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Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – a
Jibachha’s Textbook of
Fundamental of Animal Waste
Management
(Besed on CTEVT SEE, Class XI, XII &
Diploma Level New Syllabus 2021)
Dr. Jibachha Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.)
Master in Homeopathy Medicine
Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India
Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU)
Master in Homeopathy Medicine
Director
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar)
Master in Homeopathy Medicine
Consultant Veterinary Physician
Jibachha’s Veterinary Hospital (P) Ltd.
Sanepa-2, Jhamsikhel, Lalitpur
JibachhaVeterinaryHospitalResearch&TrainingCenter(P.)Ltd.
Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan
E-mail: vhrtc@yahoo.com, Tel: +977-56-493726
Jibachha Publishing
(Veterinary Publisher and Distributors)
Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com, Tel: +977-56-493726
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – b
Edited by : Dr. Jibachha Sah, Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah and Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah
Copyright @ 01 March, 2023, Jibachha Publishing.
All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, store in
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of
the publisher.
Published by Jibachha’s Publishing
Bharatpur-4, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal.
E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com
ISBN: 978-9937-8434-9-2
Price: Rs. 1150/-
Design & Setting:
NIK the designer, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal, 9845053391
Jibachha’s Textbook of
Fundamental of Animal Waste
Management
Copyright material
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – c
AWM : Animal Waste Management
BSFL : Black Soldier Fly Larvae
DMC : Domestic Material Consumption
EPR : Extended Producer Responsibility
GDP : Gross Domestic Product
MBT : Mechanical Biological Treatment
MSW : Municipal Solid Waste
NGO : Non-Governmental Organisation
NRCS : Natural Resources Conservation Service
PAC : Polyaluminium Chloride
PBHFM : Poultry Bye-Product Hydrolyzed Feather Meal
PRO : Producer Responsibility Organisations
SMC : Sound Material-Cycle
VBWF : Volume-Based Waste Fee
WEEE : Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
ABBREVIATION
n
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – d
“Jibachha Textbook of Fundamentals of Animal Waste Management”, edited
by Dr. Jibachha Sah (M.V.Sc.), Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah (M.V.Sc. Vet. Med.), and Dr.
Jyoti Kumari Sah (B.V.Sc. & A.H.), M.Sc. Scholar, with sales of their previous 40 books.
This book is designed for SEE, Grade XI, and diploma-level CTEVT students
of veterinary science. The content of this book is based on the CTEVT syllabus on
Fundamentals ofAnimal Waste Management. The first section includes all the theory topics:
animal waste concept, generation, utilization, and management; animal waste: opportunities
and challenges; animal waste management plans; solid waste disposal methods; importance
of livestock waste management. Types of livestock waste, collection of livestock waste and
the methods, traditional methods of livestock waste management along with their methods,
advantages, and disadvantages, and advanced methods of livestock waste management.
The second part of this book is based on practical sessions, which include Identify
the various types of farm waste and refuse, Identify the ways of disposing of farm
sewage and farm refuse. Estimate farm waste from organized as well as small-scale
livestock farms. Identify the methods of disposal for carcasses and dead animals. Collect
and dispose of liquid farm waste. Collect and dispose of solid farm waste. Collect and
transport farm waste. Prepare compost of farm wastes (manure, dead animals, etc.),
Observe the process and advantages of the biogas plant. Prepare bio-fertilizer from
farm waste, Observe rendering, a method to recycle farm waste resources, Perform
farm disinfection and biosecurity. Manage farm wastes for effective fly and rodent
control and identify the health implications of farm wastes.
Intheseriesofour45booksontheveterinaryclinicalfield,thisbookispurelyasyllabus-
based book that is written with authentic textbooks and references. This book is designed
especially for veterinary students of technical education in an easy, concise, understandable
manner and with a quick reference. During the time of preparation, past examination papers
were highly considered, which will enable us to achieve excellent scores in the examination.
The authors’ extensive experience in publishing veterinary books for students and
coordinating animal health was heavily weighted in the preparation of this course book;
a serious student will thus find the book user-friendly and easy to read and understand.
We strongly believe that “Jibachha Textbook of Fundamentals of Animal Waste
Management” adequately meets the needs of veterinary students and teachers.
Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU)
Dr. Jibachha Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.)
