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How to establish Enterprise Architecture
in large organisations using TOGAF
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
margo.cronin@entarchs.com
nemanja.kostic@entarchs.com
MARGO CRONIN
NEMANJA KOSTIC
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
STARTING POINT
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
COMMON METHODOLOGY
COMMON TOOLING
ARCHITECTURE REPOSITORY
FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWS
COMMON MEANS FOR REUSE
REFERENCE ARCHITECTURES
TRACEABILITY
VALID APPLICATION INVENTORY
ARCHITECTURES DRIVEN BY TECHNOLOGY
PRODUCTS RATHER THAN BUSINESS STRATEGY
BUSINESS DRIVEN ENTEPRISE ARCHITECTURE
NO TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
DUPLICATION OF ASSETS EVERYWHERE
What can you expect to find in organisations
WITHOUT mature Enterprise Architecture?
What can you expect to find in organisations
WITH mature Enterprise Architecture?
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
GARTNER’S ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE MATURITY
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Level 0:
None
Level 1: Initial Level 2:
Under
Development
Level 3: Defined Level 4: Managed Level 5:
Nirvana
No enterprise
architecture to
speak of.
Processes are ad
hoc and localized.
Minimal, or implicit
linkage to business
strategies.
Limited
management team
awareness or
involvement in the
architecture
process.
No explicit
governance of
architectural
standards.
Basic enterprise
architecture process is
documented.
IT vision, principles,
business linkages,
Baseline, and Target
Architecture are
identified.
Architecture standards
exist, but not necessarily
linked to Target
Architecture.
Governance of a few
architectural standards.
The architecture is well
defined and
communicated to IT
staff and business
management. The
process is largely
followed.
Enterprise architecture
is integrated with
capital planning and
investment control.
Senior management
team aware of and
supportive of the
enterprise-wide
architecture
process. Management
actively supports
architectural standards.
Architecture documents
updated regularly.
Enterprise architecture
process is part of the culture.
Enterprise architecture
documentation is updated on
a regular cycle
Business, Data, Application,
and Technology
Architectures
defined by appropriate
standards.
Senior management team
directly involved in the
architecture review process.
Explicit governance of all IT
investments.
All planned IT acquisitions
and purchases are guided
and governed by the
enterprise
architecture.
2014 -> present present -> future
E.G. THIS TRANSITION USUALLY
TAKES 12 MONTHS
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
ON A GOOD WAY
COMMON STANDARDS
COMMON GOVERNANCE
COMMON METHODOLOGY
TRACEABILITY ACROSS DOMAINS
ARCHITECTURAL REPOSITORY
FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWS
COMMON TOOLING
COMMON MEANS FOR SHARING & REUSE
COMMUNITY OF PRACTICES ACROSS DOMAINS
REFERENCE ARCHITECTURES CREATED
END-TO-END TRACEABILITY (BUSINESS CAPABILITIES VIA APPLICATION TO TECHNOLOGY AND DATA)
VALID APPLICATION INVENTORY
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
You are on a good way if you have achieved the following:
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
FUTURE STATE
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Where should you be?
YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO DEVELOP THE CAPABILITY AND CREDIBILITY TO EVALUATE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
AND TO DRIVE DIGITAL BUSINESS STRATEGY FOR THE ORGANISATIONS.
In	the	fully	mature	organisa2ons,	Enterprise	Architects	must:		
Create	a	clear	statement	of	how	Enterprise	Architecture	can	contribute	to	
digital	business	outcomes.		
Link	into	exis2ng	efforts	or	create	innova1on	programs	to	reach	out	and	
collaborate	with	business	groups	in	order	to	iden2fy	areas	that	will	impact	
the	business.		
Create	a	process	to	iden1fy	disrup1ve	technologies	likely	to	impact	your	
industry	and	organisa2on.
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
JOURNEY
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
THE FOLLOWING SLIDES ARE NOT GOING TO TEACH YOU TOGAF.
THEY WILL SHOW YOU REAL WORLD IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES THAT
YOU CAN APPLY TO ALMOST ANY LARGE SCALE ORGANISATIONS.
WE WISH WE SAW THESE SLIDES BEFORE…
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
JOURNEY
IN THE FOLLOWING SLIDES WE’LL SHOW YOU A
SET OF PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
EACH OF THE ADM PHASES.
WE’LL ALSO SHOW YOU CHALLENGES WE FACED
IN EACH OF THE PHASES AS WELL AS SOLUTIONS
THAT WE USED TO RESOLVE THOSE CHALLENGES.
