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Unit 1: Consumer Health
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Number of Sessions: 10
CONTENT STANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner understands the
guidelines and criteria in the selection
and evaluation of health information,
products, and services.
The learner demonstrates critical thinking
and decision-making skills in the selection,
evaluation, and utilization of health
information, products, and services.
I. Introduction
Where did you last spend your money?
What item did you buy? Why?
What kind of service did you last avail?
Who recently shared with you a new health
information?
These are only a few of the things that
concern you as adolescents. Decision-
making is an important skill that you must
learn in order to live a healthy and normal
life. This module will help you understand
the basics of consumer health. Consumer
health aims to develop a person’s ability to evaluate and utilize health information,
products, and services wisely and effectively.
All of us are consumers. We acquire health information, purchase health
products, and avail of health services to appraise, improve, and maintain our health.
Health information is any idea that we hear from people around us, read from books
and other printed materials, or from the media that influence our health. Health
products are items that we consume to improve our well-being, like medicine, food,
clothes, furniture, electronics, etc. Health services are programs we avail from various
providers such as physicians, nurses, therapists, health workers, hospitals, clinics, and
the government. Some examples of these health services are insurance, treatment
and cure, complementary and alternative medicine.
In this light, we must all be educated consumers who make wise selection of
information, products, and services that are scientifically proven and legally approved.
It is our duty to evaluate and examine the reliability of the sources.
Let us find out how we can be educated in consumer health.
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II. Learning Competencies
The learner:
1. differentiates reliable from unreliable health information, products, and
services
2. explains the guidelines and criteria in the selection and evaluation of health
information, products, and services
3. discusses various forms of health service providers and healthcare plans
4. selects health professionals, specialists, and healthcare services wisely
5. explains the nature and dangers of quackery
6. reports fraudulent health services
7. explains the different kinds of complementary and alternative healthcare
modalities
8. explains the importance of consumer laws to protect public health
9. identifies national and international government agencies and private
organizations that implement programs for consumer protection
10. participates in programs for consumer welfare and protection
III. Pre-Assessment
Activity A: Identify the concepts being described in each item. Fill in the missing
letters to complete the crossword puzzle.
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Across:
3. Sale of products that are not scientifically proven to be effective; fraudulent
advertisement or promotion
4. Healthcare practitioner who specializes in problems of the teeth
5. Allied health professional who provides healthcare to patients in hospitals
6. Public health insurance mandated by Philippine law
Down:
1. Doctor who specializes in the disorders of the respiratory system
2. Alternative medicine practice where needles are inserted in some specific of
the body
4. Form of quackery that uses equipment believed to cure illness
7. Health maintenance organization; form of healthcare provider that makes use
of prepaid money to cover medical expenses
Activity B. Read the situation and answer the questions.
A teenager once went to the local market to buy materials for a Science
project. Upon passing by some stalls, he was invited for a free orientation on
the latest product of a company. The company was selling “health rings” that
can detect the mood of a person and help lower body temperature and blood
pressure. The teenager was easily attracted, which made him buy two health
rings for himself and his sister. He spent Php 600 for the items.
After a week, the teenager and his sister developed red spots and
rashes on their fingers. Upon checking, the rings are observed to have rust
around them. The teenager wants to file a complaint so the company may
return his money.
1. What is the nature of the teenager’s problem?
________________________________________________________________
2. Who can help him with his problem?
________________________________________________________________
3. What rights protect the teenager?
________________________________________________________________
4. What would you ask yourself before buying a health product to avoid the
same experience?
________________________________________________________________
5. As a Grade 10 student, how can you help the teenager?
________________________________________________________________
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Activity 1: SURVEY SAYS!
1. Read the questions.
2. Go around the classroom and ask a classmate to answer each question.
3. Record the responses below.
a. What should I do when my head and body ache?
_____________________________________________________
b. How many times should I take vitamin and mineral supplements?
_____________________________________________________
c. What is the best way to make my skin smooth?
_____________________________________________________
d. When is the best time to trim my fingernails?
_____________________________________________________
e. What is the most effective way to lose weight?
_____________________________________________________
Activity 2: PAIR SHARE
1. Find a partner and discuss the following questions:
a. Which of your classmates’ answers do you agree with? Which do you
disagree with? Why?
b. What kind of information is being asked? Is it critical? Why?
c. Who can accurately answer these questions?
2. Write a one-paragraph reflection about the discussion.
Consumer health has three components: health information, health products,
andhealthservices.Whatyouhavegatheredfromyourclassmatesishealthinformation.
Health information plays a big role in the life of individuals. “It is information that
people require to make wise choices and decisions about their health or the health of
[other people]” (Galvez Tan, et al., 2009).
In the WHAT TO KNOW phase, you will answer activities
which will assess your prior knowledge. At the end of the
phase, you will be assessed again to check your knowledge
about the concepts and information learned.
Part I: WHAT TO KNOW No. of Sessions: 4
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Health information is any concept, step, or advice that various sources give
to aid the health status of an individual. The type of information varies depending
on “diseases, sexual health, weight loss/gain, drugs and alcohol, depression/mental
illness, violence, smoking, eating disorders, acne/skin care, local clinics, and sexual
assault” (Payne, et al., 2005). The information is critical as it may alter the health
conditions of a person. Another important characteristic of health information is that
it is continuously and rapidly changing. Thus, it “should be timely, relevant, culturally
appropriate, accessible, and delivered in a relevant format” (Galvez Tan, et al., 2009).
There is a great need to update oneself regarding current research and evidence
available in the field.
Activity 3: STOP OR GO
Read the health information below. Draw a cross on the GO column if it is
scientifically true and proven, and draw a cross on the STOP column if it is not.
GO STOP
Warts are contagious.
Chocolates cause acne and pimples.
Cracking your knuckles causes arthritis.
Healthy people who eat a balanced diet do not need
supplements.
Sleeping with wet hair causes mental disorders.
Jumping from the third step of the stairs on the first day of
menstruation reduces the number of bleeding days.
Circumcision is done for hygienic purposes only.
Touching hands of people with HIV may infect you with such.
Putting toothpaste on burns causes irritation.
Sleep need varies depending on the individual
Think About It!
Discuss the questions:
1. Why are there misleading health information? Who spreads them?
2. Who are the sources of health information?
Beyond the Classroom
1. What are other examples of myths (superstitions) and/or misconceptions
that you hear in your community?
2. Write them on your notebook and search for a scientific proof to counter
them.
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Aside from health information, people also consume health products. Health
products are food, drugs, cosmetics, devices, biologicals, vaccines, in-vitro diagnostic
reagents, and household/urban hazardous substances and/or a combination of and/or
a derivative thereof (FDA Act, 2009). These products may be purchased from various
places like supermarkets, pharmacies, and hospitals.
Activity 4: MY SHOPPING LIST
1. List five examples of health products that people buy and consume.
2. Enumerate the answers in your notebook.
How do these products affect the overall well-being of an individual?
