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GUERRILLA UX
"QUICK"
YET NOT 
 
CARINELALLEMAND
 
"DIRTY"
01
WHO AM I?
DR. CARINE LALLEMAND
@CARILALL
AUTHOR OF A HANDBOOK ON
UX DESIGN METHODS
RESEARCHER
AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF LUXEMBOURG
« I SUPPORT
DESIGNERS BY
CREATING OR
ADAPTING
DESIGN
METHODS »
HOT AIR BALLOON
STUDENT PILOT
Crédit photo: Francine Lee
Crédit photo: Sarah Khalid
Guerrilla quick & clean?
HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION RESEARCH GROUP
The concept of guerrilla refers to
unconventional techniques used
when:
• the resources are lacking to apply
conventional methods
• one wishes to overcome certain
limits of conventional methods
• one wants to adopt a more original
or innovative approach
5
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
GUERRILLA TECHNIQUES CAN BE APPLIED
AT ANY STAGE IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
Planning
Exploration
Ideation
Generation
Evaluation
-
LESS
PARTICIPANTS NEEDED
TO GET VALID RESULTS
TIME-EFFICIENT
PLANNING
ADMINISTRATION
ANALYSIS
LOW COST SELF-ADMINISTERED
DOES NOT REQUIRE THE
DESIGNER’S PRESENCE
THE GUERRILLA APPROACH SAVES RESOURCES
Depending on the technique used, benefits might include:
BEYOND BEING “LOW COST”, GUERRILLA
CAN ALSO BE AN OPPORTUNITY
ENGAGE
BUSY PEOPLE
LESS BIASES
(PARTICIPANT)
LARGE-SCALELESS BIASES
(DESIGNER)
WHAT ABOUT (A LOT OF)
EXAMPLES?
Planning
Exploration
Ideation
Generation
Evaluation
USER INTERVIEWS
Understanding a user's motivations and needs through an in-depth individual discussion
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
EXPLORATION
CONDUCT THE INTERVIEWS TAKE NOTES ON THE FLY
YET IN A STRUCTURED WAY
TRANSCRIBE AND ANALYSE DATADEFINE INTERVIEW GUIDE AND
RECRUIT PARTICIPANTS
Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
P 1 ___ : ___ ___________
Etudesitewebv2
Q + - Fait Émotion
P ___ : ___ ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q 2 + - Fait Émotion
P ___ : ___ Utilisabilité
Nomdel’étude
Q + - Fait Émotion
P ___ : ___ ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q X + - Fait X Émotion
P 14 : 03 ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q + - Fait Emotion
P ___ : ___ ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q + - Fait Émotion
Indiquez ici votre observation ou
un « verbatim du participant » Chaque observation est reportée
dans une case différente
Avant d’imprimer votre grille de
prise de notes, indiquez l’identifiant
du participant en haut à gauche et
le nom de l’étude
Utilisez ces cases pour décrire si l’observation
concerne un fait ou une émotion et quelle est
sa valence (est-ce positif ou négatif pour le
participant ?)
N’oubliez pas ici de noter le numéro de la
question liée à chaque observation
À la fin de vos entretiens,
découpez les cases de vos
grilles pour réaliser des
diagrammes d’affinité !
Si l’observation est particulièrement intéressante,
indiquez ici l’heure afin de retrouver ce moment
précis de l’entretien dans votre enregistrement..
Personnalisez votre grille de prise
de notes selon vos besoins !
Pendant l’entretien, vous pouvez indiquer ici un
mot clé ou thème décrivant votre observation
VIRTUAL USER INTERVIEW
1. Recruit several participants in parallel: each
receives by email the instructions and the
first open-ended question of the interview
2. The interview is asynchronous and spread
over several days: as soon as a participant
answers your email, reply by moving
forward to the next question/prompt
3. Participants can answer at the most
opportune moment and have the time to
elaborate their answers
4. The transcription of the data is already
ready (and this is really time-efficient!)
