, 1996) Lastly in the principles comes perfection. The process of improvement is constant; there should always be pushes to improve and reduce more waste. The idea is that even if the company is more successful than the competition today, there is no plausible reason to settle; one day they will surpass the company. Even more importantly, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. The Project Of Cathedral Hill Hospital With Lean Culture Figure 11. The Project of Cathedral Hill Hospital with Lean Culture Other Lean techniques that the researcher obtained through analyzing collected data are "customer–supplier" standpoints and the Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) approach. Fundamentally projects utilized Lean principles will pay more attention on the demands of customers to supply exactly what they need and require; therefore, this technique significantly reduce needlessly waste of the project. Likewise, PDSA is mentioned in the continuous improvement of the project life cycle with the following definitions of each factor: Plan: Adjustments or innovations in consideration of achieving the project improvement. Do: Execution of necessary changes and modifications. Study: Outcomes of the changes. What are needed to improve? What are required to eliminate? Act: Acceptances or declines of changes. Owner participation in LIB. The responsibility of owners unquestionably affects the project performance and objectives, particularly in LIB–cooperating ones as a result of IPD and Lean characteristics that need to be decided as the beginning of the project. One of the owner's ability is to notice the expecting changes in design and construction phases as well as the life–cycle and services. In reality, the early participation and well–timed decisions of the owner obviously reduce a considerable amount of time during the whole planning, designing, and constructing processes. As reported by project team members from ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Current State VSM Essay MEMORANDUM November 15, 2013 TO: Sarah McDougal, Manager of Disbursements at Ramsville FROM: Team 5 SUBJECT: Process Improvements for Ramsville ______________________________________________________________________________ Team 5 will be analyzing and providing recommendations on how to improve the issue of overdue payments to suppliers at Ramsville. After walking the process, creating a current value stream analyzing data, Team 5 has suggestions on how to increase efficiency by eliminating muda that will improve customer satisfaction and supplier relationships. ANALYSIS Team 5 identified the key issues by creating a Current Value Stream Mapping (Table 1, Page 3). Ramsville's pay now invoices have a total lead time of 196,200 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The next recommendation Team 5 has is to increase the processing time at the PFR Check to 600 seconds. Team 5 believes this will increase the accuracy of invoice checking because an additional four minutes will be dedicated to the task and employees will have more time allotted to double check the accuracy of the invoices being passed to the next activity. This will assure the practice of quality at the source is being used so that incorrect information is not being passed onto subsequent processes. Another recommendation is to eliminate the batch process so that payments can get to the suppliers at a faster rate and decrease the number of supplier complaints, summarized on Table 7 (Page 7). This will eliminate the muda of the extra time needed to un–batch the invoices so that information can be relayed to suppliers quicker. Team 5 also recommends implementing an automated process system that automatically scans and enters invoices into the payment processing software. With the implementation of this software, Pay Later Invoices and Pay Now Invoices can be eliminated from the process. Additionally, Team 5 suggests moving the two employees from Pay Now and Pay Later Invoices to the Final Check activity. This will eliminate the bottleneck of over utilization at the Final Check because the number of employees increases to three. Although the utilization decreases by over 30%, it leaves room for variability and decreases the stress put
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  • 14. Logistics And Supply Chain Practices Essay Logistics and Supply Chain Practices Introduction We have several logistics and supply chain management practices that increase the competitive advantage of a business. They include among others lean thinking, information quality, customer relations, strategic alliance and information sharing (Elizabeth, p.14). This section discusses lean thinking and customer relations in the manufacturing and retail markets respectively. The discussion is also based on a critical analysis of recent literature review in logistics and supply chain management. Critical Analysis Lean thinking is essential to improve supply chain management. This is because lean thinking ensures things are done just as they should. As an example, Toyota has demonstrated superior results with regard to quality, cost and lead–time compared to most (if not all) of its competitors. This accomplishment has led to a widespread interest in the Toyota System of Production and its way of doing business. Subsequently, various reviews of "The Toyota Way" have been done. This has led to the characterization of lean production, which can now be seen as a generic description of the Production System at Toyota. Despite there being many, diverse perceptions of what exactly has led to Toyota 's success, Toyota itself proposes that its system is based on considering the time from getting the client 's orders to cash collection and shorten this lead–time by eradicating waste (Chiarini 2011). Customer relationship is also a key ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16. Software Development: Lean + Agile = Results Essay Lean on Agile In this competitive world of software development speed, accuracy and reliability play an important role during the development of a product. Traditional software development models like waterfall model lack these features which makes them not so feasible with the current scenario. The characteristics which traditional methods failed to address were achieved by agile methodologies, which are rapid, flexible, efficient and iterative. Lean, which was proven to be useful in the manufacturing industry is now has its applications even in software industry and is referred as Lean Software Development. Lean is known for its principles, which when applied optimizes the work. Both agile and lean have their own/individual set of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 1.1 Agile Software Development:[1] Agile software development is defined as "set of methods that support incremental software development" [1]. Agility means responding to changes quickly and efficiently, flexible production system. Possible changes required in software projects are in requirements, budget, schedule, resources, technology and team. For successful software these changes should be reflected in the product. The term agile software development and the agile golden principles were defined in agile alliance meeting in 2001. 1.1.1 Characteristics of agile: Incremental, Cooperative, Adaptive, Iterative, Concurrent Phase development, Minimal Documentation . 1.2 Lean Software Development: Lean Software Development (LSD) is the application of lean principles to software development. It is more a set of guidelines than a formal methodology. It was introduced by **Toyota systems , a leading automobile manufacturing organization. Although it originated in automobile manufacturing systems it is now used in software development successfully. The primary focus of lean is continuous improvement and flow of the value from the inception of the idea all the way to the customer. 