Health
Products
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Activity 5: LET’S GO BACK
1. Read the following information.
2. Identify reliable and unreliable sources of health information and products.
3. Complete the table below.
People acquire health information and products from various sources like
people, media, and technology. It is important to identify the reliability of these sources.
Reliable sources of health information and products are licensed professionals
who took up specialized and intensive studies in the field. They are the ones who
have the qualified educational background and can give scientific explanation to
validate information. We can also find reliable health information from health books,
and accredited online sources. On the other hand, unreliable sources of information
and products are those from people who are not experts in this field.
Aside from health information and products, people also avail of various health
services from different providers.
Health services are often connected to healthcare. These programs aim to
appraise the health conditions of individuals through screening and examinations,
cure and treat disorders, prevent and control the spread of diseases, provide safety,
emergency care, and first aid, and ensure a follow-up program for individuals who
have undergone treatments.
Health services are usually offered by healthcare providers. “A healthcare
provider is a trained professional who provides people with healthcare” (Meeks, et al.,
2011). There are different types of healthcare providers, such as:
I. Health Professionals
Individuals who are licensed to practice medicine and other allied health
programs. An example of a health professional is a physician. A physician records
the medical history of individuals, provides diagnoses, performs medical examinations,
and prescribes medications. There are different types of physicians based on their
area of specialization.
Sources of Health Information and Products
UnreliableReliable
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Activity 6: DOCTOR WHO?
What are the different types of physicians?
Match the type of the physician with the area of specialization below.
cardiologist
dermatologist
gastroenterologist
geriatrician
gynecologist
neurologist
orthopedist
ophthalmologist
pediatrician
pulmonologist
urologist
1 6
2 7
3 8
4 9
5 10
What are the other medical specializations that you know? List them and their areas
of expertise below.
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
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DO YOU KNOW?
Healthcare practitioners and allied health professionals are also considered
health care providers.
“A healthcare practitioner is an independent healthcare provider who is
licensed to practice on a specific area of the body” (Meeks, et al., 2011). Some
examples of healthcare practitioners are podiatrists (who specialize in the problems
of the feet), dentists, and optometrists.
On the other hand, “an allied health professional is a trained healthcare
provider who practices under the supervision of a physician or healthcare practitioner”
(Meeks, et al., 2011). Nurses, dieticians, pharmacists, and physical therapists are
examples of allied health professionals.
II. Healthcare Facilities
Healthcare facilities are places or institutions that offer healthcare services.
There are different types of healthcare facilities (Meeks, et al., 2011).
a. Hospital
It is an institution where people undergo medical diagnosis,
care and treatment. A hospital offers different types of medical care
like inpatient and outpatient care. Inpatient care refers to care given
to individuals who need to stay inside the hospital to receive proper
treatment, monitoring and care. On the other hand, outpatient care
refers to treatment that does not require an individual to stay inside the
hospital.
There are different kinds of hospitals: private, voluntary,
government, and teaching (Meeks, et al., 2011). A private hospital is
operated by individuals to gain profit. A voluntary hospital does not
require profit because it is owned by a community or an organization. A
government or public hospital is being run by the state and the treatment
fees are subsidized. A teaching hospital includes a school for medical
students.
In the Philippines, there are two classifications of hospitals:
general and specialty. General hospitals have complete medical,
surgical, and maternal care facilities. Some examples are the Philippine
General Hospital, Baguio General Hospital, Cebu General Hospital, and
Davao Medical Center. On the other hand, specialty hospitals handle
a particular disease or condition or deal with only one type of patient.
Some examples are the Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center of the
Philippines, and National Kidney Transplant Institute.
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b. Walk-In Surgery Center
It is a facility that offers surgery without the patient being
admitted in the hospital.
c. Health Center
The services in a health center cater to a specific population
with various health needs.
d. Extended Healthcare Facility
A facility that provides treatment, nursing care, and residential
services to patients, often the elderly..
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Activity 7: HEALTHY PLACES
1. Complete the table by writing the correct answers on each box.
2. Find a partner and discuss the description of each health facility.
III. Health Insurance
`“Health insurance is a financial agreement between an insurance company
and an individual or group for the payment of healthcare costs” (Payne, et al., 2005).
This also may pertain to a “protection that provides benefits for sickness and injury”
(Meeks, et al., 2011).
It offers various types of coverage: “medical insurance, major medical insurance,
hospitalization insurance, surgical insurance, and disability insurance” (Meeks, et al.,
2011). Medical insurance pays for the fees of the health professionals, laboratory
tests, and prescription drugs. Major medical insurance offers payment for long-term or
chronic diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Hospitalization insurance pays for the stay
of the patient inside the hospital. Surgical insurance pays for surgery fees. Disability
insurance provides financing for members who meet accidents or suffer from illnesses.
Health
Facilities
Types
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Health insurance may be sourced from both public and private companies. An
example of public health insurance is PhilHealth. As mandated by law in the country,
employees of both public and private companies avail of PhilHealth. It requires a small
monthly contribution from its members. These contributions are saved and used for
the medical care needed by a PhilHealth member.
A health maintenance organization (HMO) is a healthcare provider that offers
medical services that are availed through a prepaid amount of money. It is a business
that requires a relatively reduced monthly fee for subscribers. The difference of an HMO
with other insurance companies is that it hires or trains its own health professionals
and healthcare practitioners.
Time To Read
Using a computer with an internet connection, identify at least two other health
insurances offered in the country. If without an Internet connection, you may inquire
from the nearest hospital/medical center.
Write a short paragraph about each health insurance and its benefits. Cite your
resources properly.
“Consumers today face an amazing array of choices when they consider taking
action to improve their health or seek care for a health problem” (Donatelle, 2006).
In addition to health professionals, there are also many other forms of healthcare
that offer alternatives. These complementary and alternative healthcare modalities are
often taken because some individuals believe that traditional medical care may not be
enough to treat a particular health condition. A complementary medicine is availed and
integrated together with traditional medicine. On the other hand, alternative medicine
is offered in place of traditional medicine.
There are four major domains of complementary and alternative medicine:
biology-based practices, energy medicine, manipulative and body-based practices,
and mind-body medicine (Donatelle, 2006). Examples of biologically-based practices
are taking herbal medicine and availing of special diets and vitamins. Energy medicine
uses magnetic fields or biofields in belief that energy fields may enter various points in
the body. Manipulative and body-based practices are bodily-kinesthetic in nature and
are concerned with movement therapy. Mind-body medicine uses mental exercises in
belief that the brain is central to the health of an individual.
In our country, Republic Act No. 8423 or the Traditional and Alternative
Medicine Act of 1997 provisioned the creation of the Philippine Institute of Traditional
and Alternative Healthcare (PITAHC), which works closely with the Department of
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Health. The PITAHC is also the law-making body with regards to the effective use
of traditional and alternative medicine. Here are examples of the PITAHC-approved
alternative modalities
Naturopathy
“Naturopathic medicine views diseases as a manifestation of an alteration in
the processes by which the body naturally heals itself” (Donatelle, 2006). Naturopathy
offers a wide range of natural practices including herbal medicine acupuncture,
acupressure, nutritional therapy, and ventosa cupping massage therapy.