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
PRELIMINARY PHASE
• OBTAIN	C-LEVEL	SUPPORT	FOR	THE	GROUP	WIDE	ENTERPRISE	ARCHITECTURE	ACTIVITY	
• SELECT	A	FRAMEWORK	TO	BE	USED	(WE	CHOSE	TOGAF	ADM)	
• CREATE	A	SET	OF	ARCHITECTURE	PRINCIPLES	TO	BE	SIGNED	OFF	AND	MANDATED	BY	CIO.	WE	
CREATED	60	PRINCIPLES	CATEGORISED	AS:	
‣ GUIDING	PRINCIPLES		
‣ ARCHITECTURE	MANAGEMENT	PRINCIPLES		
‣ BUSINESS	ARCHITECTURE	PRINCIPLES	
‣ APPLICATION	ARCHITECTURE	PRINCIPLES	
‣ DATA	ARCHITECTURE	PRINCIPLES	
‣ TECHNOLOGY	ARCHITECTURE	PRINCIPLES	
‣ SECURITY	ARCHITECTURE	PRINCIPLES	
• START	EVALUATING	WHAT	TOOLS	CAN	BE	REUSED	FOR	THE	ENTERPRISE	ARCHITECTURE	ACTIVITY
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
PRELIMINARY PHASE
• HOW	TO	SELL	THE	EA	VALUE	TO	THE	WIDER	COMMUNITY?	
‣ Develop	a	set	of	use	cases	to	show	what	benefits	Enterprise	Architecture	can	bring	to	the	
business	in	terms	of	cost	savings,	strategy	execu2on,	roadmaps	development,	impact	
analysis	etc.	
• HOW	TO	ADOPT	ARCHITECTURE	PRINCIPLES?	
‣ Include	and	engage	as	many	people	as	possible	in	the	process	of	crea2ng	the	principles.	
Once	they	feel	they	contribute	to	them	and	own	them,	they	can	adopt	them.	
‣ Allocate		1me	to	iden2fy	and	sign-off	the	principles.	Try	to	keep	the	number	low	(60	is	a	
lot!).	
• HOW	TO	SELECT	RIGHT	TOOLS?	
‣ Look	internally	first	to	what	can	be	reused	or	integrated	with.	That	way	lots	of	internal	
poli2cs	and	big	egos	are	removed	of	the	table.			
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Challenges & Solutions
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
ARCHITECTURE VISION
• DEFINE	SCOPE	OF	ENTERPRISE	ARCHITECTURE	TO	COVER	THE	WHOLE	GROUP,	
NOT	JUST	INDIVIDUAL	BUSINESS	UNITS	OR	INDIVIDUAL	CUSTOMER	
SEGMENTS.	ENTERPRISE	ARCHITECTURE	CAN	BRING	VALUE	ONLY	IF	IT	IS	THE	
OVERARCHING	ENTITY.		
• CREATE	GOVERNANCE	BODIES	THAT	WILL	HELP	YOU	CARRY	OUT	ENTERPRISE	
ARCHITECTURE	ACTIVITIES:	
‣ APPLICATION/BUSINESS/DATA/TECHNOLOGY	COMMUNITIES	OF	PRACTICE	WHERE	
ALL	THE	PRACTITIONERS	FROM	THAT	DOMAIN	ARE	PARTICIPATING	(KNOWLEDGE	
SHARING,	EVOLUTION	OF	ENTERPRISE	ARCHITECTURE	ARTEFACTS,	ETC.)	
‣ CROSS-DOMAIN	DIALOGUES	WHERE	SELECTED	REPRESENTATIVES	FROM	EACH	
DOMAIN	ARE	PARTICIPATING	(BETTER	COORDINATION	BETWEEN	DOMAINS)		
‣ ENTERPRISE	ARCHITECTURE	GOVERNANCE	BODY	WHERE	THE	HEADS	OF	IT	ARE	
PARTICIPATING	(EXCEPTIONS,	ESCALATIONS,	APPROVALS)
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
ARCHITECTURE VISION
• HOW	TO	ESTABLISH	COMMUNITIES	OF	PRACTICE	(COP)?	
‣ Use	collabora1on	tools	extensively	as	the	knowledge	sharing	plaMorm.	
‣ Organise	monthly	mee1ngs/calls	with	the	CoP	members	to	share	ideas,	present	
new	projects,	get	insights	into	what	other	business	units	are	doing,	seek	for	help.	
• CARROT	VS	STICK?	
‣ Use	both!		
‣ Central	EA	group	should	be	a	glue	between	other	units	and	a	funnel	where	ideas	
are	explored	and	shared.		
‣ But	integrate	EA	governance	into	Project	Management,	Procurement,	Sourcing	
and	other	internal	processes	to	make	sure	principles/standards/reference	
architectures	are	followed	and	implemented.