2. AGILE TO LEAN With the introduction of principles of lean in to the software development, there has been a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18. Global Warming, Resource Scarcity, And High Energy Costs CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION According the 2010, Sustainability Report by the President and Chief Operating Officer of Bombardier transportation (André Navarri) [2], around the globe, everyone is faced with significant challenges including global warming, resource scarcity, and high–energy costs. Cities continue to exhibit explosive growth, leading to the pressing need for more effective transportation systems. Bombardier Transportation finds itself at the confluence of these environmental and social challenges. The report also mention that, in 2006, BT launched an integrated approach to align their operations with industry world–class standards and to formalize the sharing of best practices among all Bombardier ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The majority of articles are theoretical rather than practical in nature. In the recent years the number of experiential articles is increasing drastically compared to previous years [4]. Customized products describe manufacturing in the Twenty–first century. This has led to the complex production planning and control systems making mass production of goods interesting. Many organizations, particularly railway and automotive organizations, struggled in the new customer driven and globally competitive markets. These factors present a big challenge to organizations to look for new tools and methods to continue moving up the ladder in the changed market situation [5]. This creates more problems for new companies that are eager to break into the markets. Supply chain is one of the critical aspects that can make or break any company. The research will also concentrate on aspects of supply chain. 1.1 LEAN AND ITS PURPOSE Lean is an idea or process of creating value for customers by reducing waist. The increase of production output with less labour. The purpose is to be able to fulfil customers' needs with less cost. The five Lean principles are:
  • 19. 1.1.1 SPECIFY VALUE FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE CUSTOMER This addresses the common way manufactures work by giving the customer what is convenient for the manufacture. The Twenty–first century demands and requirements from customers are complex ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Virginia Mason Hospital What were reasons for implementing lean management at Virginia Mason Hospital? Lean thinking begins with driving out waste so that all work adds value and serves the customer's needs. Identifying value–added and non–value–added steps in every process is the beginning of the journey toward lean operations. In order for lean principles to take root, leaders must first work to create an organizational culture that is receptive to lean thinking. The commitment to lean must start at the very top of the organization, and all staff should be involved in helping to redesign processes to improve flow and reduce waste. Although health care differs in many ways from manufacturing, there are also surprising similarities: Whether building a car or ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The time saved increases the time a physician can spend with a patient. Most of the cost of medical care involves clogs in the flow of information –– paper forms, lab results, phone messages, often leading to irritated patients. Two details on this list bear further explanation. The No–Layoff Policy is critical to the success of implementing lean management. People will more fully commit and engage in improvement work if they are not worried about improving themselves out of a job. Attrition, typically steady in health care, will enable most organizations to reassign staff to other necessary work. A culture shift is important here as well: Staff, especially in health care, do not typically view themselves as working for the organization, but for their individual department and/or care team. In lean thinking, the patient/customer drives all processes, and staff/providers must come to understand that they work for the patient. This means they may be reassigned depending on the needs of the patients. Secondly, the defect alert system is a fundamental element of the TPS, known as "stopping the line." Every worker in the Toyota plant has the power and the obligation to stop the assembly line when a defect or error is identified or even suspected. Workers pull a cord, a light goes on, music plays as a signal for supervisors to come and help, and the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Lean On Lean Software Development Lean Summary Lean Software Development (LSD) is an implementation of Lean Principles in software development. In sum, every action that does not produce value is considered waste (muda) (Liker, 2005). The goal is to create a system (software development or otherwise) that is waste free. "Several Agile techniques can be used to achieve this in software development, making LSD and Agile similar at first glance (Austad, 2011)". Origin/History It is important to note the history of Lean and the history of Lean Software development (LSD) are two different histories. Lean and LSD are related but their histories are different. This history will focus on LSD. The term lean software development originated in a book written by Mary Poppendieck and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Empower the Team – In a traditional work environment, decisions are made from the top down. In a LSD, it works in reverse of that. "The lean approach favors the aphorism 'find good people and let them do their own job,' encouraging progress, catching errors, and removing impediments, but not micro–managing (Liker, 2005)." Defer Commitment – By deferring critical/irreversible, you keep your options open for as long as possible (Liker, 2005). Pros/Cons Pros o Delivering the product early means that the development team can deliver more functionality in a shorter period of time, hence enabling more projects to be delivered. o Empowerment of the development team helps in developing the decision making ability of the team members which in turn creates more motivation among team members ( 'Top 12 Software Development Methodologies And Its Advantages/Disadvantages ', 2014). Cons o Lean does not do very well in small dev teams where the projects are small and unpredictable (job shop and/or lots of support). o " The project sponsors and clients need to know what they want and make decisions they will stick to. In lean software development these decisions can be made later. But the problem is that project sponsors tend to be paralyzed by fear when it comes to making the tough decisions. And in lean the whole objective of using this over say agile methodology is to enable your development to be done faster and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. The Management Philosophy of Gemba Kaizen Essay Introduction Masaaki Imai, author of Gemba Kaizen, states that companies, particularly in manufacturing field, can become more profitable by continuously looking for efficiencies. In Western style management it is more common to seek huge leaps. In Japanese style "Kaizen" businesses must try to eliminate anything that is inefficient thus cutting waste. Imai gives impressive examples from real world situations and supports them with case studies that show "Kaizen" in work. Discussion 1) The theme. Gemba Kaizen is divided into two major parts. The first part is well organized and deeply explained, very easy to read and understand overview of lean management concepts. Author has done a great job of reviewing the key concepts of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Every manager wants to increase revenues with low expenses involved. Being familiar and actual usage of "Gemba Kaizen" at the production facility will help managers to improve the work process and get respect of growing number of satisfied customers. 