Herbal medicine
There are 10 herbs that are proven and tested to have medicinal value and
approved by the Department of Health” (Galvez Tan, et al., 2009)
Activity 8: GARDEN OF HERBS
What are the herbs approved by the Department of Health?
Unscramble the letters to form each herb in column A.
Read column B for the medicinal value of each herb.
A
Herb
B
Medicinal value
1. P L A U K A O C
For ringworm and other skin (fungal)
infections
2. P A M A L A Y A
For non-insulin dependent diabetic
patients
3. W A G N A B For blood pressure control
4. S A Y A B A B
For use as antiseptic to disinfect wounds
For mouthwash or tooth decay and gum
infection
5. G U D N A L I For cough and asthma
6. Y I N O G – A I N Y O G N
For intestinal worms, particularly ascaris
and trichina
7. B A S M N G O For urinary stones
8. A S A T N G B A T U G For mouthwash
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9. N I P A S T – N A S I P A N T For arthritis and gout
10. B E R Y A – N U B E A For relief from body aches and pains
Examples of Alternative Medicine
1. Acupuncture
It is a form of energy medicine where
long thin needles are inserted to specific
parts of the body to affect the energy
flow. Acupuncture is believed to treat
musculoskeletal dysfunctions.
2. Ventosa cupping massage therapy
Thisprocedureisdonebyplacinginverted
glasses that have flames from burning cotton,
on specific points in the body. It is believed to
relieve muscle and joint pains.
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3. Reflexology
Similar to acupuncture, reflexology
focuses on treating specific disorders through
massaging of the soles of the feet.
4. Acupressure
Acupressure uses the same technique
as that of acupuncture. The only difference
is that acupressure does not use needles but
hands to apply pressure on certain points of
the body.
5. Nutrition Therapy
Nutrition therapy approaches treatment
of a medical condition by providing a tailored
diet for the patient.
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Activity 9a: NEWSPAPER ADS
Using newspapers and magazines, reference books, or credible internet
websites, identify other forms of complementary and alternative healthcare modalities
Procedure:
1. Cut out pictures of advertisements of different complementary and
healthcare modalities.
2. Paste them on a piece of paper.
3. Search and write the health effects of these modalities.
Activity 9b: THINK ABOUT IT
In 2-3 paragraphs, write your thoughts about the question, “Why are health
professionals, whether those that offer traditional, alternative, or complementary, not
present in a lot of rural municipalities in the country?”
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Homework: MY COMMUNITY HEALTHCARE SURVEY
Procedure:
1. Do a survey in your community about the various health services offered.
2. Complete the table with the information that you will gather.
3. Answer the question in one paragraph.
How effective and efficient are your community’s healthcare professionals and
facilities?
Barangay _______________
Health FacilitiesHealth
Professionals
Healthcare Plans
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Recall the concepts learned in the previous sessions.
Complete the graphic organizer by providing examples.
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
The following activities will be recorded under “Knowledge”.
Read the directions carefully and give the best answers.
Consumers
Health Products
Examples:
Health Information
Reliable Sources
Health Services
Health
Professionals
Examples:
Health Facilities
Examples:
Health Insurance
Examples:
Complementary
and Alternative
Health Modalities
Examples:
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Part II: WHAT TO PROCESS No. of Sessions: 1
In the “WHAT TO PROCESS” phase, you will answer and
perform activities which will help you process and improve your
understanding. At the end of the phase, you will be assessed
again to check your processing skills about the concepts and
information learned
Activity 10: MAGIC BRACELET
1. Study the poster below. Find a partner and discuss the questions.
2. Synthesize the discussion and prepare to share in class.
a. What is being sold by the poster?
b. What does it guarantee?
c. Will you buy it? Make a comparative chart that lists reasons for buying
and reasons for declining this product.
Consumers receive health information, products, and services from various
sources, thus individuals may be prone to frauds. An example of which is quackery.
Quackery, a form of a health fraud, is any advertisement, promotion, or sale
of products and services that have not been scientifically proven safe and effective
(Meeks, et al, 2011). It is being operated by a quack. A quack is an individual that has
little or no professional qualifications to practice medicine. He/She also pretentiously
uses meaningless medical jargon and relies on scare tactics, paranoid accusations,
and quick fixes.
There are three major characteristics of health quackery (Schaler & Carroll,
undated). First, it is a big business. A huge amount of money is spent on fraudulent
health products and services. Second, it multiplies and spreads fast. Lastly, it thrives
on individuals who are diagnosed with illnesses that are known to have no cure.
Reflection Questions:
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Activity 11: QUACK, QUACK!
1. Study the posters.
2. Identify the three forms of quackery. Write the answers in your notebook.
The three forms of quackery are:
a. Medical quackery
Medical quackery includes cures, treatments, and remedies of various
health conditions that are drugless or bloodless in nature.
b. Nutrition quackery
Nutrition quackery involves promotion of food fads and other nutritional
practices that claim to be all-natural. These are believed to have beneficial
properties of multiple plants in one product.
c. Device quackery
Device quackery makes use of miraculous gadgets (such as dials,
gauges, electrodes, magnets, and blinkers) that are believed to cure certain
health conditions.
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Activity 12: MORE QUACKS!
Complete the table by writing other examples of medical, nutrition, and device
quackery.
Medical Device Nutrition
Activity 13: BRAINSTORM
1. Form groups of five members. Assign numbers 1 to 5 for each member.
2. Each person is given two minutes to answer this question: Why do people
easily fall for quackery?
3. After everyone has written the answers, discuss the possible factors that
affect people’s vulnerability to quackery.
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Activity 14: A BAD QUACK
List down possible dangers of quackery to a person’s physical and psychological
well-being.
Physical Psychological
Activity 15: FIGHT THE QUACK!
In 2-3 paragraphs, answer the
following question on a piece of paper:
As a Grade 10 student, how can
you protect your family and yourself from
quackery?
TEST YOUR PROCESSING SKILLS
The activity below will be recorded under Process. Read the
procedures carefully and use the rubric to improve your output.
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Part III: WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND No. of Sessions: 3
You are faced with health information and products every day from different
people and forms of media. But to simply know the source of information and product
is reliable (or unreliable) may sometimes be not enough. It is also important to learn
how to evaluate the reliability of the health information and product.
Activity 16: TOP FIVE
1. Study the poster.
2. List five questions that you will ask the source about the product.
Will you buy the product? Why or why not?
It is important to examine and evaluate the reliability of any piece of health
information before applying it to your well-being. Here are the criteria that will help you
determine whether the information is reliable or not.
In the “WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND” phase, you
will do activities which will assess your deeper knowledge and
understanding of the topics learned. At the end of the phase, you
will be assessed again to check your reflection and understanding
about the concepts and information learned.
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Activity 17: YOUR CHECKLIST
Complete the criteria below by supplying the missing letters. Use the
descriptions as your guide.
When evaluating health information and products, you must check for:
C _ _ D _ B _ _ _ T Y
1. This tells about the source and recency of the information.
o Who or what is the source of the information/product?
o Is the source qualified?
o Is the information updated?
