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An Introduction to
User eXperience
Marion Boberg
"User experience"
encompasses all aspects of
the end-user's interaction
with the company, its
services, and its products.
Jakob Nielsen & Don Norman.
What is UX?
• User experience (UX) involves a person's behaviors,
attitudes, and emotions about using a particular product,
system or service.
• User experience includes the practical, experiential,
affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of human-
computer interaction and product ownership. Additionally, it
includes a person’s perceptions of system aspects such as
utility, ease of use and efficiency.
• User experience is dynamic as it is constantly modified over
time due to changing usage circumstances and changes to
individual systems as well as the wider usage context in
which they can be found.
UX is different from:
• Usability:
 Usability answers the question, “Can the user accomplish their goal?”
 User experience answers the question, “Did the user have as
delightful an experience as possible?”
• UI stands for User Interface. UI usually means only the visual design
portion the user will interact with.
 In the software world, UI means everything that shows up on the
screen: the images, text, diagrams, and widgets as well as their color,
size, and positioning.
 User Experience is the entire engagement the user will feel while
using your product.
Link between Usability and UX
Why
• Why user experience matter?
 Bad UX (e.g. overloaded servers and downtime,
problems with account creation, difficulty filling out
applications) can create negative emotionnal
connection toward a product, a website, a brand...
 Bad UX  loose customer and bad reputation
 Bad design & UX can cost your life. E:G healthcare
devices (e.g. cancer medecine automated pump)
Where... In any product, service or process...
“I open my eyes. Lush light floods the room, birds
chatter. It is only 6:30 o'clock in the morning, but I
feel well-rested and alive; time to get up, to brew
some coffee. Are you jealous of my morning
routine? Were you startled out of your sleep by a
merciless alarm clock? Was it dark outside, no
birds around, and did you feel groggy and bleary-
eyed?”
“The experience described was not created by
sun and birds, but by Philips' Wake-Up Light. […]
It is artificial, but not vulgar. And more importantly,
it substantially changes the way one wakes up. It
changes the experience. The object itself, its
form, is rather unremarkable.”
Marc Hassenzahl, Experience of the Philip’s
wake-up light
A Fun UX
“This is a Philippe Starck juicer, produced
by Alessi. It's just neat; it's fun. It's so
much fun I have it in my house -- but I
have it in the entryway, I don't use it to
make juice. In fact, I bought the gold-
plated special edition and it comes with a
little slip of paper that says, "Don't use this
juicer to make juice." The acid will ruin the
gold plating. So actually, I took a carton of
orange juice and I poured it in the glass to
take this picture. “
Don Norman (2003): 3 ways good design
makes you happy, Ted Talk.
How to Design for positive UX
User centric design/User Centered
Design (UCD)
• Requires observation of user behavior
in real world tests with actual users.
• Tries to optimize the product around
how users can, want, or need to use
the product.
• NO ”they can learn” attitude!
•Who are the users of the document?
•What are the users’ tasks and goals?
•What are the users’ experience levels with
the document, and documents like it?
•What functions do the users need from the
document?
•What information might the users need,
and in what form do they need it?
•How do users think the document should
work?
•What are the extreme environments?
•Is the user multitasking?
•Does the interface utilize different inputs
modes such as touching, spoken, gestures,
or orientation.
Tools to design for great UX
Creation process:
List, Describe, Organize your ideas.
 Users needs, User requirements
 Use cases, Personas, User stories,
Scenario
 Flow charts, Mind maps, (e.g: )
Prototyping tools:
Visualize your ideas by Sketching :
 Paper prototype
 Wireframing
 Storyboards
 Work flow
 Concept maps
Testing methods:
• Test your requirement list: Prioritize
with Card Sorting
• Test your design: Heuristic
Evaluation
• Usability testing : give specific tasks,
compare real product, role playing
test...
• Guerrilla testing UCD (user centric
design)
Mindmaps (e.g.: coggle.it)
Personas
Elements of a Persona
• Personas generally include the following key pieces of information:
• Persona Group (i.e. web manager)
• Fictional name
• Job titles and major responsibilities
• Demographics such as age, education, ethnicity, and family status
• The goals and tasks they are trying to complete using the site
• Their physical, social, and technological environment
• A quote that sums up what matters most to the persona as it relates to
your site
• Casual pictures representing that user group
Source: http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/personas.html
Tools:
• Usable
Persona
• Persona
toolkit
User stories
Different templates can be used:
• "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire> so that
<benefit>“
• "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire>“
• "In order to <receive benefit> as a <role>, I
want <goal/desire>“
• "As <who> <when> <where>, I <what>
because <why>."