TIME-EFFICIENT
> ADMINISTRATION
> ANALYSIS
LESS BIASES
(PARTICIPANT)
Crédit photo: https://perzonseo.com
ENGAGE
BUSY PEOPLE
SELF-ADMINISTERED
Interview
SENTENCE COMPLETION
1. Sentence completion is embedded into an
online survey
2. In a free text field (similar to an open-ended
question), participants spontaneously
complete several sentence stems
(=beginning of sentences)
3. The data collected is qualitative and
provides information on the needs,
motivations, frustrations or even dreams of
target users
4. The method is funnier and more engaging
than open-ended questions, which usually
have a low response rate
TIME-EFFICIENT
> ADMINISTRATION
> ANALYSIS
Interview
SELF-ADMINISTERED
LARGE-SCALE
LOW COST
OBSERVATION
Collecting data on users’ behaviors and interactions in the field
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
EXPLORATION
CONDUCT OBSERVATIONS
IN THE FIELD
TAKE SYSTEMATIC NOTES ON THE FLY TRANSCRIBE AND ANALYSE DATADEFINE YOUR PROTOCOL
AND YOUR OBSERVATION TOOLS
P 1 ___ : ___ ___________
Etudesitewebv2
Q + - Fait Émotion
P ___ : ___ ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q 2 + - Fait Émotion
P ___ : ___ Utilisabilité
Nomdel’étude
Q + - Fait Émotion
P ___ : ___ ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q X + - Fait X Émotion
P 14 : 03 ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q + - Fait Emotion
P ___ : ___ ___________
Nomdel’étude
Q + - Fait Émotion
Indiquez ici votre observation ou
un « verbatim du participant » Chaque observation est reportée
dans une case différente
Avant d’imprimer votre grille de
prise de notes, indiquez l’identifiant
du participant en haut à gauche et
le nom de l’étude
Utilisez ces cases pour décrire si l’observation
concerne un fait ou une émotion et quelle est
sa valence (est-ce positif ou négatif pour le
participant ?)
N’oubliez pas ici de noter le numéro de la
question liée à chaque observation
À la fin de vos entretiens,
découpez les cases de vos
grilles pour réaliser des
diagrammes d’affinité !
Si l’observation est particulièrement intéressante,
indiquez ici l’heure afin de retrouver ce moment
précis de l’entretien dans votre enregistrement..
Personnalisez votre grille de prise
de notes selon vos besoins !
Pendant l’entretien, vous pouvez indiquer ici un
mot clé ou thème décrivant votre observation
Vendredi Samedi Dimanche Lundi Mardi Mercredi
0
20
40
60
80
100
Chargementdelabatterie(en%)
Lieu : domicile
Raison : batterie faible
Moyen : recharge par secteur
Lieu : domicile
Raison : synchronisation
Moyen : recharge par port USB
Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
FLY ON THE WALL
1. Just like a « fly on the wall », the designer
observes users’ behaviors without
interfering in the situation
2. Settle in close to the activity that you intend
to observe, so that you can see people’s
actions and you can hear their comments
3. Without intervening or get noticed, take
notes on their activities, their emotions and
their interactions as well as on the context
of use.
Do not use any recording device. If you do so,
you need to ask for their permission.
Observation
Crédit photo: E. Mercier
LESS BIASES
(PARTICIPANT)
TIME-EFFICIENT
> ADMINISTRATION
LOW COST
AUTO-OBSERVATION
1. Auto-observation is to observe oneself in
performing the activity under investigation
2. In the absence of participants, the results
are obviously not representative of target
users
3. It is however a good basis for
understanding the problem, scoping it and
developing empathy for the users
4. It supports the designer in the creation of
use scenarios, interview guides or relevant
observation grids to conduct real user
research
Observation
Crédit photo: E. Mercier
LOW COST
LESS BIASES
(DESIGNER)
-
LESS
PARTICIPANTS NEEDED
AUTO-OBSERVATION
Example Patricia Moore (1985)
At the age of 26, conduct an auto-ethnography
experiment to understand “what it feels like to
be old”.
For 3 years, she travelled the USA disguised as
an old lady. Her transformation also simulated
sensory and physical changes related to aging
(blurred vision, arthrisis, etc).
Thanks to this experience, Patricia has been
designing numerous innovative products for the
elderly and became a key player within the field
universal design.
Observation
Crédit photo: Patricia Moore
THE SHORT STORY DISPENSER
Observation
Crédit photo: Patricia Moore
auto-observation fly-on-the wall
CULTURAL PROBES
Gathering inspirational data about people via small creative packages of artifacts
and evocative tasks
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
EXPLORATION
DESIGN YOUR CULTURAL PROBES KIT DEPLOY THE PROBES
USERS FILL THEM OUT ON THEIR OWN
USE THESE RICH USERS’ INSIGHTS AS
SOURCES OF INSPIRATION
DEFINE YOUR TARGET USERS AND
BRAINSTORM ON THE TYPE OF PROBES
Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
‘CROSSING POINTS’ PROBES
Cultural probes
SELF-ADMINISTERED
LARGE SCALE
1. Rather than a whole probe kit, make a
unique and more ephemeral probe that you
will place in a crossing point or crowded
area
2. At first sight, your probe should challenge,
pique curiosity, and thus encourage people
to look at it and engage with it.