_ _ N T _ _ T
2. This tells about the accuracy, disclaimer, and completeness of information.
o Is it complete and correct?
o Does it have scientific basis?
o Does it state the limitations, purpose, scope, authority and currency of
the information?
o Does it have labels that contain the directions for use and storage,
expiration date and warnings?
D _ S C _ _ S _ R _
3. This tells about the purpose and caveat of the information.
o What is the purpose of giving the information/product?
o Is it for marketing purposes?
o Is it for selling products or for disseminating information?
I N _ _ R _ C T _ _ _ T Y
4. This tells about the feedback mechanism and means of information
exchange between the source and the consumer.
o Can the consumer offer comments and suggestions?
o Is it possible to ask questions?
Aside from evaluating the reliability of health information, choosing competent
and reliable healthcare providers is also important for it is crucial to the appraisal,
diagnosis, and treatment of health conditions. When visiting a healthcare provider, a
person should determine satisfaction and reliability.
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Activity 18: GUARANTEED SERVICE
1. Answer the questions.
a. What are the things that you look for in a doctor?
b. What are the things that you look for in a hospital?
2. Write your list of characteristics in your notebook. Prepare to share in class.
I am looking for a doctor
who…
I am looking for a hospital
that…
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“Health insurance should cover standard risks of illness and injury for family
members.” (Meeks, et al., 2011). There are two types of expenses involved in health
insurance: covered expense and exclusion. Covered expense refers to the coverage
of medical services that can be paid by the company issuing the health insurance. On
the other hand, exclusions are specific services that are not paid by the issuer.
Forms of health insurance are not all the same. It is important to study the
plan before availing it. Here are some actions that may be taken to evaluate a health
insurance (Meeks, et al., 2011):
1. Obtain and read carefully a copy of the health insurance plan.
2. Ask questions of representatives from the health insurance plan.
3. Shop around for other options.
4. Choose plans that give the most comprehensive coverage at the most
affordable price.
Activity 19: MY PHILHEALTH
Suppose you are employed and about to be enrolled in Philhealth.
How will you evaluate its reliability?
What questions will you ask the company? Write them on a piece of paper.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
224
DEPED COPY
Activity 20: THINK ABOUT IT
What are the pros and cons of availing a healthcare plan?
1. Debate on whether there is a need for a healthcare plan or not.
2. List your findings.
3. Write your comments on a piece of paper and be ready to share in class.
The government also plays an important role in consumer protection. A
consumer has rights mandated by law. These are privileges that an individual is
guaranteed of health products and services.
The Consumer Act of the Philippines is a law that protects the interest of
the consumer, promotes general welfare, and establishes standards of conduct for
business and industry. There are 8 basic rights of a consumer according to the act
(Galvez Tan, et al., 2009).
Identify the 8 basic rights of a consumer:
1. The right to __________________ This right guarantees survival, adequate
food, clothing, shelter, healthcare,
education, and sanitation.
2. The right to ___________________ This is the right to be protected against
the marketing of goods or the provision
of services that are hazardous to health
and life.
3. The right to ___________________ This is the right to be protected against
dishonest or misleading advertising or
labeling and the right to be given the
facts and information needed to make
an informed choice.
Pros Cons
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
225
DEPED COPY
4. The right to ___________________ This is the right to choose products at
competitive prices with an assurance of
satisfactory quality.
5. The right to ___________________ This is the right to express consumer
interests in the making and execution of
government policies.
6. The right to ___________________ This is the right to be compensated for
misrepresentation, shoddy goods or
unsatisfactory services.
7. The right to ___________________ This is the right to acquire the
knowledge and skills necessary to be an
informed customer.
8. The right to ___________________ This is the right to live and work in an
environment that is neither threatening
nor dangerous and, which permits a life
of dignity and well-being.
Aside from the Consumer Act of 2009, there are also other international and
national consumer advocacy groups that advocate for our health.
Reflection Questions:
1. What are instances that you practiced your consumer rights?
2. In which programs did you participate to advocate for consumer protection?
Write a short reflection on a piece of paper. Include the importance of practicing
your consumer rights.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
226
DEPED COPY
Activity 21: GOVERNMENT FIRMS
By knowing your consumer rights, you have the power to report illegal and
fraudulent health products and services. Here are some government firms that we
can approach to report. Identify them.
What are other government agencies where we can report fraudulent health
services?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
227
DEPED COPY
Activity 22: I ASSERT!
How do you write a letter of complaint for the purchase of a fraudulent product?
Read the letter.
Your Turn!
Construct a letter of complaint for the purchase of a product that is already
expired. Follow the format above.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
228
DEPED COPY
PART IV: WHAT TO TRANSFER No. of Sessions: 1
In the WHAT TO TRANSFER phase, you will apply what you
have learned by creating or producing a product. At the end of the
phase, you will be assessed again to check your knowledge,
skills and attitudes.
Do you know that October is the Consumer Welfare Month?
You will produce advocacy materials for the practice of consumer rights.
1. Create your choice of any product in the list on any of the listed topics on
consumer health.
Product Topic
Song / Poem / Commercial Jingle Wise and intelligent consumers
Artwork / Poster Consumer protection
Brochure Health services
Video Combatting quackery
2. Prepare to present it in class.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
229
DEPED COPY
SUMMARY
Complete the paragraph by writing the correct answers on the blanks.
Consumer health encompasses the health information, products, and services
being gathered, acquired, and availed by an individual. _____________________
refers to any concept, idea, data, or figures that may aid to the health status of an
individual. __________________ refer to materials, devices, or items that an individual
purchases to improve health. Examples of these are shampoo, medicine, health
electronics, and food. On the other hand, ___________________refer to programs
offered for the health appraisal of an individual through various treatment, screening,
and examinations. Some examples of these are health professionals, facilities, and
insurance.
When availing of health information, products, and services, it is important
to examine and evaluate the reliability of the sources to avoid quackery. Quackery
refers to fraudulent promotion, sales, or advertisement of various products. There
are three kinds of quackery. The first is __________________ which refers to the
prescription of scientifically unproven medical treatment and cure. The second is
____________________ which refers to the sale of items that are believed to treat
or cure an individual. The last is __________________ which includes fad diets and
other practices.
Under the law, the consumers are protected with rights such as _________,
________________, ________________, and _________________. With these
rights, a consumer may be able to report incidences of fraudulent practices and
purchases.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
230
DEPED COPY
References
Donatelle, R. (2006). Access to Health. (9th
ed.). San Francisco: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Galvez-Tan, J. Z., et al. (2009). The Health Curriculum in Philippine Basic
Education. (Volume 2: A resource book on Health for teachers).
Pasay: UNESCO, National Commission of the Philippines.
Haag, J. (1976). Consumer Health: products and services. Great Britain:
Henry Kimpton Publishers.
Jones, K., Shainberg, L., & Byer, C. (1975). Consumer Health. (2nd
ed.). San
Francisco: Canfield Press.
Meeks, L., et al. (2005). Comprehensive school health education: Totally
awesome strategies for teaching health ®. (4th
ed). McGraw-Hill.