• Search for customers
As a user, I want to search for my
customers by their first and last names.
• Modify schedules
As a non-administrative user, I want to
modify my own schedules but not the
schedules of other users.
• Run tests
As a mobile application tester, I want to test
my test cases and report results to my
management.
• Start application with last edit
 As a user, I want to start an application
with the last edit.
Use Case 1/2
a use case is a list of steps, typically defining
interactions between a role as an “actor” and a
system, to achieve a goal. The actor can be a
human, an external system, or time.
Title: "goal the use case is trying to satisfy“
Main Success Scenario: numbered list of steps.
Step: "a simple statement of the interaction
between the actor and a system"
Extensions: separately numbered lists, one per
Extension.
Extension: "a condition that results in different
interactions from .. the main success scenario". An
extension from main step 3 is numbered 3a, etc.
Use case model of a secure adress
book
Paper prototype
• Get your ideas visual
• Get the flow of the action right, blue
print or story board, wireframe
• Look how to visualize it on small
screen, tablet...
• Use paper templates:
• Use free app POP Prototyping paper
Card sorting method
• a quantitative or qualitative method
that asks users to organize items
into groups and assign categories
to each group. This method helps
create or refine the information
architecture of a site by exposing
users’ mental models.
• A beginer guide to Card sorting
method.
• Card sorting: video.
• Tools:
• Conceptcodify (free trial)
• Trello
Heuristic/Expert Evaluation
• A heuristic evaluation is a
usability inspection method for
computer software that helps
to identify usability problems
in the user interface (UI)
design.
• In an expert review, the
reviewers already know and
understand the heuristics.
Because of this, reviewers do
not use a specific set of
heuristics. As a result, the
expert review tends to be less
formal, and they are not
required to assign a specific
heuristic to each potential
problem.
• Visibility of system status.
• Match between system and the real world.
• User control and freedom.
• Consistency and standards.
• Error prevention.
• Recognition rather than recall.
• Flexibility and efficiency of use.
• Aesthetic and minimalist design.
• Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from
errors.
• Help and documentation. Nielsen’s Heuristics
Tools to measure UX
• How to measure UX; User Experience
of an interactive product or a web site is
usually measured by a number of
methods, including questionnaires,
focus groups, and other methods.
• A freely available questionnaire is the
User Experience Questionnaire UEQ. It
allows a quick assessment of the user
experience of interactive products. The
format of the questionnaire supports
users to immediately express feelings,
impressions, and attitudes that arise
when they use a product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
annoying        enjoyable
not understandable        understandable
creative        dull
easy to learn        difficult to learn
valuable        inferior
boring        exciting
not interesting        interesting
unpredictable        predictable
fast        slow
inventive        conventional
obstructive        supportive
good        bad
complicated        easy
unlikable        pleasing
usual        leading edge
unpleasant        pleasant
secure        not secure
motivating        demotivating
meets expectations        does not meet expectations
inefficient        efficient
clear        confusing
impractical        practical
organized        cluttered
attractive        unattractive
friendly        unfriendly
conservative        innovative
Attractiveness
annoying / enjoyable
good / bad
unlikable / pleasing
unpleasant / pleasant
attractive / unattractive
friendly / unfriendly
Design Quality
Stimulation
valuable / inferior
boring / exiting
not interesting / interesting
motivating / demotivating
Novelty
creative / dull
inventive / conventional
usual / leading edge
conservative / innovative
Use Quality
Efficiency
fast / slow
inefficient / efficient
impractical / practical
organized / cluttered
Perspicuity
not understandable / understandable
easy to learn / difficult to learn
complicated / easy
clear / confusing
Dependability
unpredictable / predictable
obstructive / supportive
secure / not secure
meets expectations / does not meet
expectations
When to use what method
Methods check the link!
I am also here to help you select the right method
depending on the scope and nature of your project!!!
Thanks!
