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DanielStenberg–FOSDEM-February1st
,2020
For everyone!
Daniel Stenberg
@bagderhttps://daniel.haxx.se
Daniel Stenberg
@bagder
Daniel Stenberg
@bagder
HTTP 1 to 2 to 3HTTP 1 to 2 to 3
ProblemsProblems
Why QUIC and how it worksWhy QUIC and how it works
HTTP/3HTTP/3
ChallengesChallenges
Coming soon?Coming soon?
@bagder@bagder
Echo?
I talked HTTP/3 at FOSDEM 2019 in the
Mozilla devroom
This is not just a rerun
I promise
@bagder@bagder
HTTP/1
HTTP/2
HTTP/3
@bagder@bagder
Under the hood
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com
Accept: */*
User-Agent: HTTP-eats-the-world/2020
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Thu, 09 Nov 2018 14:49:00 GMT
Server: my-favorite v3
Last-Modified: Tue, 13 Jun 2000 12:10:00 GMT
Content-Length: 12345
Set-Cookie: this-is-simple=yeah-really;
Content-Type: text/html
[content]
@bagder@bagder
HTTP began over TCP
@bagder@bagder
TCPTCP
TCP is transport over IP
Establishes a “connection”
3-way handshake
Resends lost packages
A reliable byte stream
Clear text
@bagder@bagder
HTTPS means TCP + TLS + HTTP
@bagder@bagder
@bagder@bagder
Web pages over HTTPS in Firefox
@bagder@bagder
Web pages over HTTPS in Chrome
TLSTLS
TLS is done over TCP for HTTP/1 or 2
Transport Layer Security
Additional handshake
Privacy and security
@bagder@bagder
Classic HTTPS stack
IP
TCP
TLS
HTTP
@bagder@bagder
HTTP over TCP
@bagder@bagder
HTTP/1.1HTTP/1.1
Shipped January 1997
Many parallel TCP connections
Better but ineffective TCP use
HTTP head-of-line-blocking
Numerous work-arounds
@bagder@bagder
HTTP/2HTTP/2
Shipped May 2015
Uses single connection per host
Many parallel streams
TCP head-of-line-blocking
@bagder@bagder
OssificationOssification
Internet is full of boxes
Routers, gateways, firewalls, load balancers,
NATs...
Boxes run software to handle network data
Middle-boxes work on existing protocols
Upgrade much slower than edges
@bagder@bagder
Internet
WWW
@bagder@bagder
Ossification casualties
HTTP/2 in clear textHTTP/2 in clear text
TCP improvements like TFOTCP improvements like TFO
TCP/UDP replacementsTCP/UDP replacements
HTTP brotliHTTP brotli
Future innovationsFuture innovations
…… unless encryptedunless encrypted
@bagder@bagder
Improvement in spite of ossification
@bagder@bagder
@bagder@bagder
@bagder@bagder
QUIC is a name, not an acronym.