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Challenges & Solutions
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE
• HIRE	BUSINESS	ARCHITECTS!	IT’S	ALMOST	IMPOSSIBLE	TO	CREATE	BUSINESS	
SERVICES,	CAPABILITIES	AND	PROCESSES	WITHOUT	INVOLVEMENT		OF	
BUSINESS	ARCHITECTS	WHO	UNDERSTAND	THE	DOMAIN.			
• TAILOR	META-MODEL	TO	FIT	YOUR	ORGANISATION.	
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
IN OUR EXPERIENCE, EXPECT THE HEAVIEST
TAILORING OF THE BUSINESS DOMAIN META-
MODEL!
ALLOCATE A LOT OF TIME.
USE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP CAPABILITY
AND PROCESS FRAMEWORKS IF THEY DON’T
EXIST ALREADY.
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE
• BUSINESS	AND	IT	WORKING	IN	ISOLATION	
‣ Don’t	let	business	architects	working	in	isola1on.	They	need	to	see	the	big	
picture	and	to	realise	how	business	pieces	fit	with	IT	pieces.	It’s	all	part	of	the	
same	puzzle.		
‣ Start	early	with	connec2ng	business	process	and	applica2on	systems!	It	
creates	a	posi2ve	feedback	loop	to	the	business	with	the	possibility	to	
op2mise	processes.		
• AS-IS	VS	TO-BE	
‣ Always	start	with	As-Is	capabili2es	&	processes.	Create	To-Be	business	
architecture	once	the	priori2es	are	established.	Op2misa2on	possibili2es	of	
As-Is	architecture	can	influence	To-Be	architecture.		
‣ Allow	enough	1me	to	build	capability	and	process	frameworks.	
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Challenges & Solutions
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTIFY	ARCHITECTURE	&	SOLUTION	BUILDING	BLOCKS	IN	YOUR	
APPLICATION	DOMAIN.	FIRST	FOCUS	ON	THOSE	APPLICATIONS	&	DATA	THAT	
DELIVER	CRITICAL	BUSINESS	CAPABILITIES.		
• CATEGORISE	THEM	PER	SYSTEMS	OF	RECORD,	ENGAGEMENT,	UTILITY	AND	
INSIGHT.	USE	AGILITY	QUADRANT	TO	DETERMINE	BUSINESS	AND	
TECHNOLOGY	AGILITY.		
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
See EntArchs Agility Quadrant
for the detailed explanation of
the diagram.
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• META-MODEL	TAILORING?	
‣ Use	basic	TOGAF	meta-model	if	you	already	have	internal	systems	that	capture	
applica2on	and	data	a[ributes.	Don’t	duplicate	a_ributes.		
‣ If	you	are	star2ng	green-field,	start	capturing	smaller	set	of	applica2on	&	data	
a[ributes	and	then	gradually	grow.	In	extreme	cases,	physical	applica2on	
component	can	have	over	500	a[ributes!	Manage	your	stakeholder	
expecta2ons,	add	only	those	a[ributes	that	are	absolutely	needed	to	start	with.		
• WHEN	IS	THE	WORK	DONE?	
‣ The	biggest	challenge	in	iden2fying	Physical	Applica2on	Components	is	that	
there	are	just	too	many	of	them!	Large	companies	can	easily	have	over	5.000	
different	internal	applica2ons.	Focus	on	big	ones	where	the	TCO	is	high.	Use	
Pareto	80/20	Principle	-	“capture	20%	of	applica2ons	that	deliver	80%	of	
capabili2es”.	
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Challenges & Solutions
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE
• CATEGORISE	PRODUCTS	IN	LOGICAL	AND	PHYSICAL	TECHNOLOGY	
COMPONENTS.		
• IN	OUR	EXPERIENCE	THE	TOGAF	ENTITIES	MAY	NOT	BE	ENOUGH	TO	CAPTURE	
THE	COMPLEXITY	OF	YOUR	ENVIRONMENT,	USE	PHYSICAL	TECHNOLOGY	
GROUPS	TO	CAPTURE	TECHNOLOGY	STACKS.			
• TECHNOLOGY	ARCHITECTURE	NEEDS	TO	DRIVE	YOUR	STANDARDISATION	
ROADMAP.	MAKE	SURE	THERE	IS	TIGHT	INTEGRATION	WITH	INFORMATION	
SYSTEM	ARCHITECTURE	SO	THAT	THE	APPLICATION	&	TECHNOLOGY	
ROADMAPS	ARE	IN	SYNC.	
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE
• TO	WHAT	LEVEL	OF	GRANULARITY	DO	YOU	DEFINE?	