New York.
Payne, W. (2005). Understanding your health. (8th
ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill.
Schaller & Carroll. (1979). Health, Quackery & the Consumer. W.B. Sanders
Company.
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.

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Health 10 learning material

  • 1. 197 DEPED COPY Unit 1: Consumer Health All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 2. 198 DEPED COPY Number of Sessions: 10 CONTENT STANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS The learner understands the guidelines and criteria in the selection and evaluation of health information, products, and services. The learner demonstrates critical thinking and decision-making skills in the selection, evaluation, and utilization of health information, products, and services. I. Introduction Where did you last spend your money? What item did you buy? Why? What kind of service did you last avail? Who recently shared with you a new health information? These are only a few of the things that concern you as adolescents. Decision- making is an important skill that you must learn in order to live a healthy and normal life. This module will help you understand the basics of consumer health. Consumer health aims to develop a person’s ability to evaluate and utilize health information, products, and services wisely and effectively. All of us are consumers. We acquire health information, purchase health products, and avail of health services to appraise, improve, and maintain our health. Health information is any idea that we hear from people around us, read from books and other printed materials, or from the media that influence our health. Health products are items that we consume to improve our well-being, like medicine, food, clothes, furniture, electronics, etc. Health services are programs we avail from various providers such as physicians, nurses, therapists, health workers, hospitals, clinics, and the government. Some examples of these health services are insurance, treatment and cure, complementary and alternative medicine. In this light, we must all be educated consumers who make wise selection of information, products, and services that are scientifically proven and legally approved. It is our duty to evaluate and examine the reliability of the sources. Let us find out how we can be educated in consumer health. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 3. 199 DEPED COPY II. Learning Competencies The learner: 1. differentiates reliable from unreliable health information, products, and services 2. explains the guidelines and criteria in the selection and evaluation of health information, products, and services 3. discusses various forms of health service providers and healthcare plans 4. selects health professionals, specialists, and healthcare services wisely 5. explains the nature and dangers of quackery 6. reports fraudulent health services 7. explains the different kinds of complementary and alternative healthcare modalities 8. explains the importance of consumer laws to protect public health 9. identifies national and international government agencies and private organizations that implement programs for consumer protection 10. participates in programs for consumer welfare and protection III. Pre-Assessment Activity A: Identify the concepts being described in each item. Fill in the missing letters to complete the crossword puzzle. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 4. 200 DEPED COPY Across: 3. Sale of products that are not scientifically proven to be effective; fraudulent advertisement or promotion 4. Healthcare practitioner who specializes in problems of the teeth 5. Allied health professional who provides healthcare to patients in hospitals 6. Public health insurance mandated by Philippine law Down: 1. Doctor who specializes in the disorders of the respiratory system 2. Alternative medicine practice where needles are inserted in some specific of the body 4. Form of quackery that uses equipment believed to cure illness 7. Health maintenance organization; form of healthcare provider that makes use of prepaid money to cover medical expenses Activity B. Read the situation and answer the questions. A teenager once went to the local market to buy materials for a Science project. Upon passing by some stalls, he was invited for a free orientation on the latest product of a company. The company was selling “health rings” that can detect the mood of a person and help lower body temperature and blood pressure. The teenager was easily attracted, which made him buy two health rings for himself and his sister. He spent Php 600 for the items. After a week, the teenager and his sister developed red spots and rashes on their fingers. Upon checking, the rings are observed to have rust around them. The teenager wants to file a complaint so the company may return his money. 1. What is the nature of the teenager’s problem? ________________________________________________________________ 2. Who can help him with his problem? ________________________________________________________________ 3. What rights protect the teenager? ________________________________________________________________ 4. What would you ask yourself before buying a health product to avoid the same experience? ________________________________________________________________ 5. As a Grade 10 student, how can you help the teenager? ________________________________________________________________ All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 5. 201 DEPED COPY Activity 1: SURVEY SAYS! 1. Read the questions. 2. Go around the classroom and ask a classmate to answer each question. 3. Record the responses below. a. What should I do when my head and body ache? _____________________________________________________ b. How many times should I take vitamin and mineral supplements? _____________________________________________________ c. What is the best way to make my skin smooth? _____________________________________________________ d. When is the best time to trim my fingernails? _____________________________________________________ e. What is the most effective way to lose weight? _____________________________________________________ Activity 2: PAIR SHARE 1. Find a partner and discuss the following questions: a. Which of your classmates’ answers do you agree with? Which do you disagree with? Why? b. What kind of information is being asked? Is it critical? Why? c. Who can accurately answer these questions? 2. Write a one-paragraph reflection about the discussion. Consumer health has three components: health information, health products, andhealthservices.Whatyouhavegatheredfromyourclassmatesishealthinformation. Health information plays a big role in the life of individuals. “It is information that people require to make wise choices and decisions about their health or the health of [other people]” (Galvez Tan, et al., 2009). In the WHAT TO KNOW phase, you will answer activities which will assess your prior knowledge. At the end of the phase, you will be assessed again to check your knowledge about the concepts and information learned. Part I: WHAT TO KNOW No. of Sessions: 4 All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 6. 202 DEPED COPY Health information is any concept, step, or advice that various sources give to aid the health status of an individual. The type of information varies depending on “diseases, sexual health, weight loss/gain, drugs and alcohol, depression/mental illness, violence, smoking, eating disorders, acne/skin care, local clinics, and sexual assault” (Payne, et al., 2005). The information is critical as it may alter the health conditions of a person. Another important characteristic of health information is that it is continuously and rapidly changing. Thus, it “should be timely, relevant, culturally appropriate, accessible, and delivered in a relevant format” (Galvez Tan, et al., 2009). There is a great need to update oneself regarding current research and evidence available in the field. Activity 3: STOP OR GO Read the health information below. Draw a cross on the GO column if it is scientifically true and proven, and draw a cross on the STOP column if it is not. GO STOP Warts are contagious. Chocolates cause acne and pimples. Cracking your knuckles causes arthritis. Healthy people who eat a balanced diet do not need supplements. Sleeping with wet hair causes mental disorders. Jumping from the third step of the stairs on the first day of menstruation reduces the number of bleeding days. Circumcision is done for hygienic purposes only. Touching hands of people with HIV may infect you with such. Putting toothpaste on burns causes irritation. Sleep need varies depending on the individual Think About It! Discuss the questions: 1. Why are there misleading health information? Who spreads them? 2. Who are the sources of health information? Beyond the Classroom 1. What are other examples of myths (superstitions) and/or misconceptions that you hear in your community? 2. Write them on your notebook and search for a scientific proof to counter them. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 7. 203 DEPED COPY Aside from health information, people also consume health products. Health products are food, drugs, cosmetics, devices, biologicals, vaccines, in-vitro diagnostic reagents, and household/urban hazardous substances and/or a combination of and/or a derivative thereof (FDA Act, 2009). These products may be purchased from various places like supermarkets, pharmacies, and hospitals. Activity 4: MY SHOPPING LIST 1. List five examples of health products that people buy and consume. 