@bagder@bagder
A new transport protocol
@bagder@bagder
Built on experiences by Google QUIC
Google deployed “http2 frames over UDP”-QUIC in 2013Google deployed “http2 frames over UDP”-QUIC in 2013
Widely used clientWidely used client
Widely used web servicesWidely used web services
Proven to work at web scaleProven to work at web scale
Taken to the IETF in 2015Taken to the IETF in 2015
QUIC working group started 2016QUIC working group started 2016
IETF QUIC is now very different than Google QUIC wasIETF QUIC is now very different than Google QUIC was
@bagder@bagder
Improvements
TCP head of line blockingTCP head of line blocking
Faster handshakesFaster handshakes
Earlier dataEarlier data
Connection-IDConnection-ID
More encryption, alwaysMore encryption, always
Future developmentFuture development
@bagder@bagder
Build on top of UDP
TCP and UDP remain “the ones”TCP and UDP remain “the ones”
Use UDP instead of IPUse UDP instead of IP
Reliable transport protocol - inReliable transport protocol - in
user-spaceuser-space
A little like TCP + TLSA little like TCP + TLS
@bagder@bagder
UDP isn’t reliable, QUIC is
UDP
Connectionless
No resends
No flow control
No ordering
@bagder@bagder
QUIC
Uses UDP like TCP uses IP
Adds connections
Reliability
Flow control
Security
QUIC has streamsQUIC has streams
Many logical flows within a single connectionMany logical flows within a single connection
Similar to HTTP/2 but in the transport layerSimilar to HTTP/2 but in the transport layer
Client or server initiatedClient or server initiated
Bidirectional or unidirectionalBidirectional or unidirectional
IndependentIndependent streamsstreams
@bagder@bagder
Independent streamsIndependent streams
TCPTCP
QUICQUIC
@bagder@bagder
Application protocols over QUICApplication protocols over QUIC
Streams for free
Could be “any protocol”
HTTP worked on as the first
Others are planned to follow
@bagder@bagder
HTTP/3 = HTTP over QUIC
@bagder@bagder
HTTP – same but different
RequestRequest
- method + path- method + path
- headers- headers
- body- body
ResponseResponse
- response code- response code
- headers- headers
- body- body
@bagder@bagder
HTTP – same but different
HTTP/1 – in ASCII over TCP
HTTP/2 – binary multiplexed over TCP
HTTP/3 – binary over multiplexed QUIC
@bagder@bagder
HTTPS stacks: old vs new
TCP
TLS
HTTP/2
UDP
HTTP/3
QUIC
TLS 1.3
IP
HTTP/1
@bagder@bagder
streams
HTTP feature comparison
@bagder@bagder
HTTP/2 HTTP/3
Transport TCP QUIC
Streams HTTP/2 QUIC
Clear-text version Yes No
Independent streams No Yes
Header compression HPACK QPACK
Server push Yes Yes
Early data In theory Yes
0-RTT Handshake No Yes
Prioritization Messy Changes
“The ultimate guide to HTTP resource prioritization”
Who: Robin Marx
Where: Web Performance devroom (H.1309)
When: 17:00 (today, Saturday)
@bagder@bagder
(I bet it is already too late to get a seat in that room, so relax and watch the video after the fact instead.)
HTTP/3 is fasterHTTP/3 is faster
Faster handshakes
Early data that works
The independent streams
By how much remains to be measured!
@bagder@bagder
(Thanks to QUIC)(Thanks to QUIC)
HTTPS:// is TCP?
HTTPS:// URLs are everywhereHTTPS:// URLs are everywhere
TCP (and TLS) on TCP port 443TCP (and TLS) on TCP port 443
@bagder@bagder
This service - over there!
The Alt-Svc: response header
Another host, protocol or port number is the
same “origin”
This site also runs on HTTP/3 “over there”, for
the next NNNN seconds
@bagder@bagder
Race connections?
Might be faster
Probably needed anyway
QUIC connections verify the cert
HTTPSSVC – alt-svc: done in DNS
@bagder@bagder
Will HTTP/3 deliver?
@bagder@bagder
UDP challenges
3-7% of QUIC attempts fail
Clients need fall back algorithms
QUIC looks like a DDOS attack
@bagder@bagder
CPU hog
2-3 times the CPU use
Unoptimized UDP stacks
Non-ideal UDP APIs
Missing hardware offload
@bagder@bagder
The TLS situation (1/2)
TLS was made for TCP
TLS is sent over TCP as records containing
individual messages
QUIC uses TLS messages
No TLS library support(ed) TLS messages
QUIC also needs additional secrets
@bagder@bagder
The TLS situation (2/2)
@bagder@bagder
Frame 0
Message 0 Message 1
Frame 1
Message 2 Message 3TCPTCP
Message 0 Message 1 Message 2 Message 3
QUICQUIC
Userland
All QUIC stacks are user-land
No standard QUIC API
Will it be moved to kernels?