‣ Technology is typically well defined in an organisation, but the level of
detail can complicate a meta-model (OS versioning, Prog. Lang.
versioning). In contract an organisation can also have PaaS, SaaS,
IaaS based solutions.
• HOW	DO	YOU	MODEL	SAAS,	PAAS,	IAAS?	
‣ We recommend creating “Physical Technology Component Group” that
represented a stack of technologies. It makes reporting easier and
enables modelling of the “lowest common denominator”. These
PTCG’s can be used to create technology standards to govern
against.
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Challenges & Solutions
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS
• THE	BIGGEST	QUESTION	IS:	HOW	TO	IMPLEMENT	ARCHITECTURE	REPOSITORY	
EFFICIENTLY?	
• MOST	IMPORTANT	REQUIREMENTS	FOR	AN	ARCHITECTURE	REPOSITORY:	
1. CUSTOMISABLE	META-MODEL	
2. SIMPLE	&	EASY	TO	USE	
3. GOOD	REPORTING/DASHBOARD	FUNCTIONALITY	
• ALWAYS	LOOK	TO	REUSE	INTERNAL	TOOLS	AS	MUCH	AS	POSSIBLE	(HELPS	
WITH	AVOIDING	INTERNAL	POLITICS).	
• IF	THERE	ARE	NO	INTERNAL	TOOLS	(OR	NO	INTERNAL	POLITICS	TO	DEAL	WITH)	
GO	WITH	MARKET	LEADERS	SUCH	AS	ORBUS	ISERVER.	
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
An example of Architecture Repository composed of internal tools
using EntArchs dashboard.
• REUSE	INTERNAL	TOOLS	IN	YOUR	
ORGANISATION.		
• ENTARCHS	BUILT	THEIR	OWN	
DASHBOARD	(AS	THE	PICTURE	ON	
THE	RIGHT	SHOWS)	ON	TOP	OF	ALL	
OF	THOSE	INTERNAL	TOOLS	TO	BE	
AS	SIMPLE	AND	USABLE	FOR	YOUR	
STAKEHOLDERS	AS	POSSIBLE.		
• DON’T	ADD	ANY	NEW	BUSINESS	
LOGIC	BUT	INTEGRATE	WITH	THE	
BACKEND	SYSTEMS	VIA	REST	API’S	
OR	SIMILAR	PROTOCOL.	
• CONTACT	ENTARCHS	FOR	
INSTRUCTIONS	ON	HOW	TO	USE	
THIS	OPEN-SOURCE	SOLUTION	FOR	
YOUR	NEEDS.
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
An example of Architecture Repository composed of internal tools
using EntArchs dashboard.
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
MIGRATION PLANNING
• GETTING	ALL	OF	THE	STAKEHOLDERS	(ARCHITECTS,	BUSINESS,	IT	OWNERS)	TO	
ADOPT	YOUR	NEW	METHODOLOGY	IS	A	CHALLENGING	TASK	THAT	REQUIRES	
CAREFUL	PLANNING.		
• NEVER	GO	WITH	BIG-BANG	APPROACH,	RATHER	WITH	SMALL	STEPS:	
1. SHOW	THEM	VALUE	THAT	YOUR	METHODOLOGY	BRINGS	
2. EDUCATE	THEM	IN	TOOLS	THAT	YOU	ARE	IMPLEMENTING	
3. DO	THE	WORK	FOR	THEM	INITIALLY		
4. INCLUDE	THEM	IN	THE	GOVERNANCE	PROCESS	
5. LET	THEM	SEE	THE	BENEFITS	(USE	CASES)	
6. LISTEN	TO	THEIR	FEEDBACK	AND	IMPLEMENT	SUGGESTIONS	
7. LET	THEM	BE	PART	OF	THE	METHODOLOGY	
• MIGRATING	STAKEHOLDERS	TO	A	NEW	METHOD	TAKES	TIME.	
• COMMUNICATION	IS	THE	KEY!	USE	INTERNAL	COLLABORATION	TOOL	TO	
CONNECT	TO	YOUR	STAKEHOLDERS,	TO	NOTIFY	THEM	ABOUT	CHANGES,	TO	
PUBLISH	NEWS	ETC.
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
IMPLEMENTATION GOVERNANCE
• DOCUMENT	THE	GOVERNANCE	PROCESS	AND	MAKE	IT	MANDATORY	FOR	
EVERYONE.		
• TIGHTLY	INTEGRATE	GOVERNANCE	PROCESS	INTO	OTHER	COMPANY	
PROCESSES	-	PROJECT	MANAGEMENT,	PROCUREMENT,	SOURCING.		
• MONITOR	THE	IMPLEMENTATION	OF	THE	GOVERNANCE	VIA	ARCHITECTURE	
REVIEW	BOARDS.