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar)
PREFACE
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – e
CONTENTS
Abbreviation
Preface
Unit 1: Animal waste concept, generation, utilization, and
management 1
1.1 Introduction of animal waste, definition, and waste classification1
1.1.1 Introduction of animal waste 1
1.1.2 Definition of animal waste 2
1.1.3 Animal waste classification 3
1.2 Animal waste generation 3
1.2.1 Waste from cultivation activities 4
1.2.2 Waste from livestock and poultry production 4
1.2.3 Waste from Aquaculture 4
1.3 Animal waste utilization routes 5
1.4 Animal waste management 5
1.4.1 Fertilization 7
1.4.2 Anaerobic digestion 7
1.4.3 Absorbents in the elimination of heavy metals 8
1.4.4 Pyrolysis 9
1.4.5 Animal feed 9
1.4.6 Direct combustion 12
Unit 2: Animal waste: Opportunities and challenges 18
2.1 Principles associated with manure management 18
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – f
2.2 Generation of energy and the nutrient from the animal waste 23
2.2.1 Methane production 23
2.2.2 Biogas 23
2.2.3 Livestock waste and its impact on the environment: 24
2.3 Livestock waste and the environment 24
2.4 Pathogens in animal waste and the impact of waste management
practices 25
Unit 3: Animal waste management plans 30
3.1 Waste management plan definition, components of animal waste
management systems, concepts of nutrient recycle, essential steps
involved in waste management plan 31
3.1.1 Definition of waste management plan 31
3.1.2 Components of animal waste management systems 34
3.1.3 Concepts of nutrient recycle 35
3.1.4 Essential steps involved in waste management plan 40
3.2 The common methods of solid waste disposal: Open dumps,
Sanitary landfills, drainage, Incineration and Composting 42
Unit 4: Solid waste disposal methods 55
4.1 Principles of animal waste management systems 55
4.2 Reduce the quantity and ill effects of waste generation by
reducing the quantity of waste 57
4.3 Reusing the waste products with simple treatments 58
4.4 Recycling the waste by using it as a resource to produce same or
a modified product 60
4.5 Handling solid animal waste 60
Unit 5: Importance of livestock waste management 71
5.1 Livestock waste and its advantages and disadvantages in the
agricultural systems 72
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – g
5.2 Sources of livestock waste 73
5.3 Livestock waste and its impact on the environment 74
5.4 Processes employed for treatment of animal wastes 74
5.5 Characteristics of animal manure 75
Unit 6: Types of livestock waste 79
6.1 Solid waste (Dung, wasted feeding materials and
soiled bedding materials) 79
6.1.1 Solid waste management 80
6.1.2 Methods of Solid Waste Disposal and Management: 83
6.2 Liquid waste (Urine and washed water) 85
Unit 7: Collection of livestock waste and the methods 92
7.1 Separate collection: solid and liquid waste 93
7.2 Flushing of both types of waste (Solid and liquid) 94
Unit 8: Traditional methods of livestock waste management
along with their methods, advantages and disadvantages 97
8.1 Dung cakes 97
8.2 Dumping in to heaps or pits 97
8.3 Composting 97
8.4 Direct application in the fields 100
8.5 Advantages and disadvantages of waste management 101
Unit 9: Advanced methods of livestock waste management 104
9.1.1 Bio-gas production 104
9.1.2 Vermicomposting 106
9.1.3 Pyrolysis 108
9.1.4 Soldier fly breeding: Black soldier fly larvae or grubs 109
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – h
9.1.5 Poultry litter management: Production of waste from
poultry farm, collection, storage, treatment, and
utilization 111
9.2 Liquid waste management: Ammonia recycling 119
9.3 Carcass disposal 120
9.3.1 Concept and classification of carcass and
dead animal disposal 121
9.3.2 Burial methods 121
9.3.3 Burning 122
9.3.4 Electric incinerators 123
9.4 Composting 124
Practical
Practical 1 Identify the various types of farm waste and refuse. 127
Practical 2 Identify the ways of disposal of farm sewage
and farm refuses 130
Practical 3 Estimate farm waste from organized as well
as small scale livestock farms 132
Practical 4 Identify the methods of disposal for carcasses
and dead animals 134
Practical 5 Collect and dispose liquid farm wastes 136
Practical 6 Collect and dispose of solid farm wastes 139
Practical 8 Collect and transport farm waste 146
Practical 9 Prepare compost of farm wastes
(manure, dead animals, etc.) 147
Practical 10 Observe process and advantages of bio-gas plant 149
Practical 11 Prepare Bio-fertilizer from farm wastes 151
Practical 12 Observe rendering: a method to recycle farm waste
resources 153
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – i
12.1 Vermi-composting: 154
12.2 Biogas technology: 155
Practical 13 Perform farm disinfection and biosecurity 157
Practical 14 Manage farm wastes for effective fly and
rodent’s control 161
Practical 15 Identify health implication of farm wastes 163
Practical 16 Visit to nearest water recycling and purification plant 164
Reference books 170
n
Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – j

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Fundamental of Animal Waste Management Setting Extra Pages.pdf