3. The proposed activity must be easy, fun
and engaging. Do not ask too much: the
activity must be short and adapted to the
context.
4. Plan a way to collect the probe once filled
out (e.g. return box, enveloppe+stamp)
Photo pôle supérieur de designVillefontaine
TIME EFFICIENT
> PLANNING
> ADMINISTRATION
THE PROBES POSTER
SELF-ADMINISTERED
LARGE SCALE
1. The probes poster is a summary of several
probe activities on a single A0 format
2. It is sent to participants for self-
documentation
3. They will keep it for 1-2 weeks and fill it out
progressively as they find inspiring
elements
Thoring et al., 2015
TIME EFFICIENT
> PLANNING
> ADMINISTRATION
Cultural probes
my wishlist
for the idealab
people I want to meet
activities to do
the perfect event at the lab
what inspires me my current
workspace
what I really need
what annoys me
this is how my ideal
IdeaLab looks like
The probes poster - example (Thoring et al., 2015)
PHOTO SAFARI
1. Define the safari theme openly enough to
make room for each participant's
interpretation. Prepare a short tour guide
covering different aspects of the topic.
2. Send participants on safari! Depending on
the project, you can select the place or
leave it open for them to go wherever they
want.
3. Collect participants’ photos and look at
them to find patterns. Ask each participant
to describe in a few words the images
collected, or to participate to a workshop
where they will tell a story related to each
photo.
Crédit photo : Helle Rohde Andersen
SELF-ADMINISTERED
LARGE SCALE
TIME EFFICIENT
> PLANNING
> ADMINISTRATION
Cultural probes
Planning
Exploration
Ideation
Generation
Evaluation
USER PERSONAS
Fictional characters created from user data used to reflect user types
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
IDEATION
REPRESENT IDENTIFIED PROFILES
UNDER THE FORM OF PERSONAS
ORGANISE YOUR DATA
TO IDENTIFY PATTERNS
SYNTHESIZE USER RESEARCH DATACOLLECT DATA ABOUT USERS
THROUGH INTERVIEWS OR OBSERVATION
Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
CONFRONTED PROTO-PERSONAS
1. The design team creates proto-personas
(= not based on user research) based on
internal resources
2. These proto-personas are sent to some
target users
3. Participants criticize and annotate the proto-
personas so that they reflect their own user
profile (motivations and behaviours)
4. The design team synthesize the data to
enhance the generated personas iteratively
5. If real user research is done at a later stage,
the personas are updated accordingly.
ENGAGE
BUSY PEOPLE
TIME EFFICIENT
> PASSATION
Personas
BRAINSTORMING
Group creativity technique, led by a facilitator conducting the discussion
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
IDEATION
SELECT THE MOST RELEVANT IDEASORGANISE / CATEGORISE ALL IDEASINVITE THE GROUP TO GENERATE
NEW IDEAS AND SOLUTIONS
EXPOSE THE PROBLEM/GOAL AND
THE BASIC RULES OF BRAINSTORMING
Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
NOTEBOOK TECHNIQUE
1. Each participant receives a notebook, in
which you will write down the question/
challenge to solve
2. Each participant is asked to produce at
least 3 ideas/day during a week
3. The following week, participants exchange
their notebook and use other participants’
ideas as an inspiration to produce new
ones. Repeat during 4 weeks.
4. The facilitator collects and synthesizes the
ideas, which can optionally be discussed
or sorted out during a workshop
Brainstorming
Crédit photo: MoleskineTIME EFFICIENT
> PASSATION
ENGAGE
BUSY PEOPLE
SELF-ADMINISTERED
LESS BIASES
(PARTICIPANT)
IDEATION CARDS
1. Card sets presenting particular concepts,
theories or design strategies. Often based
on scientific research, they are a bridge
between research and practice.
2. Use the cards of your choice during a
brainstorming session to improve the
quantity and quality of ideas.
3. Many card sets can be downloaded for
free: emotional design, UX needs, human
values, persuasive design, IoT, service
design …
Ideation
Crédit photo: Delft Institute of Positive Design
TIME EFFICIENT
SCIENCE-BASED
WORLD CAFÉ
1. Several tables are placed in a room.
Participants are divided by groups of 4-5.