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
CHANGE MANAGEMENT
• MOST	CHANGES	WILL	COME	DURING	THE	MIGRATION	AND	IMPLEMENTATION	
PHASE.		
• MOST	CHANGES	WILL	REQUIRE	META-MODEL	MODIFICATIONS.	NEW	ENTITIES,	
ATTRIBUTES	AND	RELATIONSHIPS	WILL	BE	REQUESTED.	BEING	ABLE	TO	EXTEND	
META-MODEL	BY	YOURSELF	(WITHOUT	INVOLVING	A	VENDOR)	IS	CRUCIAL!		
• START	WITH	THE	MINIMAL	SET	OF	ENTITIES	AND	ATTRIBUTES	IN	YOUR	META-
MODEL	AND	LET	IT	GROW.	IT’S	EASIER	TO	ADD	NEW	THINGS	IN	THE	META-
MODEL	THAN	TO	TAKE	IT	OUT	LATER	ON.		
• REPORTS	WILL	REQUIRE	LOTS	OF	CHANGES	AS	WELL.	DIFFERENT	
STAKEHOLDERS	HAVE	DIFFERENT	VIEWPOINTS	AND	WILL	REQUEST	DIFFERENT	
REPORTS	(VIEWS).		
• USE	INTERNAL	COLLABORATION	TOOLS	TO	CAPTURE	THE	CHANGE	REQUESTS.	
USE	FORUM	FUNCTIONALITY	TO	GIVE	USERS	POSSIBILITY	TO	DISCUSS	THE	
CHANGE.	
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT
• USE	INTERNAL	COLLABORATION	OR	REQUIREMENTS	MANAGEMENT	TOOL	TO	
MANAGE	ALL	THE	REQUIREMENTS.		
• TRY	TO	BE	AGILE	AND	PRIORITISE	REQUIREMENTS	IN	THE	BACKLOG.		
• DO	2	WEEK	SPRINTS	TO	SHOW	RESULTS	AS	QUICKLY	AS	POSSIBLE	(VERIFY	USE	
CASE,DEVELOP	NEW	REPORTS,	INCLUDE	NEW	ATTRIBUTE	IN	META-MODEL	
ETC.)
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
Recommendations
How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF
THANK YOU!
EntArchs
Agile Architecture Consulting
www.entarchs.com
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How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF

  • 1. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting margo.cronin@entarchs.com nemanja.kostic@entarchs.com MARGO CRONIN NEMANJA KOSTIC
  • 2. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF STARTING POINT EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting COMMON METHODOLOGY COMMON TOOLING ARCHITECTURE REPOSITORY FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWS COMMON MEANS FOR REUSE REFERENCE ARCHITECTURES TRACEABILITY VALID APPLICATION INVENTORY ARCHITECTURES DRIVEN BY TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS RATHER THAN BUSINESS STRATEGY BUSINESS DRIVEN ENTEPRISE ARCHITECTURE NO TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS DUPLICATION OF ASSETS EVERYWHERE What can you expect to find in organisations WITHOUT mature Enterprise Architecture? What can you expect to find in organisations WITH mature Enterprise Architecture?
  • 3. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF GARTNER’S ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE MATURITY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Level 0: None Level 1: Initial Level 2: Under Development Level 3: Defined Level 4: Managed Level 5: Nirvana No enterprise architecture to speak of. Processes are ad hoc and localized. Minimal, or implicit linkage to business strategies. Limited management team awareness or involvement in the architecture process. No explicit governance of architectural standards. Basic enterprise architecture process is documented. IT vision, principles, business linkages, Baseline, and Target Architecture are identified. Architecture standards exist, but not necessarily linked to Target Architecture. Governance of a few architectural standards. The architecture is well defined and communicated to IT staff and business management. The process is largely followed. Enterprise architecture is integrated with capital planning and investment control. Senior management team aware of and supportive of the enterprise-wide architecture process. Management actively supports architectural standards. Architecture documents updated regularly. Enterprise architecture process is part of the culture. Enterprise architecture documentation is updated on a regular cycle Business, Data, Application, and Technology Architectures defined by appropriate standards. Senior management team directly involved in the architecture review process. Explicit governance of all IT investments. All planned IT acquisitions and purchases are guided and governed by the enterprise architecture. 2014 -> present present -> future E.G. THIS TRANSITION USUALLY TAKES 12 MONTHS
  • 4. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF ON A GOOD WAY COMMON STANDARDS COMMON GOVERNANCE COMMON METHODOLOGY TRACEABILITY ACROSS DOMAINS ARCHITECTURAL REPOSITORY FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWS COMMON TOOLING COMMON MEANS FOR SHARING & REUSE COMMUNITY OF PRACTICES ACROSS DOMAINS REFERENCE ARCHITECTURES CREATED END-TO-END TRACEABILITY (BUSINESS CAPABILITIES VIA APPLICATION TO TECHNOLOGY AND DATA) VALID APPLICATION INVENTORY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting You are on a good way if you have achieved the following:
  • 5. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF FUTURE STATE EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Where should you be? YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO DEVELOP THE CAPABILITY AND CREDIBILITY TO EVALUATE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND TO DRIVE DIGITAL BUSINESS STRATEGY FOR THE ORGANISATIONS. In the fully mature organisa2ons, Enterprise Architects must: Create a clear statement of how Enterprise Architecture can contribute to digital business outcomes. Link into exis2ng efforts or create innova1on programs to reach out and collaborate with business groups in order to iden2fy areas that will impact the business. Create a process to iden1fy disrup1ve technologies likely to impact your industry and organisa2on.