  • 1. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – a Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management (Besed on CTEVT SEE, Class XI, XII & Diploma Level New Syllabus 2021) Dr. Jibachha Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.) Master in Homeopathy Medicine Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU) Master in Homeopathy Medicine Director Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar) Master in Homeopathy Medicine Consultant Veterinary Physician Jibachha’s Veterinary Hospital (P) Ltd. Sanepa-2, Jhamsikhel, Lalitpur JibachhaVeterinaryHospitalResearch&TrainingCenter(P.)Ltd. Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan E-mail: vhrtc@yahoo.com, Tel: +977-56-493726 Jibachha Publishing (Veterinary Publisher and Distributors) Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com, Tel: +977-56-493726
  • 2. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – b Edited by : Dr. Jibachha Sah, Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah and Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah Copyright @ 01 March, 2023, Jibachha Publishing. All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, store in retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published by Jibachha’s Publishing Bharatpur-4, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal. E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com ISBN: 978-9937-8434-9-2 Price: Rs. 1150/- Design & Setting: NIK the designer, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal, 9845053391 Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management Copyright material
  • 3. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – c AWM : Animal Waste Management BSFL : Black Soldier Fly Larvae DMC : Domestic Material Consumption EPR : Extended Producer Responsibility GDP : Gross Domestic Product MBT : Mechanical Biological Treatment MSW : Municipal Solid Waste NGO : Non-Governmental Organisation NRCS : Natural Resources Conservation Service PAC : Polyaluminium Chloride PBHFM : Poultry Bye-Product Hydrolyzed Feather Meal PRO : Producer Responsibility Organisations SMC : Sound Material-Cycle VBWF : Volume-Based Waste Fee WEEE : Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment ABBREVIATION n
  • 4. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – d “Jibachha Textbook of Fundamentals of Animal Waste Management”, edited by Dr. Jibachha Sah (M.V.Sc.), Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah (M.V.Sc. Vet. Med.), and Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah (B.V.Sc. & A.H.), M.Sc. Scholar, with sales of their previous 40 books. This book is designed for SEE, Grade XI, and diploma-level CTEVT students of veterinary science. The content of this book is based on the CTEVT syllabus on Fundamentals ofAnimal Waste Management. The first section includes all the theory topics: animal waste concept, generation, utilization, and management; animal waste: opportunities and challenges; animal waste management plans; solid waste disposal methods; importance of livestock waste management. Types of livestock waste, collection of livestock waste and the methods, traditional methods of livestock waste management along with their methods, advantages, and disadvantages, and advanced methods of livestock waste management. The second part of this book is based on practical sessions, which include Identify the various types of farm waste and refuse, Identify the ways of disposing of farm sewage and farm refuse. Estimate farm waste from organized as well as small-scale livestock farms. Identify the methods of disposal for carcasses and dead animals. Collect and dispose of liquid farm waste. Collect and dispose of solid farm waste. Collect and transport farm waste. Prepare compost of farm wastes (manure, dead animals, etc.), Observe the process and advantages of the biogas plant. Prepare bio-fertilizer from farm waste, Observe rendering, a method to recycle farm waste resources, Perform farm disinfection and biosecurity. Manage farm wastes for effective fly and rodent control and identify the health implications of farm wastes. Intheseriesofour45booksontheveterinaryclinicalfield,thisbookispurelyasyllabus- based book that is written with authentic textbooks and references. This book is designed especially for veterinary students of technical education in an easy, concise, understandable manner and with a quick reference. During the time of preparation, past examination papers were highly considered, which will enable us to achieve excellent scores in the examination. The authors’ extensive experience in publishing veterinary books for students and coordinating animal health was heavily weighted in the preparation of this course book; a serious student will thus find the book user-friendly and easy to read and understand. We strongly believe that “Jibachha Textbook of Fundamentals of Animal Waste Management” adequately meets the needs of veterinary students and teachers. Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU) Dr. Jibachha Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.) Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar) PREFACE