Each table has a host (rotating role), who
facilitates the discussion and takes notes.
2. Participants produce as many ideas as
possible during an allotted time slot (10 min)
3. An audible signal indicates when it is time for
participants to move to another table. The
host stays at the table to report on the
outputs to the next participants.
4. Participants generate new ideas on this basis
or elaborate on previous ones.
5. At the end of the session, all hosts synthesize
the brainstorming outcomes and present the
results to the audience.
Brainstorming
LARGE-SCALE
TIME EFFICIENT
> ADMINISTRATION
Crédit photo: http://www.kursaal.eus
Planning
Exploration
Ideation
Generation
Evaluation
PROTOTYPING
Building a concrete representation of a system, product or service
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
GENERATION
DEFINE THE FORMAT OF THE
PROTOTYPE (FIDELITY LEVEL)
DESIGN THE MOCKUPS AND PROTOTYPE
ITERATIVELY
USE THE PROTOTYPE FOR USER TESTING
OR COMMUNICATION PURPOSES
DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO BE
PROTOTYPED
Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
SKETCH-A-THON
Crédit photo: Connie Liegl
LARGE-SCALE
1. The sketch-a-thon invites users to sketch the
ideal interface of a system
2. Print out and distribute sketching templates.
Place them in strategic locations where your
target users are most likely to see them
3. To motivate your “lay designers”, offer an
incentive under the form of a raffle
4. The produced sketches are not to be used
directly. Use them as sources of inspiration,
or combine the best ideas and add them to
your final mockup.
SELF-ADMINISTERED
TIME EFFICIENT
> ADMINISTRATION
Prototyping
DIY PARTICIPATORY DESIGN KITS
Prototyping
Crédit photo: Carine Lallemand
LARGE-SCALE
1. If you can’t run co-design workshops, or if
you need a wider distribution (participation
enhances engagement and appropriation of
solutions), create DIY design kits.
2. These kits can take various forms depending
on your project, but it is essential that they
are engaging, fun, and self-explanatory.
3. Pilot test the kits to make sure they are
understandable and produce the desired
outcomes.
SELF-ADMINISTERED
TIME EFFICIENT
> ADMINISTRATION
Crédit photo: Carine Lallemand
Crédit photo: Carine Lallemand
CARD SORTING
Understanding users’ mental model to design an optimal information architecture
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
GENERATION
ADMINISTER THE CARD SORT EXERCISE ANALYSE THE RESULTS THROUGH
MATRIXES AND DENDOGRAMS
DESIGN YOUR INFORMATION
ARCHITECTURE
IDENTIFY KEY CONCEPTS AND WRITE
THEM ON INDEX CARDS
Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
1. First participant (seed) creates initial structure
2. Second (and subsequent participants)
comment on previous participant's structure
and make changes to reflect their own
mental model
3. Continue with new participants until there are
no more (significant) changes
4. No need for an analysis to aggregate
participants’ results as the outcome is
already a synthesis of their choices
DELPHI CARD SORTING
-LESS
PARTICIPANTS NEEDED
TIME EFFICIENT
> ADMINISTRATION
> ANALYSIS
Card sorting
Planning
Exploration
Ideation
Generation
Evaluation
THE QUICK & CLEAN
RULES OF THUMB
SAMPLING TARGET USERS
A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE
GUERRILLA RECRUITMENT
ENGAGE
BUSY PEOPLE
Recruitment
Crédit photo:Aktan Service Kitchen
LOW COST
TIME EFFICIENT
1. Identify your target users. Where to find
them and how to engage with them?
2. The more heterogeneous the population is,
the more participants you will need to
collect relevant data. Better have a small
representative sample than a large
irrelevant sample.
3. Collect your data in the places (physical or
virtual) where your target users are. Be
ingenious!
IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF BIAISES TO GAIN UNBIASED FEEDBACK
BEWARE OF BIASES
SAFEGUARDING THE QUALITY OF DATA
PILOT TEST. ALWAYS. (REALLY)
IXDD 2018 Lausanne - Guerrilla UX, 'quick' yet not 'dirty' (Carine Lallemand)
#IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
user insights before pilot testing
© Université du Luxembourg
QUALITY OF USER DATA
Example - Do It Yourself Design Kit: participatory design for innovative learning spaces (University of Luxembourg)
user insights after pilot testing
AND YOU SHOULD PROTOTYPE EVERYTHING
YOU CAN PROTOTYPE ANYTHING
© Aktan
© Carine Lallemand, University of Luxembourg
IXDD 2018 Lausanne - Guerrilla UX, 'quick' yet not 'dirty' (Carine Lallemand)
Photo credit : Ingrid Pettersson
Photo credit : Ford
TAKE AWAY MESSAGES
THERE IS
ALWAYS A
WAY
EVERYTHING
IS A MATTER
OF CHOICE
3METHODS
ARE
INGREDIENTS
OR MEALS
RATHER THAN
RECIPES
4
INNOVATION IN
OUR METHODS
SPARKS
INNOVATIVE
OUTCOMES
5DO IT “QUICK”
YET
DO IT “CLEAN”
01
Thank you for
your attention!
2ND EDITION
SEPT 2018
01
ICONS
Citizens by MRFA from the Noun Project
Time by Manohara from the Noun Project
Crowd by Rockicon from the Noun Project
User by Xinh Studio from the Noun Project
Piggy Bank byVineet Kumar Thakur from the Noun Project
Censorship by Luis Prado from the Noun Project
Confirmation Bias by Mike Pick from the Noun Project
Selfie Stick by mikicon from the Noun Project

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IXDD 2018 Lausanne - Guerrilla UX, 'quick' yet not 'dirty' (Carine Lallemand)

  • 2. 01 WHO AM I? DR. CARINE LALLEMAND @CARILALL AUTHOR OF A HANDBOOK ON UX DESIGN METHODS RESEARCHER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LUXEMBOURG « I SUPPORT DESIGNERS BY CREATING OR ADAPTING DESIGN METHODS » HOT AIR BALLOON STUDENT PILOT
  • 5. Guerrilla quick & clean? HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION RESEARCH GROUP The concept of guerrilla refers to unconventional techniques used when: • the resources are lacking to apply conventional methods • one wishes to overcome certain limits of conventional methods • one wants to adopt a more original or innovative approach 5 #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL
  • 6. GUERRILLA TECHNIQUES CAN BE APPLIED AT ANY STAGE IN THE DESIGN PROCESS Planning Exploration Ideation Generation Evaluation
  • 7. - LESS PARTICIPANTS NEEDED TO GET VALID RESULTS TIME-EFFICIENT PLANNING ADMINISTRATION ANALYSIS LOW COST SELF-ADMINISTERED DOES NOT REQUIRE THE DESIGNER’S PRESENCE THE GUERRILLA APPROACH SAVES RESOURCES Depending on the technique used, benefits might include:
  • 8. BEYOND BEING “LOW COST”, GUERRILLA CAN ALSO BE AN OPPORTUNITY ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT) LARGE-SCALELESS BIASES (DESIGNER)
  • 9. WHAT ABOUT (A LOT OF) EXAMPLES?
  • 11. USER INTERVIEWS Understanding a user's motivations and needs through an in-depth individual discussion #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL EXPLORATION CONDUCT THE INTERVIEWS TAKE NOTES ON THE FLY YET IN A STRUCTURED WAY TRANSCRIBE AND ANALYSE DATADEFINE INTERVIEW GUIDE AND RECRUIT PARTICIPANTS Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise P 1 ___ : ___ ___________ Etudesitewebv2 Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q 2 + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ Utilisabilité Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q X + - Fait X Émotion P 14 : 03 ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Emotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion Indiquez ici votre observation ou un « verbatim du participant » Chaque observation est reportée dans une case différente Avant d’imprimer votre grille de prise de notes, indiquez l’identifiant du participant en haut à gauche et le nom de l’étude Utilisez ces cases pour décrire si l’observation concerne un fait ou une émotion et quelle est sa valence (est-ce positif ou négatif pour le participant ?) N’oubliez pas ici de noter le numéro de la question liée à chaque observation À la fin de vos entretiens, découpez les cases de vos grilles pour réaliser des diagrammes d’affinité ! Si l’observation est particulièrement intéressante, indiquez ici l’heure afin de retrouver ce moment précis de l’entretien dans votre enregistrement.. Personnalisez votre grille de prise de notes selon vos besoins ! Pendant l’entretien, vous pouvez indiquer ici un mot clé ou thème décrivant votre observation
  • 12. VIRTUAL USER INTERVIEW 1. Recruit several participants in parallel: each receives by email the instructions and the first open-ended question of the interview 2. The interview is asynchronous and spread over several days: as soon as a participant answers your email, reply by moving forward to the next question/prompt 3. Participants can answer at the most opportune moment and have the time to elaborate their answers 4. The transcription of the data is already ready (and this is really time-efficient!) TIME-EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION > ANALYSIS LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT) Crédit photo: https://perzonseo.com ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE SELF-ADMINISTERED Interview