  • 6. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF JOURNEY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting THE FOLLOWING SLIDES ARE NOT GOING TO TEACH YOU TOGAF. THEY WILL SHOW YOU REAL WORLD IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES THAT YOU CAN APPLY TO ALMOST ANY LARGE SCALE ORGANISATIONS. WE WISH WE SAW THESE SLIDES BEFORE…
  • 7. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF JOURNEY IN THE FOLLOWING SLIDES WE’LL SHOW YOU A SET OF PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EACH OF THE ADM PHASES. WE’LL ALSO SHOW YOU CHALLENGES WE FACED IN EACH OF THE PHASES AS WELL AS SOLUTIONS THAT WE USED TO RESOLVE THOSE CHALLENGES. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting
  • 8. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF PRELIMINARY PHASE • OBTAIN C-LEVEL SUPPORT FOR THE GROUP WIDE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ACTIVITY • SELECT A FRAMEWORK TO BE USED (WE CHOSE TOGAF ADM) • CREATE A SET OF ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES TO BE SIGNED OFF AND MANDATED BY CIO. WE CREATED 60 PRINCIPLES CATEGORISED AS: ‣ GUIDING PRINCIPLES ‣ ARCHITECTURE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ‣ BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ DATA ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES ‣ SECURITY ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES • START EVALUATING WHAT TOOLS CAN BE REUSED FOR THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ACTIVITY EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 9. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF PRELIMINARY PHASE • HOW TO SELL THE EA VALUE TO THE WIDER COMMUNITY? ‣ Develop a set of use cases to show what benefits Enterprise Architecture can bring to the business in terms of cost savings, strategy execu2on, roadmaps development, impact analysis etc. • HOW TO ADOPT ARCHITECTURE PRINCIPLES? ‣ Include and engage as many people as possible in the process of crea2ng the principles. Once they feel they contribute to them and own them, they can adopt them. ‣ Allocate 1me to iden2fy and sign-off the principles. Try to keep the number low (60 is a lot!). • HOW TO SELECT RIGHT TOOLS? ‣ Look internally first to what can be reused or integrated with. That way lots of internal poli2cs and big egos are removed of the table. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  • 10. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF ARCHITECTURE VISION • DEFINE SCOPE OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE TO COVER THE WHOLE GROUP, NOT JUST INDIVIDUAL BUSINESS UNITS OR INDIVIDUAL CUSTOMER SEGMENTS. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE CAN BRING VALUE ONLY IF IT IS THE OVERARCHING ENTITY. • CREATE GOVERNANCE BODIES THAT WILL HELP YOU CARRY OUT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ACTIVITIES: ‣ APPLICATION/BUSINESS/DATA/TECHNOLOGY COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE WHERE ALL THE PRACTITIONERS FROM THAT DOMAIN ARE PARTICIPATING (KNOWLEDGE SHARING, EVOLUTION OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ARTEFACTS, ETC.) ‣ CROSS-DOMAIN DIALOGUES WHERE SELECTED REPRESENTATIVES FROM EACH DOMAIN ARE PARTICIPATING (BETTER COORDINATION BETWEEN DOMAINS) ‣ ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE GOVERNANCE BODY WHERE THE HEADS OF IT ARE PARTICIPATING (EXCEPTIONS, ESCALATIONS, APPROVALS) EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 11. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF ARCHITECTURE VISION • HOW TO ESTABLISH COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE (COP)? ‣ Use collabora1on tools extensively as the knowledge sharing plaMorm. ‣ Organise monthly mee1ngs/calls with the CoP members to share ideas, present new projects, get insights into what other business units are doing, seek for help. • CARROT VS STICK? ‣ Use both! ‣ Central EA group should be a glue between other units and a funnel where ideas are explored and shared. ‣ But integrate EA governance into Project Management, Procurement, Sourcing and other internal processes to make sure principles/standards/reference architectures are followed and implemented. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  • 12. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE • HIRE BUSINESS ARCHITECTS! IT’S ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO CREATE BUSINESS SERVICES, CAPABILITIES AND PROCESSES WITHOUT INVOLVEMENT OF BUSINESS ARCHITECTS WHO UNDERSTAND THE DOMAIN. • TAILOR META-MODEL TO FIT YOUR ORGANISATION. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations IN OUR EXPERIENCE, EXPECT THE HEAVIEST TAILORING OF THE BUSINESS DOMAIN META- MODEL! ALLOCATE A LOT OF TIME. USE THIS OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP CAPABILITY AND PROCESS FRAMEWORKS IF THEY DON’T EXIST ALREADY.