3) "Gemba" and Delivery. "Gemba" is where the customers come into contact with the services offered. "Gemba" is present in the workplace of every company whether it is administrative or bank worker. The problem with modern western managers is that they prefer to sit at there desks with the desire to distance themselves from real events. They contact with reality only through their reports. (Masaaki, Imai: Gemba Kaizen. Mc Graw Hill, 1997, p. 3–5). "Gemba" means the "real place" or the place where value is added. In manufacturing it is the shop floor. It is the centre of what is right and what is wrong with all plant processes. Practicing of kaizen (improvement) in "Gemba" may improve not only the plant performance, but also the delivery system as well. Constantly improving the work place where actual production is done will increase the quality of products and thus the way they are delivered to customers. Going to "Gemba" provides real information, not the one manager sees in the reports. 4) "Kaizen" and Lean Management. In the context of "Kaizen" management has two major functions: (1) maintenance or activities directed toward maintaining ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Competitive Advantages Of HRM Gaining Competitive Advantage through Lean Practices in HRM Dr.Dolly Dolai* ABSTRACT Current business conditions mandate greater competitive advantage from HR agendas and processes. HR must contribute strategic value to add greater competitive advantage either reactively or proactively. In its strategically reactive mode, HR assumes the existence of a business strategy and adds value by linking HR practices to the business strategy and by managing change. In its strategically proactive mode, HR creates competitive advantage by creating cultures of creativity and innovation, and by linking internal processes and structures with ongoing changes in the marketplace. This article defines and describes one such practice like lean management ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Some of the advantages are: Increased productivity ( some have reported up to 50% in some processes), better control on quality, lower cost, and improved employee involvement; all these, concurrently resulting in greater customer satisfaction. However for this to result in a sustained Competitive Advantage, the impact on HRM and the corresponding modifications required on the HRM policies and practices needs a study. Mr Taichi Ohno first developed the Lean Concepts at Toyota ( Womack, 1998) The principles he developed are applicable both to the manufacturing and the service sectors( A.Lakshminarasimha,2005). To enable a proper perspective on the concepts of Lean, an attempt is made to briefly recapitulate on them. What is "lean?" There are basically two definitions of "lean;" it is a systematic approach to eliminating waste through continuous improvement, and, it is a total business process – not just manufacturing. The measurement is from once an order is taken to receipt of payment. And really, "lean" is all about continuous ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. Doing A Project More Effectively And Efficiently Using... Topic: How to run a project more effectively and efficiently using lean management. Introduction: The main purpose of this research is to define better handling of ongoing project by complying with the principles of lean management to obtain maximum efficiency in production processing. During the project production lifecycle, many projects go through various challenges and to ensure that projects are handled in better ways, organisation perform different actions and approaches to retain project within budget and specified requirements. Today organizations face challenges in the form of intense international competition, rapid technology evolution, maturing customer expectations and quality demands. Therefore, to meet the customers expectation and finish project more efficiently, lean management approach can be more helpful in identifying bottlenecks and project causes at earlier stages of project development. This proposal will highlight issues and key solutions to the problems faced by projects these days by applying lean principles. Problem Statement Projects these days require extra monitoring to retain efficiency in project during its production, they are always tricky to organise but they get worse when project managers are under pressure to deliver a successful outcome within specified constraints. However, in recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature consistently showing that projects often fail by going into frequent cost overruns, delays, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. Agile Web Development Works Of The World Breathed A Sigh... Agile Web Development Works First, and foremost, agile web development is not a specific process, action, or exercise. it's a mindset –– an attitude with which a project is delivered. The agile methodology puts customer first, enabling development teams to work collaboratively and readily respond to change, and to deliver the best possible product. Being agile means focused on delivering streamlined projects, not wasting time documenting every meticulous detail of a product. Instead of documentations, development teams begin working almost immediately on delivering small incremental products. These incremental products enable customers and design teams to perform frequent sanity checks, making sure they are not spending an inordinate amount of time (and money) on features that deliver little to no value. Begin agile, enable teams to deliver the most value; in less time and with least amount of headaches. Flexibility and Agility meets Web Design Typical web development process circa 2000–2007. Developers across the world breathed a sigh of relief when Jesse James Garrett and Steve Krug first introduced us to their usability/user–centered design books in 2002. Not because they were new and innovative, but because they articulated the subject so well, even nontech–savvy individuals could digest the material. Using the agile approach, designers, and developers are able to eliminate up to 80% of the prep–work allowing us to pass on that savings to you. Modern ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. A Report On The And Mielke Johnson, Patterson, and O 'Connell (2013) noted that A3 report incorporation effectively addresses process improvement in the healthcare industry. Dombrowski and Mielke (2013) discussed the foundational principle of Gemba in the workplace. Gemba is a Japanese term applied to organizational leaders who observe the workplace to gain knowledge and make decisions based on data and observations (Hossen, 2015). In the development of the product or service, organizational leaders observe the process to identify the root cause of problems or opportunities (Dombrowski & Mielke, 2013). Organizational leaders avoid defects by identifying and addressing problems through the Gemba process (Hossen, 2015). Critchley (2015) discussed the spaghetti diagram as a tool to document movement of a product or individual. To develop a spaghetti diagram, Tu et al. (2012) wrote that the observer needs an outline and create a structural diagram of the physical location. The observer outlines and traces the steps that an individual takes or the flow of the process in the development of the spaghetti diagram (Tu et al., 2012). The observer develops the spaghetti diagram to visually identify wasted steps or flow throughout the process, to address opportunities to improve the physical layout of the workplace (Critchley, 2015). Industry leaders utilize standard work to implement the automation of a particular process (Lu & Yang, 2014). Lu and Yang (2014) noted that organizational managers created the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Executive Summary : Executive Report Executive Summary– summary report purpose and findings Revision History Date Changes made To what 30/10/2015 04/12/2015 05/12/2015 06/12/2015 07/12/2015 08/12/2015 09/12 /2015 Table of Contents Executive Summary– summary report purpose and findings 1 Revision History 1 Introduction – motivation for report and description of structure 3 Part 1 Critical Discussion of Agile and software quality 3 Part 1.1 Strengths and Weaknesses of agile in a project 3 Part 2 Discussion of Function Point Measures 4 Advantages of function point analysis 4 Disadvantages of function point analysis 4 For what types of projects (size, development process) is it a) best b) not well suited (explain)? 