References 1/2
• Hassenzahl, Marc (2013): User Experience and Experience Design. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam,
Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The
Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-
design.org/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html
• http://www.nngroup.com/articles/definition-user-experience/
• https://blogs.wayne.edu/waynedotedu/2013/06/07/ux-in-a-nutshell/
• TED Talk about UX
 Don Norman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlQEoJaLQRA
 On the design of everyday things, Don Norman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wl2LkzIkacM
 Creating positive UX: 7 Principle.
• Usability.org (excellent source of practical informations)
• http://usabilitygeek.com/the-difference-between-usability-and-user-experience/ (many ref of the
différence UX and Usability)
• http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/10/05/what-is-user-experience-design-overview-tools-and-
resources/
• UX course: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8zmUJqxrng
References 2/2
http://ia.net/blog/the-spectrum-of-user-experience-1/
UX prototyping tutorial: Design process overview | lynda.com
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcFSZGvXtjA
The Psychologist view on UX:
http://uxmag.com/articles/the-psychologists-view-of-ux-design
Uxmag.com
Principles of Interaction Design: http://asktog.com/atc/principles-of-interaction-design/
Great source of information: http://www.uxmatters.com/index.php
LEAN UX ... Trend of the moment

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User eXperience insights

  • 1. An Introduction to User eXperience Marion Boberg
  • 2. "User experience" encompasses all aspects of the end-user's interaction with the company, its services, and its products. Jakob Nielsen & Don Norman.
  • 3. What is UX? • User experience (UX) involves a person's behaviors, attitudes, and emotions about using a particular product, system or service. • User experience includes the practical, experiential, affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of human- computer interaction and product ownership. Additionally, it includes a person’s perceptions of system aspects such as utility, ease of use and efficiency. • User experience is dynamic as it is constantly modified over time due to changing usage circumstances and changes to individual systems as well as the wider usage context in which they can be found.
  • 4. UX is different from: • Usability:  Usability answers the question, “Can the user accomplish their goal?”  User experience answers the question, “Did the user have as delightful an experience as possible?” • UI stands for User Interface. UI usually means only the visual design portion the user will interact with.  In the software world, UI means everything that shows up on the screen: the images, text, diagrams, and widgets as well as their color, size, and positioning.  User Experience is the entire engagement the user will feel while using your product.
  • 6. Why • Why user experience matter?  Bad UX (e.g. overloaded servers and downtime, problems with account creation, difficulty filling out applications) can create negative emotionnal connection toward a product, a website, a brand...  Bad UX  loose customer and bad reputation  Bad design & UX can cost your life. E:G healthcare devices (e.g. cancer medecine automated pump)
  • 7. Where... In any product, service or process... “I open my eyes. Lush light floods the room, birds chatter. It is only 6:30 o'clock in the morning, but I feel well-rested and alive; time to get up, to brew some coffee. Are you jealous of my morning routine? Were you startled out of your sleep by a merciless alarm clock? Was it dark outside, no birds around, and did you feel groggy and bleary- eyed?” “The experience described was not created by sun and birds, but by Philips' Wake-Up Light. […] It is artificial, but not vulgar. And more importantly, it substantially changes the way one wakes up. It changes the experience. The object itself, its form, is rather unremarkable.” Marc Hassenzahl, Experience of the Philip’s wake-up light
  • 8. A Fun UX “This is a Philippe Starck juicer, produced by Alessi. It's just neat; it's fun. It's so much fun I have it in my house -- but I have it in the entryway, I don't use it to make juice. In fact, I bought the gold- plated special edition and it comes with a little slip of paper that says, "Don't use this juicer to make juice." The acid will ruin the gold plating. So actually, I took a carton of orange juice and I poured it in the glass to take this picture. “ Don Norman (2003): 3 ways good design makes you happy, Ted Talk.
  • 9. How to Design for positive UX User centric design/User Centered Design (UCD) • Requires observation of user behavior in real world tests with actual users. • Tries to optimize the product around how users can, want, or need to use the product. • NO ”they can learn” attitude! •Who are the users of the document? •What are the users’ tasks and goals? •What are the users’ experience levels with the document, and documents like it? •What functions do the users need from the document? •What information might the users need, and in what form do they need it? •How do users think the document should work? •What are the extreme environments? •Is the user multitasking? •Does the interface utilize different inputs modes such as touching, spoken, gestures, or orientation.