@bagder@bagder
Tooling
Lack of tooling
Hooray for
qlog & qvis
@bagder@bagder
Ship date
@bagder@bagder
2020?
Implementations
Over a dozen QUIC and HTTP/3 implementations
Google, Mozilla, Apple, Facebook, Microsoft, Akamai,
Fastly, Cloudflare, F5, LiteSpeed, Apache, and more
C, C++, Go, Rust, Python, Java, TypeScript, Erlang
Monthly interops
@bagder@bagder
Implementation Status
curl
Chrome and Edge Canary,
Firefox Nightly
Caddy and LiteSpeed
nginx-patch + quiche
Wireshark
@bagder@bagder
No Safari
No Apache httpd, IIS or
official nginx
OpenSSL PR #8797
Browsers: bleeding edge h3
@bagder@bagder
--enable-quic
--quic-version=h3-24
about:config
network.http.http3.enabled
in
ExperimentalExperimental h3-25 works!
Alt-svcAlt-svc support is there
Based on ngtcp2ngtcp2 and
FallbackFallback is tricky
@bagder@bagder
Try it!
Try it!
$ curl --http3 --head https://example.com/
HTTP/3 200
date: Wed, 09 Oct 2019 11:16:06 GMT
content-type: text/html
content-length: 10602
set-cookie: crazy=d8bc7e7; expires=Thu, 08-Oct-22
11:16:06 GMT; path=/; domain=example.com;
alt-svc: h3-24=":443"; ma=86400
@bagder@bagder
curl HTTP/3 command line
Specifications
Ship curl HTTP/3-enabled?Ship curl HTTP/3-enabled?
Deployed servers
Browser support
libcurl
TLS libraries
QUIC and HTTP/3 libraries
@bagder@bagder
HTTP/3 will take timeHTTP/3 will take time
HTTP/3 will grow slowerHTTP/3 will grow slower
Some will stick to HTTP/2Some will stick to HTTP/2
QUIC is for the long termQUIC is for the long term
@bagder@bagder
FutureFuture
MultipathMultipath
Forward error correctionForward error correction
Unreliable streamsUnreliable streams
More application protocolsMore application protocols
@bagder@bagder
Partial reliabilityPartial reliability
Wait a minute, what about...
@bagder@bagder
Websockets?
Not actually a part of HTTP(/3)
RFC 8441 took a long time for HTTP/2
Can probably be updated for HTTP/3
draft-vvv-webtransport-http3-01
Still in progress
@bagder@bagder
Take-aways
HTTP/3 is comingHTTP/3 is coming
HTTP/3 is always encryptedHTTP/3 is always encrypted
Similar to HTTP/2 but over QUICSimilar to HTTP/2 but over QUIC
QUIC is transport over UDPQUIC is transport over UDP
Challenges to overcomeChallenges to overcome
Mid 2020?Mid 2020?
@bagder@bagder
HTTP/3 Explained
https://daniel.haxx.se/http3-explained
@bagder@bagder
Daniel Stenberg
@bagder
https://daniel.haxx.se/
Thank you!Thank you!
Questions?Questions?