5 Where should function ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The general strengths and weaknesses differ from project to project but these one are the main aspects of it. Agile development is used in a team of five – six developers which work closely together and interact with each other. Before the project starts user requirements are collected from the user. The scrum master will be responsible that the whole team works and also get the customer involved to get more feedback for the project. This is a very good approach because the developers can share their knowledge and learn new skills from each other. The team member should be highly skilled in order to work together to avoid any lack of skills in the development. Ones the requirements are collected a target can be planned but it can also very difficult to know form the beginning how the project will be looking because changes are welcome in any stage of the development. Changes can occur during the development process which can change the whole process but is also very flexible. A strong developer and customer can be established during every iteration which can help to identify the user needs and make clearer about project and what the user actually wants from the project and what his or her expectations are. Faults can be detected in better because of the
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  • 38. Lean Software Development and Enhancing Software... Lean Software Development and Enhancing Software Development Projects Introduction Lean Software Development is essentially a transformation of lean manufacturing and IT principles and is a branch of agile development framework. The core concept here being eliminating waste. At the same time CMMI is a capability maturity model integration which is a process improvement technique that is used to bring about an improvement in a project, process or the entire organization for that matter. In this paper, we will first start, first, the background of lean will be explored i.e., Agile and CMMI. After that, how Lean and CMMI, although two techniques for an entirely different purpose could still work in conjunction to enhance a software ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Agile methods also help teams meet the industry standards with less overheads than other software development methodologies because of the timeboxed iterations and the critical benefit here is that the entire project can easily adapt to even radical changes with much less costs. Whereas on the other then, a CMMI or capability maturity model integration for development is a particular type of process improvement maturity model for development of products and services which are developed by software engineering institute or SEI. Capability Maturity Model integration intention is actually not to impose a list of practices on the organization and similarly its intention is neither to apply as a standard so that every other organization ends up complying it. It is something rather different and specific, if it's used appropriately, CMMI is meant to help locate very specific areas where the change in the organization can provide some greatest value in their processes, projects and the organization overall based on the business's objectives. Before understanding how the conjunction between Lean and CMMI could work it's important to understand how do they differ fundamentally i.e., how CMMI and Agile differs. CMMI evaluates the organization as a single and whole entity and its development processes. In comparison, the agile method is actually a single development process. This means that both of the concepts are fundamentally different and not comparable by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40. The Approach At High Level DevOps has been a buzzword for a while now in the tech industry, with many organizations joining the bandwagon and working towards embracing the DevOps practices. Wiki describes Devops as "a practice that emphasizes the collaboration and communication of the IT professionals across the value chain while automating the process of software delivery and infrastructure changes. The aim is to deliver the software quickly and reliably." However, in an enterprise scenario with the complexity involved, the journey to implement DevOps comprehensively is evolutionary. Hence, it is only sensible to drive along an incremental adoption path. Each increment has to provide the most benefits through the MVP (Minimum Viable Product) delivered towards the DevOps journey. In this context, this article attempts to explain the initial steps towards the larger DevOps journey and helps to get a head start. The approach at high–level consists of four major steps: Value stream mapping – Mapping the existing process workflows Future state value stream mapping – Identify the immediate goals and visualize the optimized value stream map Execution – Incremental approach towards the implementation Retrospection – Review and learn Ok, let's get started! Value Stream Mapping Value stream mapping is a lean improvement strategy that maps the processes and information flows of a product from source to delivery. For a software delivery, it is the pre–defined path an idea takes to transform into a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42. Case Study Of KKTM Mara KKTM Mara, located on 0,96 acre at Petaling Jaya, Selangor, is one of the institutions providing studies in the field of Electronic Engineering. KKTM was established in 1972 and known as Institut Kemahiran MARA, Petaling Jaya. Preliminary courses provided at first year establishment are related to the courses such as Sewing, Make–up and fashion. Starting in 1982, the programs offered have been converted into a program of Mechanical and Architectural Drawings and next in 1986, to Electronics Industry and Instrument programs. The ultimate aim KKTM establishment is to increase the number of professional semi–skilled employment and high technology in order to increase Bumiputera teknoprenuer. KKTM MARA has continues its programmes in 1995 with ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) was used to identify the root cause and solution of their problem. This project took about 6 month to complete and come out the best solution using Information System (IS). This online system allows processes implemented more quickly and efficiently. LEAN has contributed to better quality process. In addition, it can shorten time of searching and examination the applications' received. In this case, Online Application (Online Sub– store System) is implemented at KKTM with new standard to ensure smooth process implementation. Lecturers don't have to walk to the Sub Store (counters) for submitting and reviewing applications. After reviews via online on application status, lecturers will take the training material at the counter. This new process has reduced employee's motion from one place to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44. The Value Stream Analysis ( Vsa ) Essay spent several years in the military trying to convince leaders to use Lean principles to improve their operations. But even when presented with an action plan based on the Value Stream Analysis (VSA) of a costly process, the action plan was rarely implemented by the very organizational leaders who requested the analysis in the first place. There always seemed to be resistance to using Lean tools that could have led to some very big improvements. At first, I couldn 't figure out why. But after a while, I started noticing certain patterns in the language of reluctant leaders that pointed to some key underlying causes for resistance. These causes seemed to boil down to the following: 1. Lack of Understanding of Lean Language 2. "We Are Different Because We Are Not A Manufacturing Organization" 3. Organizational Stove–Pipes 4. The True Cost Of Wasteful Processes Not Measured 5. Mobility Of Leadership Personnel Lean principles can help organizations improve profitability through improved cycle times, productivity and quality, by removing waste from work processes and systems. The resulting reduction in waste also leads to reductions in operating costs. But Lean was born in the manufacturing world. So some of the core concepts pertain to assembly–line set–ups and still use that language (work–in–process inventory, flow cells, kanban–based pull systems, etc.). Even so, there are many examples of service companies successfully using Lean tools. One of the largest and well ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46. Sample Resume On Value Stream Mapping Contents Introduction 2 Steps for preparing VSM 2 VSM to develop Facility Layouts 4 Facility Layout – Micro 5 Facility Layout – Macro 8 Exhibit1 11 Exhibit 2 11 Exhibit 3 12 Exhibit 4 12 Introduction Mike Rother and John Shook were asked to use their knowledge of Toyota practices to create a simple tool for managers to enable them to see the flow of value. They came up with Value Stream Mapping. This lean tool can help companies optimize their production in such a way that it results in drastic reduction in cost and throughput time and also improved quality. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) allows user to create a concrete plan to make most efficient use of the available resources. VSM is one of the most powerful lean tool for an organization in implementing and improving on its lean journey. VSM shows the all the process from order entry to delivery. The value stream in a VSM is the point at which value is actually added to the product or service by changing its market form or function. Value adding activities can be things like: machining, assembly, welding, folding and so on. Scope of Value Stream Value Stream Map can be drown for three different levels: An extended level map as the view of the values stream at 60,000 feet, the facility level map at 30,000 feet and the process level map at 10,000 feet. Steps for preparing VSM Forming the team: For creating VSM it is very important to create a proper cross functional team consisting of supervisory or ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48. History, Uses, And Alternative Methods Of Kanban Kanban in Japanese means "visual signal" or "card" according to LearnIt.com. The following document discusses the history, uses, and alternative methods of Kanban. The term Kanban originally was coined as a phrase to describe process work flows in the 1940s at a Toyota factory. Kanban uses have now expanded beyond manufacturing and into project management. Alternative methods that might use Kanban are waterfall, scrum, and eXtreme programming. There are a lot of best practices to follow in Kanban such as being flexible to incremental changes throughout the project and encouraging leadership at all management levels. It is also important visualize the workflow and then to manage it. This will help for everyone to understand the logic and make the flows consistent. Kanban can be really beneficial to Project Management because it allows everyone to see the progress of all the phases of the project and how their part plays into the big picture. This process also allows flexibility with its ability to make additional tasks and changes continuously. There are also some downsides to Kanban in project management. When projects have too many specialized workflows for tasks it makes it hard to have consistent workflows, and Kanban doesn't always account for two or more people working on a task. Kanban can be a valuable tool for Project Management and other Just–In–Time processes. The Kanban method is really useful for visualizing the process flows for which each task must go ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50. Lean Manufacturing And Process Improvement Essay LEAN MANUFACTURING AND PROCESS IMPROVEMENT ASSIGNMENT – 1 (PAPER REVIEW) Singh, Harwinder&Singh,Amandeep,(2013),"Application of lean manufacturing using value stream mapping in an auto–parts manufacturing unit", Journal of advances in Management Research, Vol.10 iss 1 pp. 72–84 Submitted to: Submitted by: SardarAsif Khan Simarjot Singh Student ID : 104514634 BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND PROBLEM DESCRIPTION The given mentioned research paper basically features the implementation of process improving Lean Manufacturing methodologies especially Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in a auto–part manufacturer located in outskirts of Ludhiana, Punjab, India which has 300 employees and 0.33 million dollar annual turnover. Now a days with ever increasing competition it has become Herculean task for industries to manufacture wide range of products with world class quality atminimum wastage of resources.The Lion's share part of research has been done on application of Lean Manufacturing tools in large industries or organizations. But in most of the nations Small and Medium Enterprises(SME) are backbone for nation's economical growth. Hence it become more important for those industries to nurture and flourish not at organizational level but at global phase. The said organization is fabricating 10 different variety of products. Weldon Ball end and Replacement Ball were chosen as most critical product families because of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52. The Process Cycle Will Involve 4 Steps The process cycle will involve 4 steps. These steps are In–checking, Pulling/ system Processing, System Moving & Labeling, Physical Moving. The average time for this process cycle from the time that an Item is in checked to when the Items is move to the Pickup & Delivery Bins takes 375 seconds which is 6 Minutes and 15 Seconds. The estimated Takt time is depending on whether it is a priority item or a general cargo item. According to policy, priority items must be in the customer's hand within one hour (3,600 seconds) of receipt by TMO. The takt time will vary depending on the proximity of the customer to the TMO Warehouse, so location will affect TMO ability to meet takt time. Therefore if the customer is located 40 minutes away, out takt time for priority times will be 20 minutes, if our customer is 55 minutes away, out takt time will be 5 minutes. Leadership Policy indicate that general cargo items must be available to the customer within 72 Hours of Receipt and seaport items within a 168 hours (a week). Process Cycle Steps Process Cycle Tasks Process Cycle Time InChecking Check for Damage Check Quantity Check Item Number/ Part Number Check Item was sent to proper Location Check Shelf Life has not expired Check for Item classification Assign Temporary Location Walk to office to process 15 secs 20 secs 7 secs 5 secs 15 secs 5 secs 5 secs 25 secs Total: 97 secs Pulling/ System Processing o Search ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54. Personal Narrative : My Life Of Lean Stephen Sanders Dr. Jahan Muhammad AMS 394 Lean Manufacturing My Life of Lean I come from a long line of craftsman's and only being 31 years of age, I have been really fortunate to stay working and not just working with one job either. Various trades, customizing, production, back braking, you name it I have done. My name is Stephen Sanders II and at 16 years old I practically begged my father to show me the ways of building a custom set of stairs, trim, put crown molding up and base down. Needless to say that my father owned his own custom trim carpentry business. My father had and still has a reputation producing high quality, forever lasting works–of–art. No house was the same but the guarantee was. Now I was part of the pack. Learning the in's and out's to carpentry is very valuable and my father would pick up different jobs when he wasn't covered up with trim work. The jobs would range from weed eating the yard to complete ground–breaking–– start to finish on residential and commercial buildings. Learning the necessary carpentry skills comes with its ups and downs. Usually at the beginning of every year through fall. Construction would stay afloat and we usually were covered up with work. When old man winter came, work slowed, sometimes completely