  • 10. Tools to design for great UX Creation process: List, Describe, Organize your ideas.  Users needs, User requirements  Use cases, Personas, User stories, Scenario  Flow charts, Mind maps, (e.g: ) Prototyping tools: Visualize your ideas by Sketching :  Paper prototype  Wireframing  Storyboards  Work flow  Concept maps Testing methods: • Test your requirement list: Prioritize with Card Sorting • Test your design: Heuristic Evaluation • Usability testing : give specific tasks, compare real product, role playing test... • Guerrilla testing UCD (user centric design)
  • 12. Personas Elements of a Persona • Personas generally include the following key pieces of information: • Persona Group (i.e. web manager) • Fictional name • Job titles and major responsibilities • Demographics such as age, education, ethnicity, and family status • The goals and tasks they are trying to complete using the site • Their physical, social, and technological environment • A quote that sums up what matters most to the persona as it relates to your site • Casual pictures representing that user group Source: http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/personas.html Tools: • Usable Persona • Persona toolkit
  • 13.
  • 14. User stories Different templates can be used: • "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire> so that <benefit>“ • "As a <role>, I want <goal/desire>“ • "In order to <receive benefit> as a <role>, I want <goal/desire>“ • "As <who> <when> <where>, I <what> because <why>." • Search for customers As a user, I want to search for my customers by their first and last names. • Modify schedules As a non-administrative user, I want to modify my own schedules but not the schedules of other users. • Run tests As a mobile application tester, I want to test my test cases and report results to my management. • Start application with last edit  As a user, I want to start an application with the last edit.
  • 15. Use Case 1/2 a use case is a list of steps, typically defining interactions between a role as an “actor” and a system, to achieve a goal. The actor can be a human, an external system, or time. Title: "goal the use case is trying to satisfy“ Main Success Scenario: numbered list of steps. Step: "a simple statement of the interaction between the actor and a system" Extensions: separately numbered lists, one per Extension. Extension: "a condition that results in different interactions from .. the main success scenario". An extension from main step 3 is numbered 3a, etc. Use case model of a secure adress book
  • 16. Paper prototype • Get your ideas visual • Get the flow of the action right, blue print or story board, wireframe • Look how to visualize it on small screen, tablet... • Use paper templates: • Use free app POP Prototyping paper
  • 17.
  • 18. Card sorting method • a quantitative or qualitative method that asks users to organize items into groups and assign categories to each group. This method helps create or refine the information architecture of a site by exposing users’ mental models. • A beginer guide to Card sorting method. • Card sorting: video. • Tools: • Conceptcodify (free trial) • Trello
  • 19. Heuristic/Expert Evaluation • A heuristic evaluation is a usability inspection method for computer software that helps to identify usability problems in the user interface (UI) design. • In an expert review, the reviewers already know and understand the heuristics. Because of this, reviewers do not use a specific set of heuristics. As a result, the expert review tends to be less formal, and they are not required to assign a specific heuristic to each potential problem. • Visibility of system status. • Match between system and the real world. • User control and freedom. • Consistency and standards. • Error prevention. • Recognition rather than recall. • Flexibility and efficiency of use. • Aesthetic and minimalist design. • Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors. • Help and documentation. Nielsen’s Heuristics
  • 20. Tools to measure UX • How to measure UX; User Experience of an interactive product or a web site is usually measured by a number of methods, including questionnaires, focus groups, and other methods. • A freely available questionnaire is the User Experience Questionnaire UEQ. It allows a quick assessment of the user experience of interactive products. The format of the questionnaire supports users to immediately express feelings, impressions, and attitudes that arise when they use a product. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 annoying        enjoyable not understandable        understandable creative        dull easy to learn        difficult to learn valuable        inferior boring        exciting not interesting        interesting unpredictable        predictable fast        slow inventive        conventional obstructive        supportive good        bad complicated        easy unlikable        pleasing usual        leading edge unpleasant        pleasant secure        not secure motivating        demotivating meets expectations        does not meet expectations inefficient        efficient clear        confusing impractical        practical organized        cluttered attractive        unattractive friendly        unfriendly conservative        innovative
  • 21. Attractiveness annoying / enjoyable good / bad unlikable / pleasing unpleasant / pleasant attractive / unattractive friendly / unfriendly Design Quality Stimulation valuable / inferior boring / exiting not interesting / interesting motivating / demotivating Novelty creative / dull inventive / conventional usual / leading edge conservative / innovative Use Quality Efficiency fast / slow inefficient / efficient impractical / practical organized / cluttered Perspicuity not understandable / understandable easy to learn / difficult to learn complicated / easy clear / confusing Dependability unpredictable / predictable obstructive / supportive secure / not secure meets expectations / does not meet expectations
  • 22. When to use what method Methods check the link! I am also here to help you select the right method depending on the scope and nature of your project!!! Thanks!