  • 13. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE • BUSINESS AND IT WORKING IN ISOLATION ‣ Don’t let business architects working in isola1on. They need to see the big picture and to realise how business pieces fit with IT pieces. It’s all part of the same puzzle. ‣ Start early with connec2ng business process and applica2on systems! It creates a posi2ve feedback loop to the business with the possibility to op2mise processes. • AS-IS VS TO-BE ‣ Always start with As-Is capabili2es & processes. Create To-Be business architecture once the priori2es are established. Op2misa2on possibili2es of As-Is architecture can influence To-Be architecture. ‣ Allow enough 1me to build capability and process frameworks. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  • 14. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE • IDENTIFY ARCHITECTURE & SOLUTION BUILDING BLOCKS IN YOUR APPLICATION DOMAIN. FIRST FOCUS ON THOSE APPLICATIONS & DATA THAT DELIVER CRITICAL BUSINESS CAPABILITIES. • CATEGORISE THEM PER SYSTEMS OF RECORD, ENGAGEMENT, UTILITY AND INSIGHT. USE AGILITY QUADRANT TO DETERMINE BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGY AGILITY. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations See EntArchs Agility Quadrant for the detailed explanation of the diagram.
  • 15. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE • META-MODEL TAILORING? ‣ Use basic TOGAF meta-model if you already have internal systems that capture applica2on and data a[ributes. Don’t duplicate a_ributes. ‣ If you are star2ng green-field, start capturing smaller set of applica2on & data a[ributes and then gradually grow. In extreme cases, physical applica2on component can have over 500 a[ributes! Manage your stakeholder expecta2ons, add only those a[ributes that are absolutely needed to start with. • WHEN IS THE WORK DONE? ‣ The biggest challenge in iden2fying Physical Applica2on Components is that there are just too many of them! Large companies can easily have over 5.000 different internal applica2ons. Focus on big ones where the TCO is high. Use Pareto 80/20 Principle - “capture 20% of applica2ons that deliver 80% of capabili2es”. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  • 16. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE • CATEGORISE PRODUCTS IN LOGICAL AND PHYSICAL TECHNOLOGY COMPONENTS. • IN OUR EXPERIENCE THE TOGAF ENTITIES MAY NOT BE ENOUGH TO CAPTURE THE COMPLEXITY OF YOUR ENVIRONMENT, USE PHYSICAL TECHNOLOGY GROUPS TO CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY STACKS. • TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE NEEDS TO DRIVE YOUR STANDARDISATION ROADMAP. MAKE SURE THERE IS TIGHT INTEGRATION WITH INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE SO THAT THE APPLICATION & TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPS ARE IN SYNC. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 17. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF TECHNOLOGY ARCHITECTURE • TO WHAT LEVEL OF GRANULARITY DO YOU DEFINE? ‣ Technology is typically well defined in an organisation, but the level of detail can complicate a meta-model (OS versioning, Prog. Lang. versioning). In contract an organisation can also have PaaS, SaaS, IaaS based solutions. • HOW DO YOU MODEL SAAS, PAAS, IAAS? ‣ We recommend creating “Physical Technology Component Group” that represented a stack of technologies. It makes reporting easier and enables modelling of the “lowest common denominator”. These PTCG’s can be used to create technology standards to govern against. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Challenges & Solutions
  • 18. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS • THE BIGGEST QUESTION IS: HOW TO IMPLEMENT ARCHITECTURE REPOSITORY EFFICIENTLY? • MOST IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS FOR AN ARCHITECTURE REPOSITORY: 1. CUSTOMISABLE META-MODEL 2. SIMPLE & EASY TO USE 3. GOOD REPORTING/DASHBOARD FUNCTIONALITY • ALWAYS LOOK TO REUSE INTERNAL TOOLS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE (HELPS WITH AVOIDING INTERNAL POLITICS). • IF THERE ARE NO INTERNAL TOOLS (OR NO INTERNAL POLITICS TO DEAL WITH) GO WITH MARKET LEADERS SUCH AS ORBUS ISERVER. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 19. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting An example of Architecture Repository composed of internal tools using EntArchs dashboard. • REUSE INTERNAL TOOLS IN YOUR ORGANISATION. • ENTARCHS BUILT THEIR OWN DASHBOARD (AS THE PICTURE ON THE RIGHT SHOWS) ON TOP OF ALL OF THOSE INTERNAL TOOLS TO BE AS SIMPLE AND USABLE FOR YOUR STAKEHOLDERS AS POSSIBLE. • DON’T ADD ANY NEW BUSINESS LOGIC BUT INTEGRATE WITH THE BACKEND SYSTEMS VIA REST API’S OR SIMILAR PROTOCOL. • CONTACT ENTARCHS FOR INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE THIS OPEN-SOURCE SOLUTION FOR YOUR NEEDS.