come to a stop. Having 5–6 years of training under my belt and now at the ripe age of 23, I know that I couldn't keep working this way. I couldn't spread my wings and fly. I wanted a place of my own. I wanted my own ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56. Le An Objective For Prohibition Abstract: Lean is a conspicuous theory and application which expects the use of a wide range of assets for any reason, other than the production of significant worth for the end client to be inefficient, and subsequently an objective for prohibition. The theory and mindset communicated by an arrangement of standards, supplemented by various devices and systems helps for waste abolition, equipped execution change, stock diminishment, and ideal quality level to the end clients. It is one of the principal and far reaching ideas that add to organizations everywhere throughout the globe to increase upper hand and thrive on the global market. (Čiarnienė & Vienažindienė, 2015) Introduction: These day's organizations everywhere throughout the world are confronting with expanding demands from clients and competitors. Clients have higher desires, and makers can meet these desires by expanding item 's quality, diminishing conveyance time, and reducing costs – or a mix of these three categories. These push business organizations to actualize new generation methodologies to upgrade their intensity in the worldwide commercial center. Lean is a coordinated arrangement of standards, practices, apparatuses, and procedures which expect the consumption of a wide range of assets for any reason other than the making of significant worth for the end client to be inefficient, and in this manner an objective for avoidance. The end of non–quality included exercises decreases expenses and process ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58. Value Stream Mapping Value Stream Mapping Prof. N.Raghavan Value Stream Mapping (VSM) Definitions Value: What the Client wants from the process Value stream: Includes all the processes and activities used to design, produce and deliver the product or service to the Client. ––– All the steps – both value added and non value added – required to take a product or service from its raw materials state into the waiting arms of a happy customer. Value Stream Map: Special type of flow chart that uses symbols from the "Language of Lean" to depict and improve the flow of inventory and information. Typ. VSM Value Stream "Whenever there is a product for a customer, there is a value stream. The challenge lies in seeing it." –Learning ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Create a Future State Value Stream Map Now that we have a better understanding of the current state of affairs, we are ready to draw a picture of how we would like things to look in the future. Typically, as an example, we aim to make things flow and reduce the amount of inventory or waiting in between steps. It's at this point that we can create an ideal work process. Create an Action Plan Now that we know how things are working today and how we would like to see them working in the future it's time to form a plan. There are a variety of templates available for this. We should know exactly what needs to happen and when it needs to happen. In short, we form the plan... then execute the plan! VSM procedures For making the improvements, some examples:
  • 59. – Use Work (Time, Motion, ..) studies to identify NVAs & eliminate them – Modularisation / Standardisation – Design changes to improve Constructability – Off–site fabrication and assembly – Reducing Batch size – E.g., going in for multiple smaller batching plants in the site to enhance flexibility in delivery of concrete mix. – Bringing closely interconnected operations (E.g. Formwork, reinforcement and concreting) under supervision of one agency – Implementing pull system through Kanban Cards (E.g. Block work, formwork etc) for better control on inventory management at the central storage yard, smooth logistics within site and for avoiding ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61. What is the Lean Startup Methodology in Research? The Lean startup methodology was used for this study.Software process models are getting changed constantly; this is with a belief that well defined process models always help to get the success to any company. (Ries, n.d.) Lean Startup provides a scientific approach to creating and managing startups and gets a desired product to customers' hands faster. There are multiple methodologies which have been in software development for last several years. Waterfall, Agile development methodology being considered two important methodologies.Lean and Agile share many of the same principles and many agile principles are borrowed from Lean thinking (Chan, July 25, 2013).Lean startup is an approach to business development that is based on the principles of lean production, a manufacturing methodology that values a business' ability to change quickly. The lean startup methodology is a set of strategies designed to unwind the uncertainties in and around innovation. Lean startup (Rouse, n.d.)is building a prototype quickly, getting it to market to gauge success of the product without expending unnecessary resources and use the data generated by early marketing testing to influence the next build phase. In programming, the approach is called Agile. Lean/Agile culture is the belief that feedback cycles rapidly – where feedback is meant to be in the form of reactions from the clients, prospects and users importantly – are required to discover the important but false assumptions often ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63. The Current Economic Environment Of Lean Manufacturing The current economic environment we are in, shared with increasing guidelines has placed manufacturers in the challenging position of having to reduce waste, improve processes, and increase productivity. Although lean manufacturing can well enough be the answer, some companies have found lean manufacturing implementation to be an ongoing battle. Which is not to say, however, that there have not been some major success stories. There are many obstacles to lean implementations. Two Major Obstacles for Lean Manufacturing Implementation One obstacle is the perception that the use of lean manufacturing solutions is, at best, nothing more than a trend. In addition, at worst, a brief craze. It is often observed as nothing more than a repackaging of fundamental industrial engineering principles dressed up in new clothes, and flaunted in new terms to appeal to a new industry. Lean manufacturing is sometimes seen in many industries as a collection of techniques, known to be effective in the auto industry, which some people are now trying to impose on a completely different industry. This means that perceptions have to be changed. Another major obstacle is gaining management and employee buy–in. For example, decreasing batch size is easy to see and not hard to influence in most industries. However, in many industries, altering batch size also involves reducing the size of the blend, which, in turn, runs into renewed testing, and several layers of approval. There will, of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65. Banking(Lean) Fundamentally, Lean is about eliminating waste. Some waste is unavoidable, but the objective is to identify all activities that are non–value–added, and reduce as many as possible. General examples of waste include over–producing, waiting, defects/ rework, over–processing, inventory, motion, and transport. A few specific examples of waste sometimes found in financial services include: Rework due to lost files or processing errors Over–processing due to duplicate client records, or redundant data entry requirements Movement due to physical dispersion of process participants Printing, copying, and transporting of documents instead of transmitting/storing electronically Identifying, eliminating, or reducing such waste will ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Communication is the most important step in change management. A bank needs to share a