  • 23. References 1/2 • Hassenzahl, Marc (2013): User Experience and Experience Design. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction- design.org/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html • http://www.nngroup.com/articles/definition-user-experience/ • https://blogs.wayne.edu/waynedotedu/2013/06/07/ux-in-a-nutshell/ • TED Talk about UX  Don Norman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlQEoJaLQRA  On the design of everyday things, Don Norman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wl2LkzIkacM  Creating positive UX: 7 Principle. • Usability.org (excellent source of practical informations) • http://usabilitygeek.com/the-difference-between-usability-and-user-experience/ (many ref of the différence UX and Usability) • http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/10/05/what-is-user-experience-design-overview-tools-and- resources/ • UX course: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8zmUJqxrng
  • 24. References 2/2 http://ia.net/blog/the-spectrum-of-user-experience-1/ UX prototyping tutorial: Design process overview | lynda.com https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcFSZGvXtjA The Psychologist view on UX: http://uxmag.com/articles/the-psychologists-view-of-ux-design Uxmag.com Principles of Interaction Design: http://asktog.com/atc/principles-of-interaction-design/ Great source of information: http://www.uxmatters.com/index.php
  • 25. LEAN UX ... Trend of the moment

Editor's Notes

  1. The Definition of User Experience by Jakob Nielsen and Don Norman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlQEoJaLQRA
  2. Source: https://www.facebook.com/pages/User-experience/111578715525981# Illustration: http://cl.ly/AX4l/o
  3. Diff between UI and UX : http://vitamintalent.com/vitabites/explaining-the-difference-between-ui-and-ux-to-your-friends Diff between Usability and UX: http://www.uie.com/brainsparks/2007/03/16/the-difference-between-usability-and-user-experience/ See more at: http://blog.udacity.com/2014/07/whats-difference-between-ui-and-ux.html#sthash.omnUEZIs.dpuf
  4. http://designshack.net/articles/why-does-user-experience-matter/ http://www.codemag.com/Article/1401041 http://blog.limetreeonline.com/2014/05/16/importance-uiux-notready-7337 inability to compare plans before creating an account, overloaded servers and downtime, problems with account creation, difficulty filling out applications and not enough user testing. All of these problems create a negative emotional connection to the site for users. Further, the Usability Professionals Association defines six key benefits to adding UX to the design and development process: increased productivity, increased sales, decreased training and support costs, reduced development time and costs, reduced maintenance costs and increased customer satisfaction.
  5. This is a crossing of an alarm clock and a bedside lamp. Half an hour before the set alarm, the lamp starts to brighten gradually, simulating sunrise. It reaches its maximum at the set wake-up time and then the electronic birds kick in to make sure that you really get up.
  6. For example, the user-centered design process can help software designers to fulfill the goal of a product engineered for their users. User requirements are considered right from the beginning and included into the whole product cycle. These requirements are noted and refined through investigative methods including: ethnographic study, contextual inquiry, prototype testing, usability testing and other methods. Generative methods may also be used including: card sorting, affinity diagraming and participatory design sessions. In addition, user requirements can be inferred by careful analysis of usable products similar to the product being designed. Cooperative design: involving designers and users on an equal footing. This is the Scandinavian tradition of design of IT artifacts and it has been evolving since 1970.[1] Participatory design (PD), a North American term for the same concept, inspired by Cooperative Design, focusing on the participation of users. Since 1990, there has been a bi-annual Participatory Design Conference.[2] Contextual design, “customer-centered design” in the actual context, including some ideas from Participatory design[3] All these approaches follow the ISO standard Human-centered design for interactive systems (ISO 9241-210, 2010). The ISO standard describes 6 key principles that will ensure a design is user centered: The design is based upon an explicit understanding of users, tasks and environments. Users are involved throughout design and development. The design is driven and refined by user-centered evaluation. The process is iterative. The design addresses the whole user experience. The design team includes multidisciplinary skills and perspectives. This point shall also be tackled! http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html http://www.blog.theteamw.com/2014/10/11/the-4-magic-questions-to-ask-before-you-design-anything/
  7. http://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/personas_empath.html don norman (old stuff) http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/01/29/better-user-experience-using-storytelling-part-one/ 10 tools: http://uxmas.com/2013/my-ten-favourite-ux-tools http://uxdesign.cc/ux-tools/ http://www.nngroup.com/articles/top-10-application-design-mistakes/ http://www.slideshare.net/UserIntelligence/guerrilla-usercentered-design-workshop https://www.gov.uk/service-manual/user-centred-design/user-research/guerrilla-testing.html http://lifehacker.com/five-best-mind-mapping-tools-476534555