@bagder@bagder
License
This presentation is provided under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International Public License
@bagder@bagder
Links to data and more info
QUIC drafts: https://quicwg.github.io/
DATAGRAM: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pauly-quic-datagram-05
QUIC multipath: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-deconinck-quic-multipath-03
HTTPS stats Firefox: https://letsencrypt.org/stats/#percent-pageloads
HTTPS stats Chrome: https://transparencyreport.google.com/https/overview?hl=en
Web Transport: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-vvv-webtransport-http3-01
Images: http://www.simonstalenhag.se/ and https://pixabay.com/
HTTP/3 Explained: https://http3-explained.haxx.se/
QUIC implementations: https://github.com/quicwg/base-drafts/wiki/Implementations
Nginx + quiche: https://github.com/cloudflare/quiche/tree/master/extras/nginx
HTTPSSVC: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-dnsop-svcb-httpssvc-01
qlog: https://github.com/quiclog/internet-drafts
qvis: https://qvis.edm.uhasselt.be
Build curl with HTTP/3: https://github.com/curl/curl/blob/master/docs/HTTP3.md
@bagder@bagder

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HTTP/3 for everyone

  • 5. HTTP 1 to 2 to 3HTTP 1 to 2 to 3 ProblemsProblems Why QUIC and how it worksWhy QUIC and how it works HTTP/3HTTP/3 ChallengesChallenges Coming soon?Coming soon? @bagder@bagder
  • 6. Echo? I talked HTTP/3 at FOSDEM 2019 in the Mozilla devroom This is not just a rerun I promise @bagder@bagder
  • 8. Under the hood GET / HTTP/1.1 Host: www.example.com Accept: */* User-Agent: HTTP-eats-the-world/2020 HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 09 Nov 2018 14:49:00 GMT Server: my-favorite v3 Last-Modified: Tue, 13 Jun 2000 12:10:00 GMT Content-Length: 12345 Set-Cookie: this-is-simple=yeah-really; Content-Type: text/html [content] @bagder@bagder
  • 9. HTTP began over TCP @bagder@bagder
  • 10. TCPTCP TCP is transport over IP Establishes a “connection” 3-way handshake Resends lost packages A reliable byte stream Clear text @bagder@bagder
  • 11. HTTPS means TCP + TLS + HTTP @bagder@bagder
  • 12. @bagder@bagder Web pages over HTTPS in Firefox
  • 13. @bagder@bagder Web pages over HTTPS in Chrome
  • 14. TLSTLS TLS is done over TCP for HTTP/1 or 2 Transport Layer Security Additional handshake Privacy and security @bagder@bagder
  • 17. HTTP/1.1HTTP/1.1 Shipped January 1997 Many parallel TCP connections Better but ineffective TCP use HTTP head-of-line-blocking Numerous work-arounds @bagder@bagder
  • 18. HTTP/2HTTP/2 Shipped May 2015 Uses single connection per host Many parallel streams TCP head-of-line-blocking @bagder@bagder
  • 19. OssificationOssification Internet is full of boxes Routers, gateways, firewalls, load balancers, NATs... Boxes run software to handle network data Middle-boxes work on existing protocols Upgrade much slower than edges @bagder@bagder
  • 21. Ossification casualties HTTP/2 in clear textHTTP/2 in clear text TCP improvements like TFOTCP improvements like TFO TCP/UDP replacementsTCP/UDP replacements HTTP brotliHTTP brotli Future innovationsFuture innovations …… unless encryptedunless encrypted @bagder@bagder
  • 22. Improvement in spite of ossification @bagder@bagder
  • 24. @bagder@bagder QUIC is a name, not an acronym.