  • 13. SENTENCE COMPLETION 1. Sentence completion is embedded into an online survey 2. In a free text field (similar to an open-ended question), participants spontaneously complete several sentence stems (=beginning of sentences) 3. The data collected is qualitative and provides information on the needs, motivations, frustrations or even dreams of target users 4. The method is funnier and more engaging than open-ended questions, which usually have a low response rate TIME-EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION > ANALYSIS Interview SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE-SCALE LOW COST
  • 14. OBSERVATION Collecting data on users’ behaviors and interactions in the field #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL EXPLORATION CONDUCT OBSERVATIONS IN THE FIELD TAKE SYSTEMATIC NOTES ON THE FLY TRANSCRIBE AND ANALYSE DATADEFINE YOUR PROTOCOL AND YOUR OBSERVATION TOOLS P 1 ___ : ___ ___________ Etudesitewebv2 Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q 2 + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ Utilisabilité Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q X + - Fait X Émotion P 14 : 03 ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Emotion P ___ : ___ ___________ Nomdel’étude Q + - Fait Émotion Indiquez ici votre observation ou un « verbatim du participant » Chaque observation est reportée dans une case différente Avant d’imprimer votre grille de prise de notes, indiquez l’identifiant du participant en haut à gauche et le nom de l’étude Utilisez ces cases pour décrire si l’observation concerne un fait ou une émotion et quelle est sa valence (est-ce positif ou négatif pour le participant ?) N’oubliez pas ici de noter le numéro de la question liée à chaque observation À la fin de vos entretiens, découpez les cases de vos grilles pour réaliser des diagrammes d’affinité ! Si l’observation est particulièrement intéressante, indiquez ici l’heure afin de retrouver ce moment précis de l’entretien dans votre enregistrement.. Personnalisez votre grille de prise de notes selon vos besoins ! Pendant l’entretien, vous pouvez indiquer ici un mot clé ou thème décrivant votre observation Vendredi Samedi Dimanche Lundi Mardi Mercredi 0 20 40 60 80 100 Chargementdelabatterie(en%) Lieu : domicile Raison : batterie faible Moyen : recharge par secteur Lieu : domicile Raison : synchronisation Moyen : recharge par port USB Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  • 15. FLY ON THE WALL 1. Just like a « fly on the wall », the designer observes users’ behaviors without interfering in the situation 2. Settle in close to the activity that you intend to observe, so that you can see people’s actions and you can hear their comments 3. Without intervening or get noticed, take notes on their activities, their emotions and their interactions as well as on the context of use. Do not use any recording device. If you do so, you need to ask for their permission. Observation Crédit photo: E. Mercier LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT) TIME-EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION LOW COST
  • 16. AUTO-OBSERVATION 1. Auto-observation is to observe oneself in performing the activity under investigation 2. In the absence of participants, the results are obviously not representative of target users 3. It is however a good basis for understanding the problem, scoping it and developing empathy for the users 4. It supports the designer in the creation of use scenarios, interview guides or relevant observation grids to conduct real user research Observation Crédit photo: E. Mercier LOW COST LESS BIASES (DESIGNER) - LESS PARTICIPANTS NEEDED
  • 17. AUTO-OBSERVATION Example Patricia Moore (1985) At the age of 26, conduct an auto-ethnography experiment to understand “what it feels like to be old”. For 3 years, she travelled the USA disguised as an old lady. Her transformation also simulated sensory and physical changes related to aging (blurred vision, arthrisis, etc). Thanks to this experience, Patricia has been designing numerous innovative products for the elderly and became a key player within the field universal design. Observation Crédit photo: Patricia Moore
  • 18. THE SHORT STORY DISPENSER Observation Crédit photo: Patricia Moore auto-observation fly-on-the wall