common goal and set of expectations of value that the lean program will deliver. Teaching and coaching Lean techniques to employees is a needed investment to sustain the Lean culture. The concept of the "internal client" should also be introduced for non–customer–facing departments. This approach will ensure a customer–centered attitude at every level of the bank. Finally, Lean managers must spend more time on the floor to observe and capture improvement ideas The case for Lean banking The focus of Lean lies on building a client–centered organization. Banks have always struggled to deliver excellent customer experience due to processes that are not adapted to the customer's need. Moreover, it is mostly a negative perception of the banking industry that hurts customer satisfaction. Lean initiatives are rising rapidly in banking, yet their approach is still too much focused on reaching operational excellence. A focus on the cultural aspects of Lean would ensure, in the first place, that the entire organization is working together in improving its customer service, but more importantly, all employees will be inspired to deliver continuously excellent customer service. Here is some of the challenge in banking management and benefit of lean. Challenge | Benefit of Lean | Systems and Management ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 67. The Principles Of Lean Manufacturing The primary use of lean principles was in the manufacturing domain earlier, later it spread to various processes across various industries. It was believe that the idea of lean originated in japan (Toyota), but there is evidence that the Mr. Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motor Company has been using the principles of lean in the early 1920's. Henry ford thought that shortening the time a product takes in a production is a key solution to reduce the overall cost of the product [4]. If a product spends large amounts of time in a process of manufacturing, the overall costs goes high, one of the reasons being more material handling. There are primarily 5 principles of lean manufacturing [9]. Those 5 principles are as follows: 1) Specifying ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Most people tend to misunderstand lean by identifying the non–value added processes and working on them to eradicate them which in turn increases the amount of non–value added tasks. VALUE STREAMS: Value stream is a map of processes in the order of which they run. Creating a value stream is of key importance in understanding the value added and non–value added processes. Value streams help us identify the whole production process as a whole while giving us insight on all the sub processes that go through. Value stream processes may also depict the flow of information. VSM requires various departments to come together and prepare the map, it is not an individual job. FLOW: We continuously try to establish a flow between values added processes. A value added process must not be hindered by a process which of no value. If possible, non–value added processes must be done in parallel. PULL: lean concentrates on pull system. Pull system is making the product when it is required. This tends to minimize the wastage and also has minimal inventory. Employees stay idle when there is no order but the value is from the final product. Industries following push system can face a few problems in the form of over production and inventory wastages. Producing first and storing it in warehouse eats up the capital that is invested and is a considerable waste. PERFECTION: Perfection is achieved when the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 69. Explain The Scope And Scope Of Operations Management 1.1 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Operations management can be defined as managing the available resources in the best possible way that are dedicated to the production process and to have highest level of efficiency in an organization. Operations managers are the people who are responsible for managing the resources and that guide the system by decision making. The operations function of an organization is responsible for understanding customer demands and fulfil their needs through the delivery of products and services. Operations management can also be referred as a business practice that are used to generate profit for an organization with the use of optimal resources. It includes function such as material requirement planning, managing purchases, storage, logistic and evaluation of processes. The focus is on efficiency and effectiveness while performing these functions. Thus it can be concluded that operations management involves measurement and analysis of processes. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It also has other levels which deal with the issues of the layout the plant, tools & techniques and project management methods. Quality control domain also comes in operations management which deals with producing products according to customer specifications. Operations management function is focused mainly of production of goods and services and for this it needs support from other departments such as finance and marketing. The scope of operations management can vary from organization to organization. Operations function consist of interrelated activities that are directly focused on production and delivery of goods and services. Thus it can be present in manufacturing as well as service industry such as healthcare and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 71. Research: Improving Patient flow in Outpatient Department... Improving Patient flow in Outpatient Department At Apollo Main Hospital, Chennai EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Orthopedic Department at Apollo Main Hospitals, Chennai has been facing problems in patient flow due to increased delays in other processes like registration, waiting time, other diagnosis etc. This has led to patient flow delays, disruptions and inefficiencies, and it has caused dissatisfaction among some patients and employees resulting in a loss of potential revenue and safety concerns for these patients. In order to combat these challenges, we analyzed data and conducted interviews to establish a comprehensive understanding of the hospital's orthopedic department, strengthened the existing processes and protocol through ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In light of these challenges, a need for review and reform of our healthcare practices has become apparent. LEAN IN HEALTHCARE Lean is one way in which these issues can be addressed. The basic concept of lean is "using less to do more"‖ (Institute for Healthcare Improvement, 2005). For healthcare, in particular, one can apply the principles of lean thinking to improve such processes as patient wait time, levels of staffing, and quality of care. Improvements to such processes can greatly impact the health of the community. Lean operations is all about adding value and removing waste. Lean is a management strategy that seeks to improve operational performance in terms of customer satisfaction, cost, quality, and delivery by focusing on the customer and eliminating waste, variability and inflexibility. It is based on an operational strategy for manufacturing which originated in the Japanese automotive industry, and has now been successfully applied to a range of service businesses. The use of Lean and Six Sigma can help companies position themselves for sustainable growth and profitability through improved efficiencies across the entire enterprise. The first step in lean thinking is the identification of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 73. Business and Management UVA–OM–1497 Authorized for use only in the course EMBA 816 Production and Operations Management at University of Regina taught by James Mason from Jan 03, 2015 to Apr 30, 2015. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Rev. Apr. 7, 2014 DARDEN BUSINESS PUBLISHING GETS LEAN (A) Darden Business Publishing (DBP) prepared business case studies for use in the Darden classroom and, simultaneously, for publication and sales worldwide through both its own website and those of partner distributors. The case collection was a key manifestation of Darden's intellectual capital and value proposition; new cases kept the MBA curriculum relevant and imparted thought leadership by Darden faculty and researchers. But Steve Momper, DBP's ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Personal feelings certainly affect CPI. I know we don't live in an ideal world, but if we did, everyone would engage in CPI with the attitude of, "If it smells like muda, it's muda.1 We can work together to eliminate it." We could plan a series of half–day workshops–perhaps five, over the course of a week–during which we could walk through a set of group analysis exercises. These would help the group understand more about the work process, what your products are, who your customers are, and which actions might help you build a more consistent flow. Throughout the workshops, I will encourage participants to discuss common problems and even to get things that are irking them off their chests. The group will collect their comments on sticky notes on the board. Then, we'll spend some time grouping the sticky notes into categories. These categories will be instrumental in helping us determine which of these groupings of problems pinpoints the larger issues that your value stream faces. I'm not here to tell you how to do your job, or, at this point, to delve too deeply into the intricacies of your work. I see your current challenges as being more fundamentally about process and about your relationships with your upstream and downstream stakeholders.2 Momper readily agreed, and they planned for a week of half–day ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 75. What Are The Root Causes Of Subway Customers 12. Mixed/level loaded production for advanced scheduling and production activities. 13. Self– directed work teams which help the individual franchisees that contribute to the company. This directive brings out self–management responsibilities in the individual franchisees. 14. Pull system is implemented to attract customers on demand to reduce waste. 15. Value added activities such as perfect quality, short lead–time, reduced cost and innovation. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW The main objective of research work conducted in this paper is to identify the root causes of the declining Subway's customers. Lean principles are already adapted in Subway's working process and we would like to identify additional continuous improvement methods that can be implemented to increase the customer satisfaction and increase sales. Lean is said to be a process improvement methodology used to deliver service and product in a faster way with lower cost. Womack and Jones (1996) identified lean as "A way to specify value, line up value creating actions in the best sequence, conduct those activities without interruption whenever someone requests them more and more effectively". Womack and Jones (1996) further elaborated saying that activities in lean thinking provides a way to do more and more with less and less, including less human effort, less human equipment, less time, less space, while coming closer and closer providing customer with exactly what they want. A research paper on Takt time stating, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 77. Visual Management, Single Minute Exchange Of Die ( Smed )... Introduction: In today's world, opening or managing a company is very difficult. The Economic crisis, heavy taxation and barriers of entrance in some countries, make it more difficult. But all blame can't be given to external factors. Most of the times the critical factors are inside the company. So what is the right way of managing a company? In this assignment I studied and analyzed three tools that can help me and are fundamental to success in this business world that is ruled by time and efficiency. The tools I selected are: Visual Management, Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) and Value Stream Mapping. VISUAL MANAGEMENT: In order to continuously improve and progress as an organization, people need to observe, communicate and sharing information. The visual management is a strategy that make information easier to interpret and immediately available. Is such an intuitive strategy, many people don't even realize that they used it in their daily lives and despites this prevalent outside of work place most of organizations don't know how to take follow advantage of it. The simplicity of visual management causes many people to overlook its usefulness. Image using a water faucet with impropriate mark handles. There is a blue handle for hot water and red handle for cold water. This will be incredibly frustrating and confusing. Societies have established the standard that the color blue indicates cold and color red indicates hot. Therefore the colors are interpreted that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 79. New Ivory : An Effective System Introduction New Ivory is a private company which manufacture and produce packaged sauces. Based in the UK they work in a competitive market supplying 50% of products to supermarkets and 50% to other clients. New Ivory (NI) attempt to use lean principles in order to make their business more efficient. Using these principles helps them to deliver their products to clients within the given lead time of 14 days; currently they rely heavily on forecasting sales. It is not an effective system and there is potential to erase the waste they create, they still need to apply further lean principles to achieve this. Kaizen is important with all the flows and processes; it will however take time to implement. The theories need to be implemented carefully and within certain ideals to create continuous improvement. Observations on current working practices New ivory have a 14 day lead time. This is high, and ideally should to be reduced to 7 days. This is due to poor procedures on the manufacturing floor, such as time wasted waiting for products moving from the next station to another because there are too many shared resources. A potential solution for this is using the theory of 'first in first out' (FIFO) as explained by Bharath, R (and others, 2014) 'a method for organizing the component buffer where the oldest entry or bottom of the stack is processed first which eliminates inventory which in turn reduces the lead time and Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to map the present and the future ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 81. Le Lean And Lean Introduction Lean Principles have been essential to numerous organisations all over the world for achieving outstanding results in terms of efficiency, quality and manufacturing times. Large organisations are especially acknowledged to implement lean principles successfully. However, in recent years small and medium sized enterprises have been in emphasis due to their flexibility and capabilities that provides the necessary robustness in the global economic crisis (Matt , 2007). Therefore, this paper will critically appraise and assess two separate case studies by authors Matt and Rauch (2013) and Kumar et al. (2006) respectively. The two case studies, provided by these respective authors, revolve around SMEs in two different countries. This paper will identify lean elements along with their motivations behind their lean implementations and identify the main differences and similarities between the two case studies in terms of general lean literature. Finally, a list of recommendations will be given to each case study and how their individual companies can improve the success of their lean adoption. The Case Studies' Lean Adoption The first case study is a SME, situated in the north of Italy. The firm started in 1995 and employs around 25 persons. With a small employee size it was very hard to commit too much time to develop a lean production with a two year period in single steps. Since there was limited resource allocation, it was decided that the firm will use a step ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...