  • 26. A new transport protocol @bagder@bagder
  • 27. Built on experiences by Google QUIC Google deployed “http2 frames over UDP”-QUIC in 2013Google deployed “http2 frames over UDP”-QUIC in 2013 Widely used clientWidely used client Widely used web servicesWidely used web services Proven to work at web scaleProven to work at web scale Taken to the IETF in 2015Taken to the IETF in 2015 QUIC working group started 2016QUIC working group started 2016 IETF QUIC is now very different than Google QUIC wasIETF QUIC is now very different than Google QUIC was @bagder@bagder
  • 28. Improvements TCP head of line blockingTCP head of line blocking Faster handshakesFaster handshakes Earlier dataEarlier data Connection-IDConnection-ID More encryption, alwaysMore encryption, always Future developmentFuture development @bagder@bagder
  • 29. Build on top of UDP TCP and UDP remain “the ones”TCP and UDP remain “the ones” Use UDP instead of IPUse UDP instead of IP Reliable transport protocol - inReliable transport protocol - in user-spaceuser-space A little like TCP + TLSA little like TCP + TLS @bagder@bagder
  • 30. UDP isn’t reliable, QUIC is UDP Connectionless No resends No flow control No ordering @bagder@bagder QUIC Uses UDP like TCP uses IP Adds connections Reliability Flow control Security
  • 31. QUIC has streamsQUIC has streams Many logical flows within a single connectionMany logical flows within a single connection Similar to HTTP/2 but in the transport layerSimilar to HTTP/2 but in the transport layer Client or server initiatedClient or server initiated Bidirectional or unidirectionalBidirectional or unidirectional IndependentIndependent streamsstreams @bagder@bagder
  • 33. Application protocols over QUICApplication protocols over QUIC Streams for free Could be “any protocol” HTTP worked on as the first Others are planned to follow @bagder@bagder
  • 34. HTTP/3 = HTTP over QUIC @bagder@bagder
  • 35. HTTP – same but different RequestRequest - method + path- method + path - headers- headers - body- body ResponseResponse - response code- response code - headers- headers - body- body @bagder@bagder
  • 36. HTTP – same but different HTTP/1 – in ASCII over TCP HTTP/2 – binary multiplexed over TCP HTTP/3 – binary over multiplexed QUIC @bagder@bagder
  • 37. HTTPS stacks: old vs new TCP TLS HTTP/2 UDP HTTP/3 QUIC TLS 1.3 IP HTTP/1 @bagder@bagder streams
  • 38. HTTP feature comparison @bagder@bagder HTTP/2 HTTP/3 Transport TCP QUIC Streams HTTP/2 QUIC Clear-text version Yes No Independent streams No Yes Header compression HPACK QPACK Server push Yes Yes Early data In theory Yes 0-RTT Handshake No Yes Prioritization Messy Changes
  • 39. “The ultimate guide to HTTP resource prioritization” Who: Robin Marx Where: Web Performance devroom (H.1309) When: 17:00 (today, Saturday) @bagder@bagder (I bet it is already too late to get a seat in that room, so relax and watch the video after the fact instead.)
  • 40. HTTP/3 is fasterHTTP/3 is faster Faster handshakes Early data that works The independent streams By how much remains to be measured! @bagder@bagder (Thanks to QUIC)(Thanks to QUIC)
  • 41. HTTPS:// is TCP? HTTPS:// URLs are everywhereHTTPS:// URLs are everywhere TCP (and TLS) on TCP port 443TCP (and TLS) on TCP port 443 @bagder@bagder
  • 42. This service - over there! The Alt-Svc: response header Another host, protocol or port number is the same “origin” This site also runs on HTTP/3 “over there”, for the next NNNN seconds @bagder@bagder
  • 43. Race connections? Might be faster Probably needed anyway QUIC connections verify the cert HTTPSSVC – alt-svc: done in DNS @bagder@bagder
  • 45. UDP challenges 3-7% of QUIC attempts fail Clients need fall back algorithms QUIC looks like a DDOS attack @bagder@bagder
  • 46. CPU hog 2-3 times the CPU use Unoptimized UDP stacks Non-ideal UDP APIs Missing hardware offload @bagder@bagder
  • 47. The TLS situation (1/2) TLS was made for TCP TLS is sent over TCP as records containing individual messages QUIC uses TLS messages No TLS library support(ed) TLS messages QUIC also needs additional secrets @bagder@bagder
  • 48. The TLS situation (2/2) @bagder@bagder Frame 0 Message 0 Message 1 Frame 1 Message 2 Message 3TCPTCP Message 0 Message 1 Message 2 Message 3 QUICQUIC
  • 49. Userland All QUIC stacks are user-land No standard QUIC API Will it be moved to kernels? @bagder@bagder
  • 50. Tooling Lack of tooling Hooray for qlog & qvis @bagder@bagder
  • 52. Implementations Over a dozen QUIC and HTTP/3 implementations Google, Mozilla, Apple, Facebook, Microsoft, Akamai, Fastly, Cloudflare, F5, LiteSpeed, Apache, and more C, C++, Go, Rust, Python, Java, TypeScript, Erlang Monthly interops @bagder@bagder
  • 53. Implementation Status curl Chrome and Edge Canary, Firefox Nightly Caddy and LiteSpeed nginx-patch + quiche Wireshark @bagder@bagder No Safari No Apache httpd, IIS or official nginx OpenSSL PR #8797
  • 54. Browsers: bleeding edge h3 @bagder@bagder --enable-quic --quic-version=h3-24 about:config network.http.http3.enabled
  • 55. in ExperimentalExperimental h3-25 works! Alt-svcAlt-svc support is there Based on ngtcp2ngtcp2 and FallbackFallback is tricky @bagder@bagder Try it! Try it!