  • 20. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF OPPORTUNITIES & SOLUTIONS EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting An example of Architecture Repository composed of internal tools using EntArchs dashboard.
  • 21. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF MIGRATION PLANNING • GETTING ALL OF THE STAKEHOLDERS (ARCHITECTS, BUSINESS, IT OWNERS) TO ADOPT YOUR NEW METHODOLOGY IS A CHALLENGING TASK THAT REQUIRES CAREFUL PLANNING. • NEVER GO WITH BIG-BANG APPROACH, RATHER WITH SMALL STEPS: 1. SHOW THEM VALUE THAT YOUR METHODOLOGY BRINGS 2. EDUCATE THEM IN TOOLS THAT YOU ARE IMPLEMENTING 3. DO THE WORK FOR THEM INITIALLY 4. INCLUDE THEM IN THE GOVERNANCE PROCESS 5. LET THEM SEE THE BENEFITS (USE CASES) 6. LISTEN TO THEIR FEEDBACK AND IMPLEMENT SUGGESTIONS 7. LET THEM BE PART OF THE METHODOLOGY • MIGRATING STAKEHOLDERS TO A NEW METHOD TAKES TIME. • COMMUNICATION IS THE KEY! USE INTERNAL COLLABORATION TOOL TO CONNECT TO YOUR STAKEHOLDERS, TO NOTIFY THEM ABOUT CHANGES, TO PUBLISH NEWS ETC. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 22. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF IMPLEMENTATION GOVERNANCE • DOCUMENT THE GOVERNANCE PROCESS AND MAKE IT MANDATORY FOR EVERYONE. • TIGHTLY INTEGRATE GOVERNANCE PROCESS INTO OTHER COMPANY PROCESSES - PROJECT MANAGEMENT, PROCUREMENT, SOURCING. • MONITOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNANCE VIA ARCHITECTURE REVIEW BOARDS. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 23. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF CHANGE MANAGEMENT • MOST CHANGES WILL COME DURING THE MIGRATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PHASE. • MOST CHANGES WILL REQUIRE META-MODEL MODIFICATIONS. NEW ENTITIES, ATTRIBUTES AND RELATIONSHIPS WILL BE REQUESTED. BEING ABLE TO EXTEND META-MODEL BY YOURSELF (WITHOUT INVOLVING A VENDOR) IS CRUCIAL! • START WITH THE MINIMAL SET OF ENTITIES AND ATTRIBUTES IN YOUR META- MODEL AND LET IT GROW. IT’S EASIER TO ADD NEW THINGS IN THE META- MODEL THAN TO TAKE IT OUT LATER ON. • REPORTS WILL REQUIRE LOTS OF CHANGES AS WELL. DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDERS HAVE DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS AND WILL REQUEST DIFFERENT REPORTS (VIEWS). • USE INTERNAL COLLABORATION TOOLS TO CAPTURE THE CHANGE REQUESTS. USE FORUM FUNCTIONALITY TO GIVE USERS POSSIBILITY TO DISCUSS THE CHANGE. EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 24. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT • USE INTERNAL COLLABORATION OR REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT TOOL TO MANAGE ALL THE REQUIREMENTS. • TRY TO BE AGILE AND PRIORITISE REQUIREMENTS IN THE BACKLOG. • DO 2 WEEK SPRINTS TO SHOW RESULTS AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE (VERIFY USE CASE,DEVELOP NEW REPORTS, INCLUDE NEW ATTRIBUTE IN META-MODEL ETC.) EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting Recommendations
  • 25. How to establish Enterprise Architecture in large organisations using TOGAF THANK YOU! EntArchs Agile Architecture Consulting www.entarchs.com Visit us at… … and see our Resources and Posts