  • 19. CULTURAL PROBES Gathering inspirational data about people via small creative packages of artifacts and evocative tasks #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL EXPLORATION DESIGN YOUR CULTURAL PROBES KIT DEPLOY THE PROBES USERS FILL THEM OUT ON THEIR OWN USE THESE RICH USERS’ INSIGHTS AS SOURCES OF INSPIRATION DEFINE YOUR TARGET USERS AND BRAINSTORM ON THE TYPE OF PROBES Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  • 20. ‘CROSSING POINTS’ PROBES Cultural probes SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE SCALE 1. Rather than a whole probe kit, make a unique and more ephemeral probe that you will place in a crossing point or crowded area 2. At first sight, your probe should challenge, pique curiosity, and thus encourage people to look at it and engage with it. 3. The proposed activity must be easy, fun and engaging. Do not ask too much: the activity must be short and adapted to the context. 4. Plan a way to collect the probe once filled out (e.g. return box, enveloppe+stamp) Photo pôle supérieur de designVillefontaine TIME EFFICIENT > PLANNING > ADMINISTRATION
  • 21. THE PROBES POSTER SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE SCALE 1. The probes poster is a summary of several probe activities on a single A0 format 2. It is sent to participants for self- documentation 3. They will keep it for 1-2 weeks and fill it out progressively as they find inspiring elements Thoring et al., 2015 TIME EFFICIENT > PLANNING > ADMINISTRATION Cultural probes
  • 22. my wishlist for the idealab people I want to meet activities to do the perfect event at the lab what inspires me my current workspace what I really need what annoys me this is how my ideal IdeaLab looks like The probes poster - example (Thoring et al., 2015)
  • 23. PHOTO SAFARI 1. Define the safari theme openly enough to make room for each participant's interpretation. Prepare a short tour guide covering different aspects of the topic. 2. Send participants on safari! Depending on the project, you can select the place or leave it open for them to go wherever they want. 3. Collect participants’ photos and look at them to find patterns. Ask each participant to describe in a few words the images collected, or to participate to a workshop where they will tell a story related to each photo. Crédit photo : Helle Rohde Andersen SELF-ADMINISTERED LARGE SCALE TIME EFFICIENT > PLANNING > ADMINISTRATION Cultural probes
  • 25. USER PERSONAS Fictional characters created from user data used to reflect user types #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL IDEATION REPRESENT IDENTIFIED PROFILES UNDER THE FORM OF PERSONAS ORGANISE YOUR DATA TO IDENTIFY PATTERNS SYNTHESIZE USER RESEARCH DATACOLLECT DATA ABOUT USERS THROUGH INTERVIEWS OR OBSERVATION Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  • 27. CONFRONTED PROTO-PERSONAS 1. The design team creates proto-personas (= not based on user research) based on internal resources 2. These proto-personas are sent to some target users 3. Participants criticize and annotate the proto- personas so that they reflect their own user profile (motivations and behaviours) 4. The design team synthesize the data to enhance the generated personas iteratively 5. If real user research is done at a later stage, the personas are updated accordingly. ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE TIME EFFICIENT > PASSATION Personas
  • 28. BRAINSTORMING Group creativity technique, led by a facilitator conducting the discussion #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL IDEATION SELECT THE MOST RELEVANT IDEASORGANISE / CATEGORISE ALL IDEASINVITE THE GROUP TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS AND SOLUTIONS EXPOSE THE PROBLEM/GOAL AND THE BASIC RULES OF BRAINSTORMING Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  • 29. NOTEBOOK TECHNIQUE 1. Each participant receives a notebook, in which you will write down the question/ challenge to solve 2. Each participant is asked to produce at least 3 ideas/day during a week 3. The following week, participants exchange their notebook and use other participants’ ideas as an inspiration to produce new ones. Repeat during 4 weeks. 4. The facilitator collects and synthesizes the ideas, which can optionally be discussed or sorted out during a workshop Brainstorming Crédit photo: MoleskineTIME EFFICIENT > PASSATION ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE SELF-ADMINISTERED LESS BIASES (PARTICIPANT)
  • 30. IDEATION CARDS 1. Card sets presenting particular concepts, theories or design strategies. Often based on scientific research, they are a bridge between research and practice. 2. Use the cards of your choice during a brainstorming session to improve the quantity and quality of ideas. 3. Many card sets can be downloaded for free: emotional design, UX needs, human values, persuasive design, IoT, service design … Ideation Crédit photo: Delft Institute of Positive Design TIME EFFICIENT SCIENCE-BASED