2. Enumerate the answers in your notebook. How do these products affect the overall well-being of an individual? Health Products All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 8. 204 DEPED COPY Activity 5: LET’S GO BACK 1. Read the following information. 2. Identify reliable and unreliable sources of health information and products. 3. Complete the table below. People acquire health information and products from various sources like people, media, and technology. It is important to identify the reliability of these sources. Reliable sources of health information and products are licensed professionals who took up specialized and intensive studies in the field. They are the ones who have the qualified educational background and can give scientific explanation to validate information. We can also find reliable health information from health books, and accredited online sources. On the other hand, unreliable sources of information and products are those from people who are not experts in this field. Aside from health information and products, people also avail of various health services from different providers. Health services are often connected to healthcare. These programs aim to appraise the health conditions of individuals through screening and examinations, cure and treat disorders, prevent and control the spread of diseases, provide safety, emergency care, and first aid, and ensure a follow-up program for individuals who have undergone treatments. Health services are usually offered by healthcare providers. “A healthcare provider is a trained professional who provides people with healthcare” (Meeks, et al., 2011). There are different types of healthcare providers, such as: I. Health Professionals Individuals who are licensed to practice medicine and other allied health programs. An example of a health professional is a physician. A physician records the medical history of individuals, provides diagnoses, performs medical examinations, and prescribes medications. There are different types of physicians based on their area of specialization. Sources of Health Information and Products UnreliableReliable All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 9. 205 DEPED COPY Activity 6: DOCTOR WHO? What are the different types of physicians? Match the type of the physician with the area of specialization below. cardiologist dermatologist gastroenterologist geriatrician gynecologist neurologist orthopedist ophthalmologist pediatrician pulmonologist urologist 1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 10 What are the other medical specializations that you know? List them and their areas of expertise below. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 10. 206 DEPED COPY DO YOU KNOW? Healthcare practitioners and allied health professionals are also considered health care providers. “A healthcare practitioner is an independent healthcare provider who is licensed to practice on a specific area of the body” (Meeks, et al., 2011). Some examples of healthcare practitioners are podiatrists (who specialize in the problems of the feet), dentists, and optometrists. On the other hand, “an allied health professional is a trained healthcare provider who practices under the supervision of a physician or healthcare practitioner” (Meeks, et al., 2011). Nurses, dieticians, pharmacists, and physical therapists are examples of allied health professionals. II. Healthcare Facilities Healthcare facilities are places or institutions that offer healthcare services. There are different types of healthcare facilities (Meeks, et al., 2011). a. Hospital It is an institution where people undergo medical diagnosis, care and treatment. A hospital offers different types of medical care like inpatient and outpatient care. Inpatient care refers to care given to individuals who need to stay inside the hospital to receive proper treatment, monitoring and care. On the other hand, outpatient care refers to treatment that does not require an individual to stay inside the hospital. There are different kinds of hospitals: private, voluntary, government, and teaching (Meeks, et al., 2011). A private hospital is operated by individuals to gain profit. A voluntary hospital does not require profit because it is owned by a community or an organization. A government or public hospital is being run by the state and the treatment fees are subsidized. A teaching hospital includes a school for medical students. In the Philippines, there are two classifications of hospitals: general and specialty. General hospitals have complete medical, surgical, and maternal care facilities. Some examples are the Philippine General Hospital, Baguio General Hospital, Cebu General Hospital, and Davao Medical Center. On the other hand, specialty hospitals handle a particular disease or condition or deal with only one type of patient. Some examples are the Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center of the Philippines, and National Kidney Transplant Institute. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 11. 207 DEPED COPY b. Walk-In Surgery Center It is a facility that offers surgery without the patient being admitted in the hospital. c. Health Center The services in a health center cater to a specific population with various health needs. d. Extended Healthcare Facility A facility that provides treatment, nursing care, and residential services to patients, often the elderly.. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 12. 208 DEPED COPY Activity 7: HEALTHY PLACES 1. Complete the table by writing the correct answers on each box. 2. Find a partner and discuss the description of each health facility. III. Health Insurance `“Health insurance is a financial agreement between an insurance company and an individual or group for the payment of healthcare costs” (Payne, et al., 2005). This also may pertain to a “protection that provides benefits for sickness and injury” (Meeks, et al., 2011). It offers various types of coverage: “medical insurance, major medical insurance, hospitalization insurance, surgical insurance, and disability insurance” (Meeks, et al., 2011). Medical insurance pays for the fees of the health professionals, laboratory tests, and prescription drugs. Major medical insurance offers payment for long-term or chronic diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Hospitalization insurance pays for the stay of the patient inside the hospital. Surgical insurance pays for surgery fees. Disability insurance provides financing for members who meet accidents or suffer from illnesses. Health Facilities Types All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 13. 209 DEPED COPY Health insurance may be sourced from both public and private companies. An example of public health insurance is PhilHealth. As mandated by law in the country, employees of both public and private companies avail of PhilHealth. It requires a small monthly contribution from its members. These contributions are saved and used for the medical care needed by a PhilHealth member. A health maintenance organization (HMO) is a healthcare provider that offers medical services that are availed through a prepaid amount of money. It is a business that requires a relatively reduced monthly fee for subscribers. The difference of an HMO with other insurance companies is that it hires or trains its own health professionals and healthcare practitioners. Time To Read Using a computer with an internet connection, identify at least two other health insurances offered in the country. If without an Internet connection, you may inquire from the nearest hospital/medical center. Write a short paragraph about each health insurance and its benefits. Cite your resources properly. “Consumers today face an amazing array of choices when they consider taking action to improve their health or seek care for a health problem” (Donatelle, 2006). In addition to health professionals, there are also many other forms of healthcare that offer alternatives. These complementary and alternative healthcare modalities are often taken because some individuals believe that traditional medical care may not be enough to treat a particular health condition. A complementary medicine is availed and integrated together with traditional medicine. On the other hand, alternative medicine is offered in place of traditional medicine. There are four major domains of complementary and alternative medicine: biology-based practices, energy medicine, manipulative and body-based practices, and mind-body medicine (Donatelle, 2006). Examples of biologically-based practices are taking herbal medicine and availing of special diets and vitamins. Energy medicine uses magnetic fields or biofields in belief that energy fields may enter various points in the body. Manipulative and body-based practices are bodily-kinesthetic in nature and are concerned with movement therapy. Mind-body medicine uses mental exercises in belief that the brain is central to the health of an individual. In our country, Republic Act No. 8423 or the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act of 1997 provisioned the creation of the Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Healthcare (PITAHC), which works closely with the Department of All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 14. 