  8. http://coggle.it/
  9. http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/personas.html
  10. User stories are written by or for business users or customers as a primary way to influence the functionality of the system being developed. User stories may also be written by developers to express non-functional requirements (security, performance, quality, etc.),[3] though primarily it is the task of a product manager to ensure user stories are captured. Also on small postit notes, or in some template online, like Trello, and then organised according to the importance, can be a team task, or customer dev to fix essential need of the app to be dev. And not miss important http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_story
  11. Use case model of a secure adress book http://uwe.pst.ifi.lmu.de/examples/SecureAddressBook/diagrams/Use_Case_Diagram__Requirements__Requirements_1.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Use_case
  12. http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2012/09/18/free-download-ux-sketching-wireframing-templates-mobile/ http://www.creativebloq.com/mobile/practical-guide-tactical-mobile-prototyping-6126240 http://uxmovement.com/wireframes/why-its-important-to-sketch-before-you-wireframe/ Storyboard in software development: Storyboarding is used in software development as part of identifying the specifications for a particular software. During the specification phase, screens that the software will display are drawn, either on paper or using other specialized software, to illustrate the important steps of the user experience. The storyboard is then modified by the engineers and the client while they decide on their specific needs. The reason why storyboarding is useful during software engineering is that it helps the user understand exactly how the software will work, much better than an abstract description. It is also cheaper to make changes to a storyboard than an implemented piece of software. Wireframes may be utilized by different disciplines. Developers use wireframes to get a more tangible grasp of the site’s functionality, while designers use them to push the user interface (UI) process. User experience designers and information architects use wireframes to show navigation paths between pages. Business Analysts use wireframes to visually support the business rules and interaction requirements for a screen. Business stakeholders review wireframes to ensure that requirements and objectives are met through the design.[1]:167 Professionals who create wireframes include business analysts, information architects, interaction designers, user experience designers, graphic designers, programmers, and product managers.[4] Working with wireframes may be a collaborative effort since it bridges the information architecture to the visual design. Due to overlaps in these professional roles, conflicts may occur, making wireframing a controversial part of the design process.[3]:186 Since wireframes signify a “bare bones” aesthetic, it is difficult for designers to assess how closely the wireframe needs to depict actual screen layouts.[1]:168 To avoid conflicts it is recommended that business analysts who understand the user requirements, create a basic wire frame and then work with designers to further improve the wireframes. Another difficulty with wireframes is that they don’t effectively display interactive details because they are static representations. Modern UI design incorporates various devices such as expanding panels, hover effects, and carousels that pose a challenge for 2-D diagrams.[1]:169 Wireframes may have multiple levels of detail and can be broken up into two categories in terms of fidelity, or how closely they resemble the end product. Low-fidelity Resembling a rough sketch or a quick mock-up, low-fidelity wireframes have less detail and are quick to produce. These wireframes help a project team collaborate more effectively since they are more abstract, using rectangles and labeling to represent content.[3]:185 Dummy content, Latin filler text (lorem ipsum), sample or symbolic content are used to represent data when real content is not available.[1]:175 High-fidelity High-fidelity wireframes are often used for documenting because they incorporate a level of detail that more closely matches the design of the actual webpage, thus taking longer to create.[3]:185 For simple or low-fidelity drawings, paper prototyping is a common technique. Since these sketches are just representations, annotations—adjacent notes to explain behavior—are useful.[1]:194 For more complex projects, rendering wireframes using computer software is popular. Some tools allow the incorporation of interactivity including Flash animation, and front-end web technologies such as, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.
  13. http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/heuristic-evaluation.html http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuristic_evaluation
  14. The online version seems down – check it again.
  15. http://blog.elementum.com/ux-meets-supply-chain