  • 56. $ curl --http3 --head https://example.com/ HTTP/3 200 date: Wed, 09 Oct 2019 11:16:06 GMT content-type: text/html content-length: 10602 set-cookie: crazy=d8bc7e7; expires=Thu, 08-Oct-22 11:16:06 GMT; path=/; domain=example.com; alt-svc: h3-24=":443"; ma=86400 @bagder@bagder curl HTTP/3 command line
  • 57. Specifications Ship curl HTTP/3-enabled?Ship curl HTTP/3-enabled? Deployed servers Browser support libcurl TLS libraries QUIC and HTTP/3 libraries @bagder@bagder
  • 58. HTTP/3 will take timeHTTP/3 will take time HTTP/3 will grow slowerHTTP/3 will grow slower Some will stick to HTTP/2Some will stick to HTTP/2 QUIC is for the long termQUIC is for the long term @bagder@bagder
  • 59. FutureFuture MultipathMultipath Forward error correctionForward error correction Unreliable streamsUnreliable streams More application protocolsMore application protocols @bagder@bagder Partial reliabilityPartial reliability
  • 60. Wait a minute, what about... @bagder@bagder
  • 61. Websockets? Not actually a part of HTTP(/3) RFC 8441 took a long time for HTTP/2 Can probably be updated for HTTP/3 draft-vvv-webtransport-http3-01 Still in progress @bagder@bagder
  • 62. Take-aways HTTP/3 is comingHTTP/3 is coming HTTP/3 is always encryptedHTTP/3 is always encrypted Similar to HTTP/2 but over QUICSimilar to HTTP/2 but over QUIC QUIC is transport over UDPQUIC is transport over UDP Challenges to overcomeChallenges to overcome Mid 2020?Mid 2020? @bagder@bagder
  • 64. Daniel Stenberg @bagder https://daniel.haxx.se/ Thank you!Thank you! Questions?Questions? @bagder@bagder
  • 65. License This presentation is provided under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License @bagder@bagder
  • 66. Links to data and more info QUIC drafts: https://quicwg.github.io/ DATAGRAM: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pauly-quic-datagram-05 QUIC multipath: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-deconinck-quic-multipath-03 HTTPS stats Firefox: https://letsencrypt.org/stats/#percent-pageloads HTTPS stats Chrome: https://transparencyreport.google.com/https/overview?hl=en Web Transport: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-vvv-webtransport-http3-01 Images: http://www.simonstalenhag.se/ and https://pixabay.com/ HTTP/3 Explained: https://http3-explained.haxx.se/ QUIC implementations: https://github.com/quicwg/base-drafts/wiki/Implementations Nginx + quiche: https://github.com/cloudflare/quiche/tree/master/extras/nginx HTTPSSVC: https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-dnsop-svcb-httpssvc-01 qlog: https://github.com/quiclog/internet-drafts qvis: https://qvis.edm.uhasselt.be Build curl with HTTP/3: https://github.com/curl/curl/blob/master/docs/HTTP3.md @bagder@bagder