210 DEPED COPY Health. The PITAHC is also the law-making body with regards to the effective use of traditional and alternative medicine. Here are examples of the PITAHC-approved alternative modalities Naturopathy “Naturopathic medicine views diseases as a manifestation of an alteration in the processes by which the body naturally heals itself” (Donatelle, 2006). Naturopathy offers a wide range of natural practices including herbal medicine acupuncture, acupressure, nutritional therapy, and ventosa cupping massage therapy. Herbal medicine There are 10 herbs that are proven and tested to have medicinal value and approved by the Department of Health” (Galvez Tan, et al., 2009) Activity 8: GARDEN OF HERBS What are the herbs approved by the Department of Health? Unscramble the letters to form each herb in column A. Read column B for the medicinal value of each herb. A Herb B Medicinal value 1. P L A U K A O C For ringworm and other skin (fungal) infections 2. P A M A L A Y A For non-insulin dependent diabetic patients 3. W A G N A B For blood pressure control 4. S A Y A B A B For use as antiseptic to disinfect wounds For mouthwash or tooth decay and gum infection 5. G U D N A L I For cough and asthma 6. Y I N O G – A I N Y O G N For intestinal worms, particularly ascaris and trichina 7. B A S M N G O For urinary stones 8. A S A T N G B A T U G For mouthwash All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 15. 211 DEPED COPY 9. N I P A S T – N A S I P A N T For arthritis and gout 10. B E R Y A – N U B E A For relief from body aches and pains Examples of Alternative Medicine 1. Acupuncture It is a form of energy medicine where long thin needles are inserted to specific parts of the body to affect the energy flow. Acupuncture is believed to treat musculoskeletal dysfunctions. 2. Ventosa cupping massage therapy Thisprocedureisdonebyplacinginverted glasses that have flames from burning cotton, on specific points in the body. It is believed to relieve muscle and joint pains. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 16. 212 DEPED COPY 3. Reflexology Similar to acupuncture, reflexology focuses on treating specific disorders through massaging of the soles of the feet. 4. Acupressure Acupressure uses the same technique as that of acupuncture. The only difference is that acupressure does not use needles but hands to apply pressure on certain points of the body. 5. Nutrition Therapy Nutrition therapy approaches treatment of a medical condition by providing a tailored diet for the patient. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 17. 213 DEPED COPY Activity 9a: NEWSPAPER ADS Using newspapers and magazines, reference books, or credible internet websites, identify other forms of complementary and alternative healthcare modalities Procedure: 1. Cut out pictures of advertisements of different complementary and healthcare modalities. 2. Paste them on a piece of paper. 3. Search and write the health effects of these modalities. Activity 9b: THINK ABOUT IT In 2-3 paragraphs, write your thoughts about the question, “Why are health professionals, whether those that offer traditional, alternative, or complementary, not present in a lot of rural municipalities in the country?” All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 18. 214 DEPED COPY Homework: MY COMMUNITY HEALTHCARE SURVEY Procedure: 1. Do a survey in your community about the various health services offered. 2. Complete the table with the information that you will gather. 3. Answer the question in one paragraph. How effective and efficient are your community’s healthcare professionals and facilities? Barangay _______________ Health FacilitiesHealth Professionals Healthcare Plans All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 19. 215 DEPED COPY Recall the concepts learned in the previous sessions. Complete the graphic organizer by providing examples. TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE The following activities will be recorded under “Knowledge”. Read the directions carefully and give the best answers. Consumers Health Products Examples: Health Information Reliable Sources Health Services Health Professionals Examples: Health Facilities Examples: Health Insurance Examples: Complementary and Alternative Health Modalities Examples: All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 20. 216 DEPED COPY Part II: WHAT TO PROCESS No. of Sessions: 1 In the “WHAT TO PROCESS” phase, you will answer and perform activities which will help you process and improve your understanding. At the end of the phase, you will be assessed again to check your processing skills about the concepts and information learned Activity 10: MAGIC BRACELET 1. Study the poster below. Find a partner and discuss the questions. 2. Synthesize the discussion and prepare to share in class. a. What is being sold by the poster? b. What does it guarantee? c. Will you buy it? Make a comparative chart that lists reasons for buying and reasons for declining this product. Consumers receive health information, products, and services from various sources, thus individuals may be prone to frauds. An example of which is quackery. Quackery, a form of a health fraud, is any advertisement, promotion, or sale of products and services that have not been scientifically proven safe and effective (Meeks, et al, 2011). It is being operated by a quack. A quack is an individual that has little or no professional qualifications to practice medicine. He/She also pretentiously uses meaningless medical jargon and relies on scare tactics, paranoid accusations, and quick fixes. There are three major characteristics of health quackery (Schaler & Carroll, undated). First, it is a big business. A huge amount of money is spent on fraudulent health products and services. Second, it multiplies and spreads fast. Lastly, it thrives on individuals who are diagnosed with illnesses that are known to have no cure. Reflection Questions: All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 21. 217 DEPED COPY Activity 11: QUACK, QUACK! 1. Study the posters. 2. Identify the three forms of quackery. Write the answers in your notebook. The three forms of quackery are: a. Medical quackery Medical quackery includes cures, treatments, and remedies of various health conditions that are drugless or bloodless in nature. b. Nutrition quackery Nutrition quackery involves promotion of food fads and other nutritional practices that claim to be all-natural. These are believed to have beneficial properties of multiple plants in one product. c. Device quackery Device quackery makes use of miraculous gadgets (such as dials, gauges, electrodes, magnets, and blinkers) that are believed to cure certain health conditions. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 22. 218 DEPED COPY Activity 12: MORE QUACKS! Complete the table by writing other examples of medical, nutrition, and device quackery. Medical Device Nutrition Activity 13: BRAINSTORM 1. Form groups of five members. Assign numbers 1 to 5 for each member. 2. Each person is given two minutes to answer this question: Why do people easily fall for quackery? 3. After everyone has written the answers, discuss the possible factors that affect people’s vulnerability to quackery. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 23. 219 DEPED COPY Activity 14: A BAD QUACK List down possible dangers of quackery to a person’s physical and psychological well-being. Physical Psychological Activity 15: FIGHT THE QUACK! In 2-3 paragraphs, answer the following question on a piece of paper: As a Grade 10 student, how can you protect your family and yourself from quackery? TEST YOUR PROCESSING SKILLS The activity below will be recorded under Process. Read the procedures carefully and use the rubric to improve your output. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 24. 220 DEPED COPY Part III: WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND No. of Sessions: 3 You are faced with health information and products every day from different people and forms of media. But to simply know the source of information and product is reliable (or unreliable) may sometimes be not enough. It is also important to learn how to evaluate the reliability of the health information and product. Activity 16: TOP FIVE 1. Study the poster. 2. List five questions that you will ask the source about the product. Will you buy the product? Why or why not? It is important to examine and evaluate the reliability of any piece of health information before applying it to your well-being. Here are the criteria that will help you determine whether the information is reliable or not. In the “WHAT TO REFLECT AND UNDERSTAND” phase, you will do activities which will assess your deeper knowledge and understanding of the topics learned. At the end of the phase, you will be assessed again to check your reflection and understanding about the concepts and information learned. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 25. 