  • 5. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – e CONTENTS Abbreviation Preface Unit 1: Animal waste concept, generation, utilization, and management 1 1.1 Introduction of animal waste, definition, and waste classification1 1.1.1 Introduction of animal waste 1 1.1.2 Definition of animal waste 2 1.1.3 Animal waste classification 3 1.2 Animal waste generation 3 1.2.1 Waste from cultivation activities 4 1.2.2 Waste from livestock and poultry production 4 1.2.3 Waste from Aquaculture 4 1.3 Animal waste utilization routes 5 1.4 Animal waste management 5 1.4.1 Fertilization 7 1.4.2 Anaerobic digestion 7 1.4.3 Absorbents in the elimination of heavy metals 8 1.4.4 Pyrolysis 9 1.4.5 Animal feed 9 1.4.6 Direct combustion 12 Unit 2: Animal waste: Opportunities and challenges 18 2.1 Principles associated with manure management 18
  • 6. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – f 2.2 Generation of energy and the nutrient from the animal waste 23 2.2.1 Methane production 23 2.2.2 Biogas 23 2.2.3 Livestock waste and its impact on the environment: 24 2.3 Livestock waste and the environment 24 2.4 Pathogens in animal waste and the impact of waste management practices 25 Unit 3: Animal waste management plans 30 3.1 Waste management plan definition, components of animal waste management systems, concepts of nutrient recycle, essential steps involved in waste management plan 31 3.1.1 Definition of waste management plan 31 3.1.2 Components of animal waste management systems 34 3.1.3 Concepts of nutrient recycle 35 3.1.4 Essential steps involved in waste management plan 40 3.2 The common methods of solid waste disposal: Open dumps, Sanitary landfills, drainage, Incineration and Composting 42 Unit 4: Solid waste disposal methods 55 4.1 Principles of animal waste management systems 55 4.2 Reduce the quantity and ill effects of waste generation by reducing the quantity of waste 57 4.3 Reusing the waste products with simple treatments 58 4.4 Recycling the waste by using it as a resource to produce same or a modified product 60 4.5 Handling solid animal waste 60 Unit 5: Importance of livestock waste management 71 5.1 Livestock waste and its advantages and disadvantages in the agricultural systems 72
  • 7. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – g 5.2 Sources of livestock waste 73 5.3 Livestock waste and its impact on the environment 74 5.4 Processes employed for treatment of animal wastes 74 5.5 Characteristics of animal manure 75 Unit 6: Types of livestock waste 79 6.1 Solid waste (Dung, wasted feeding materials and soiled bedding materials) 79 6.1.1 Solid waste management 80 6.1.2 Methods of Solid Waste Disposal and Management: 83 6.2 Liquid waste (Urine and washed water) 85 Unit 7: Collection of livestock waste and the methods 92 7.1 Separate collection: solid and liquid waste 93 7.2 Flushing of both types of waste (Solid and liquid) 94 Unit 8: Traditional methods of livestock waste management along with their methods, advantages and disadvantages 97 8.1 Dung cakes 97 8.2 Dumping in to heaps or pits 97 8.3 Composting 97 8.4 Direct application in the fields 100 8.5 Advantages and disadvantages of waste management 101 Unit 9: Advanced methods of livestock waste management 104 9.1.1 Bio-gas production 104 9.1.2 Vermicomposting 106 9.1.3 Pyrolysis 108 9.1.4 Soldier fly breeding: Black soldier fly larvae or grubs 109
  • 8. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – h 9.1.5 Poultry litter management: Production of waste from poultry farm, collection, storage, treatment, and utilization 111 9.2 Liquid waste management: Ammonia recycling 119 9.3 Carcass disposal 120 9.3.1 Concept and classification of carcass and dead animal disposal 121 9.3.2 Burial methods 121 9.3.3 Burning 122 9.3.4 Electric incinerators 123 9.4 Composting 124 Practical Practical 1 Identify the various types of farm waste and refuse. 127 Practical 2 Identify the ways of disposal of farm sewage and farm refuses 130 Practical 3 Estimate farm waste from organized as well as small scale livestock farms 132 Practical 4 Identify the methods of disposal for carcasses and dead animals 134 Practical 5 Collect and dispose liquid farm wastes 136 Practical 6 Collect and dispose of solid farm wastes 139 Practical 8 Collect and transport farm waste 146 Practical 9 Prepare compost of farm wastes (manure, dead animals, etc.) 147 Practical 10 Observe process and advantages of bio-gas plant 149 Practical 11 Prepare Bio-fertilizer from farm wastes 151 Practical 12 Observe rendering: a method to recycle farm waste resources 153
  • 9. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – i 12.1 Vermi-composting: 154 12.2 Biogas technology: 155 Practical 13 Perform farm disinfection and biosecurity 157 Practical 14 Manage farm wastes for effective fly and rodent’s control 161 Practical 15 Identify health implication of farm wastes 163 Practical 16 Visit to nearest water recycling and purification plant 164 Reference books 170 n
  • 10. Jibachha’s Textbook of Fundamental of Animal Waste Management – j