  • 31. WORLD CAFÉ 1. Several tables are placed in a room. Participants are divided by groups of 4-5. Each table has a host (rotating role), who facilitates the discussion and takes notes. 2. Participants produce as many ideas as possible during an allotted time slot (10 min) 3. An audible signal indicates when it is time for participants to move to another table. The host stays at the table to report on the outputs to the next participants. 4. Participants generate new ideas on this basis or elaborate on previous ones. 5. At the end of the session, all hosts synthesize the brainstorming outcomes and present the results to the audience. Brainstorming LARGE-SCALE TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION Crédit photo: http://www.kursaal.eus
  • 33. PROTOTYPING Building a concrete representation of a system, product or service #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL GENERATION DEFINE THE FORMAT OF THE PROTOTYPE (FIDELITY LEVEL) DESIGN THE MOCKUPS AND PROTOTYPE ITERATIVELY USE THE PROTOTYPE FOR USER TESTING OR COMMUNICATION PURPOSES DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO BE PROTOTYPED Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  • 34. SKETCH-A-THON Crédit photo: Connie Liegl LARGE-SCALE 1. The sketch-a-thon invites users to sketch the ideal interface of a system 2. Print out and distribute sketching templates. Place them in strategic locations where your target users are most likely to see them 3. To motivate your “lay designers”, offer an incentive under the form of a raffle 4. The produced sketches are not to be used directly. Use them as sources of inspiration, or combine the best ideas and add them to your final mockup. SELF-ADMINISTERED TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION Prototyping
  • 35. DIY PARTICIPATORY DESIGN KITS Prototyping Crédit photo: Carine Lallemand LARGE-SCALE 1. If you can’t run co-design workshops, or if you need a wider distribution (participation enhances engagement and appropriation of solutions), create DIY design kits. 2. These kits can take various forms depending on your project, but it is essential that they are engaging, fun, and self-explanatory. 3. Pilot test the kits to make sure they are understandable and produce the desired outcomes. SELF-ADMINISTERED TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION
  • 38. CARD SORTING Understanding users’ mental model to design an optimal information architecture #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL GENERATION ADMINISTER THE CARD SORT EXERCISE ANALYSE THE RESULTS THROUGH MATRIXES AND DENDOGRAMS DESIGN YOUR INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE IDENTIFY KEY CONCEPTS AND WRITE THEM ON INDEX CARDS Temporal resources Difficulty level Level of expertise
  • 39. 1. First participant (seed) creates initial structure 2. Second (and subsequent participants) comment on previous participant's structure and make changes to reflect their own mental model 3. Continue with new participants until there are no more (significant) changes 4. No need for an analysis to aggregate participants’ results as the outcome is already a synthesis of their choices DELPHI CARD SORTING -LESS PARTICIPANTS NEEDED TIME EFFICIENT > ADMINISTRATION > ANALYSIS Card sorting
  • 41. THE QUICK & CLEAN RULES OF THUMB
  • 42. SAMPLING TARGET USERS A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE
  • 43. GUERRILLA RECRUITMENT ENGAGE BUSY PEOPLE Recruitment Crédit photo:Aktan Service Kitchen LOW COST TIME EFFICIENT 1. Identify your target users. Where to find them and how to engage with them? 2. The more heterogeneous the population is, the more participants you will need to collect relevant data. Better have a small representative sample than a large irrelevant sample. 3. Collect your data in the places (physical or virtual) where your target users are. Be ingenious!
  • 44. IDENTIFYING SOURCES OF BIAISES TO GAIN UNBIASED FEEDBACK BEWARE OF BIASES
  • 45. SAFEGUARDING THE QUALITY OF DATA PILOT TEST. ALWAYS. (REALLY)
  • 47. #IXDD @IXDALAUSANNE @CARILALL user insights before pilot testing © Université du Luxembourg QUALITY OF USER DATA Example - Do It Yourself Design Kit: participatory design for innovative learning spaces (University of Luxembourg) user insights after pilot testing
  • 48. AND YOU SHOULD PROTOTYPE EVERYTHING YOU CAN PROTOTYPE ANYTHING © Aktan
  • 49. © Carine Lallemand, University of Luxembourg
  • 51. Photo credit : Ingrid Pettersson
  • 58. 5DO IT “QUICK” YET DO IT “CLEAN”
  • 59. 01 Thank you for your attention! 2ND EDITION SEPT 2018
  • 60. 01 ICONS Citizens by MRFA from the Noun Project Time by Manohara from the Noun Project Crowd by Rockicon from the Noun Project User by Xinh Studio from the Noun Project Piggy Bank byVineet Kumar Thakur from the Noun Project Censorship by Luis Prado from the Noun Project Confirmation Bias by Mike Pick from the Noun Project Selfie Stick by mikicon from the Noun Project