221 DEPED COPY Activity 17: YOUR CHECKLIST Complete the criteria below by supplying the missing letters. Use the descriptions as your guide. When evaluating health information and products, you must check for: C _ _ D _ B _ _ _ T Y 1. This tells about the source and recency of the information. o Who or what is the source of the information/product? o Is the source qualified? o Is the information updated? _ _ N T _ _ T 2. This tells about the accuracy, disclaimer, and completeness of information. o Is it complete and correct? o Does it have scientific basis? o Does it state the limitations, purpose, scope, authority and currency of the information? o Does it have labels that contain the directions for use and storage, expiration date and warnings? D _ S C _ _ S _ R _ 3. This tells about the purpose and caveat of the information. o What is the purpose of giving the information/product? o Is it for marketing purposes? o Is it for selling products or for disseminating information? I N _ _ R _ C T _ _ _ T Y 4. This tells about the feedback mechanism and means of information exchange between the source and the consumer. o Can the consumer offer comments and suggestions? o Is it possible to ask questions? Aside from evaluating the reliability of health information, choosing competent and reliable healthcare providers is also important for it is crucial to the appraisal, diagnosis, and treatment of health conditions. When visiting a healthcare provider, a person should determine satisfaction and reliability. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 26. 222 DEPED COPY Activity 18: GUARANTEED SERVICE 1. Answer the questions. a. What are the things that you look for in a doctor? b. What are the things that you look for in a hospital? 2. Write your list of characteristics in your notebook. Prepare to share in class. I am looking for a doctor who… I am looking for a hospital that… All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 27. 223 DEPED COPY “Health insurance should cover standard risks of illness and injury for family members.” (Meeks, et al., 2011). There are two types of expenses involved in health insurance: covered expense and exclusion. Covered expense refers to the coverage of medical services that can be paid by the company issuing the health insurance. On the other hand, exclusions are specific services that are not paid by the issuer. Forms of health insurance are not all the same. It is important to study the plan before availing it. Here are some actions that may be taken to evaluate a health insurance (Meeks, et al., 2011): 1. Obtain and read carefully a copy of the health insurance plan. 2. Ask questions of representatives from the health insurance plan. 3. Shop around for other options. 4. Choose plans that give the most comprehensive coverage at the most affordable price. Activity 19: MY PHILHEALTH Suppose you are employed and about to be enrolled in Philhealth. How will you evaluate its reliability? What questions will you ask the company? Write them on a piece of paper. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 28. 224 DEPED COPY Activity 20: THINK ABOUT IT What are the pros and cons of availing a healthcare plan? 1. Debate on whether there is a need for a healthcare plan or not. 2. List your findings. 3. Write your comments on a piece of paper and be ready to share in class. The government also plays an important role in consumer protection. A consumer has rights mandated by law. These are privileges that an individual is guaranteed of health products and services. The Consumer Act of the Philippines is a law that protects the interest of the consumer, promotes general welfare, and establishes standards of conduct for business and industry. There are 8 basic rights of a consumer according to the act (Galvez Tan, et al., 2009). Identify the 8 basic rights of a consumer: 1. The right to __________________ This right guarantees survival, adequate food, clothing, shelter, healthcare, education, and sanitation. 2. The right to ___________________ This is the right to be protected against the marketing of goods or the provision of services that are hazardous to health and life. 3. The right to ___________________ This is the right to be protected against dishonest or misleading advertising or labeling and the right to be given the facts and information needed to make an informed choice. Pros Cons All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 29. 225 DEPED COPY 4. The right to ___________________ This is the right to choose products at competitive prices with an assurance of satisfactory quality. 5. The right to ___________________ This is the right to express consumer interests in the making and execution of government policies. 6. The right to ___________________ This is the right to be compensated for misrepresentation, shoddy goods or unsatisfactory services. 7. The right to ___________________ This is the right to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to be an informed customer. 8. The right to ___________________ This is the right to live and work in an environment that is neither threatening nor dangerous and, which permits a life of dignity and well-being. Aside from the Consumer Act of 2009, there are also other international and national consumer advocacy groups that advocate for our health. Reflection Questions: 1. What are instances that you practiced your consumer rights? 2. In which programs did you participate to advocate for consumer protection? Write a short reflection on a piece of paper. Include the importance of practicing your consumer rights. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 30. 226 DEPED COPY Activity 21: GOVERNMENT FIRMS By knowing your consumer rights, you have the power to report illegal and fraudulent health products and services. Here are some government firms that we can approach to report. Identify them. What are other government agencies where we can report fraudulent health services? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 31. 227 DEPED COPY Activity 22: I ASSERT! How do you write a letter of complaint for the purchase of a fraudulent product? Read the letter. Your Turn! Construct a letter of complaint for the purchase of a product that is already expired. Follow the format above. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 32. 228 DEPED COPY PART IV: WHAT TO TRANSFER No. of Sessions: 1 In the WHAT TO TRANSFER phase, you will apply what you have learned by creating or producing a product. At the end of the phase, you will be assessed again to check your knowledge, skills and attitudes. Do you know that October is the Consumer Welfare Month? You will produce advocacy materials for the practice of consumer rights. 1. Create your choice of any product in the list on any of the listed topics on consumer health. Product Topic Song / Poem / Commercial Jingle Wise and intelligent consumers Artwork / Poster Consumer protection Brochure Health services Video Combatting quackery 2. Prepare to present it in class. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 33. 229 DEPED COPY SUMMARY Complete the paragraph by writing the correct answers on the blanks. Consumer health encompasses the health information, products, and services being gathered, acquired, and availed by an individual. _____________________ refers to any concept, idea, data, or figures that may aid to the health status of an individual. __________________ refer to materials, devices, or items that an individual purchases to improve health. Examples of these are shampoo, medicine, health electronics, and food. On the other hand, ___________________refer to programs offered for the health appraisal of an individual through various treatment, screening, and examinations. Some examples of these are health professionals, facilities, and insurance. When availing of health information, products, and services, it is important to examine and evaluate the reliability of the sources to avoid quackery. Quackery refers to fraudulent promotion, sales, or advertisement of various products. There are three kinds of quackery. The first is __________________ which refers to the prescription of scientifically unproven medical treatment and cure. The second is ____________________ which refers to the sale of items that are believed to treat or cure an individual. The last is __________________ which includes fad diets and other practices. Under the law, the consumers are protected with rights such as _________, ________________, ________________, and _________________. With these rights, a consumer may be able to report incidences of fraudulent practices and purchases. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.
  • 34. 230 DEPED COPY References Donatelle, R. (2006). Access to Health. (9th ed.). San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. Galvez-Tan, J. Z., et al. (2009). The Health Curriculum in Philippine Basic Education. (Volume 2: A resource book on Health for teachers). Pasay: UNESCO, National Commission of the Philippines. Haag, J. (1976). Consumer Health: products and services. Great Britain: Henry Kimpton Publishers. Jones, K., Shainberg, L., & Byer, C. (1975). Consumer Health. (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Canfield Press. Meeks, L., et al. (2005). Comprehensive school health education: Totally awesome strategies for teaching health ®. (4th ed). McGraw-Hill. New York. Payne, W. (2005). Understanding your health. (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill. Schaller & Carroll. (1979). Health, Quackery & the Consumer. W.B. Sanders Company. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic or mechanical including photocopying without written permission from the DepEd Central Office.