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Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ A
Jibachha’s Textbook of
Basics of Animal Product
Technology (Part-I)
(Dairy and Eggs)
(Based on SEE, Grade XI & Diploma Level New Syllabus 2021)
Dr. Jibachha Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.)
Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India
Master in Homeopathy Medicine (One year online)
Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU)
Director
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar)
Consultant Veterinary Physician
Jibachha’s Veterinary Hospital (P) Ltd.
Sanepa-2, Jhamsikhel, Lalitpur
JibachhaVeterinaryHospitalResearch&TrainingCenter(P.)Ltd.
Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan
E-mail: vhrtc@yahoo.com, Tel: +977-56-493726
Jibachha Publishing
(Veterinary Publisher and Distributors)
Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com, Tel: +977-56-493726
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ B
Edited by: Dr. Jibachha Sah, Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah and Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah
Copyright @ 10 June, 2023, Jibachha Publishing.
All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, store in
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of
the publisher.
Published by Jibachha’s Publishing
Bharatpur-4, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal.
E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com
ISBN: 978-9937-727-01-3
Price: Rs. 1150/-
Design & Setting:
NIK the designer, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal, 9845053391
Jibachha’s Textbook of
Basics of Animal Product Technology
(Part-I)
(Dairy and Eggs)
Copyright material
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ C
ADB - Agricultural Development Bank
ADV - Acid Degree Value
BHV2 - Bovine herpesvirus 2
BST - Bovine Somatotropin
CIP - Cleaning-in-Place
CLR - Corrected Lactometer Reading
CMT - California Mastitis Test
DDC - Dairy Development Corporation
DFTQC - Department of Food Technology & Quality Control
DHM - Donor Human Milk
DV - Daily Value
ECM - Extracellular Matrix
FAO - Food and Agricultural Organization
HTST - High-Temperature Short Time
LTLT - Low-Temperature Long Time
NMR - Nuclear magnetic resonance
SNF - Solid Not Fat
UHT - Ultra-high-temperature
WHO - World Health Organization
ABBREVIATION
n
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ D
“Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I” is edited by Dr.
Jibachha Sah (M.V.Sc), Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah (M.V.Sc. Vet. Med) and Dr. Jyoti
Kumari Sah (B.V.Sc. & A.H.) M.Sc. Scholar with sales of their previous 45 books.
This book is designed for SEE, Grade XI, and diploma level CTEVTstudents of veterinary
science. The content of this book is based on the CTEVT syllabus on animal production
and management. The first section includes all the theory topics: Dairying and Dairying
situation in Nepal, Milk and its properties,Anatomy and physiology of mammary gland,
Clean milk production, Microbiology of Milk, Buying and collection of milk, Processing
of raw milk, Study of separated & fermented milk products e.g., Ghee Butter & Yoghurt
in lab., Study of Coagulated & Concentrated milk products e.g., Chhana, Paneer, Chhurpi,
Cheese, Khoa, Milk based, Khoa based and Dahi based products & Ice cream in lab.
Study of legal standard and specifications of dairy products, Utilization of egg as human
food and Knowing eggs and its nutritive aspects.
The second part of this book is based on Basics of Animal Product Technology-I
practical session including practical knowledge on Identifying commonly used dairy
equipment and milk products in lab, Perform milking under hygienic condition,Perform
test of COB, Alcohol tests and MBR test, Estimate Sp. Gr., SNF and TS percentage of
milk, Perform cream separation and assembling, Prepare Ghee, Butter and Yoghurt in
lab, and Perform milk adulteration tests.
In the series of our 45 books on veterinary clinical field “Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics
ofAnimal Product Technology-I” is purely a syllabus based book which is written with
authentic textbook and references. This book is designed especially for the veterinary
students of technical education to easy, concise, understandable manner and quick
reference. In the time of preparation past examination paper were highly considered,
which will enable to grapes excellence score in the examination.
The experience gathered by the authors in the course of their long number of years in
publishing veterinary books for the students and coordinating animal health courses, was
strongly brought to bear on the preparation of this course book; a serious student shall
therefore find the book user friendly and easy to read and understand. We strongly believe
that “Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I” adequately
meet the need of veterinary students and teachers.
Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU)
Dr. Jibachha Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.)
Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah
B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar)
PREFACE
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ E
INDEX
Abbreviation
Preface
Unit 1: Dairying in Nepal 1
1.1 Dairying situation in Nepal 1
1.2 In Nepal, the definitions of dairy, dairy science, and dairy technology,
as well as the branches and scope of dairy science 2
1.3 Milk consumption per capita in Nepal and elsewhere 3
Unit 2: Milk and its properties 14
2.1 Definition of milk and schematic representation of milk
constituents 14
2.2 Nutritive value of milk in brief 14
2.3 Composition of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, enzymes, vitamins and
minerals of milk 16
2.4 Physical and chemical properties of milk 19
2.4.1 Milk Physical Properties 19
1. Colour and optical properties 19
2. The flavor of milk 19
3. Specific gravity and density of milk 20
4. Viscosity 20
5. Milk surface tension 20
6. The freezing point and boiling point of milk 20
7. Acidity and pH 20
8. Heat stability of milk 21
2.4.2 Chemical Properties of Milk 21
1. Water 21
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ F
2. Lipid 21
3. Protein 21
4. Carbohydrate 22
5. Magnesium, chloride, phosphate esters, enzymes (20
different enzymes) 22
2.5 Factors affecting the composition of milk 22
1. Genetics 23
2. Interval between milking 24
3. Stage of lactation 24
4. Age 24
5. Feeding regime 24
6. Disease 25
7. Completeness of milking 25
Unit 3: Anatomy and physiology of mammary gland 34
3.1 Anatomical structure of mammary gland 34
3.2 Physiology of letdown of milk from udder 35
3.3 Hormonal control of mammary gland 37
Unit 4: Clean milk production 46
4.1 Definition of clean milk and its importance 46
4.2 Sources of contamination of milk at a dairy farm 50
4.3 Method of hand milking and machine milking 50
1. Full hand method 51
2. Stripping method 52
3. The Knuckling (Fisting) method 52
4. Machine milking 53
4.4 Dairy barn equipment and machine cleaning and sanitation 55
4.5 Flavor defects and their causes and prevention 58
Unit 5: Microbiology of Milk 73
5.1 Microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, molds, viruses etc.) found in
milk 73
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ G
5.2 Deteriorating types of microorganisms found in milk and milk
products 76
5.3 Sources of contamination, uses and significance in dairy industry 77
5.4 Characteristics of bacteria 79
Unit 6: Buying and collection of milk 87
6.1 Concept of milk cooperatives and their importance 87
6.2 Purchasing methods of milk on the basis of weight, volume,
fat, SNF, TS, two axis test and premium 88
6.3 Buying and collection of milk through milk producers and
venders 90
Unit 7 : Processing of raw milk 98
7.1 Receiving, weighing and sampling of milk 98
7.2 Platform and routine tests of milk 101
7.2.1 Platform tests for milk 101
1. Organoleptic tests 101
2. Indicator test 102
3. Sediment test 102
4. Lactometer or density test 103
5. Clot-on-boiling test 105
6. Alcohol test 106
7. Test for Alcohol-Alizarin 106
8. Titratable acidity analysis 107
9. Gerber test to determine fat content in milk 108
10. Resazurin test 111
7.3 Straining and filtration of milk 112
7.4 Milk cooling methods and their importance 113
7.5 Milk pasteurization, milk homogenization & emulsification and their
importance 114
7.6 Heating system of milk 116
7.7 Concept of toning and standardization of milk in brief 116
7.8 Milk packaging, distribution and storage of milk at dairy processing
unit 119
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ H
Unit 8: Study of separated & fermented milk products e.g., Ghee Butter
& Yoghurt in lab. 127
8.1 Importance of milk product and its nutritive value 127
8.2 Prepare flow diagram of methods of Ghee, Butter and Yoghurt
making 127
1. Ghee 127
2. Butter 129
3. Yoghurt making 129
Unit 9: Study of Coagulated & Concentrated milk products e.g.,
Chhana, Paneer, Chhurpi, Cheese, Khoa, Milk based, Khoa
based and Dahi based products & Icecream in lab 135
9.1 Importance of milk product and its nutritive value 135
9.2 Prepare flow diagram of methods of Chhana, Paneer, Chhurpi, Cheese,
Khoa & Ice cream making 135
9.2.1 Chhana 135
9.2.2 Paneer 136
9.2.3 Chhurpi 137
9.2.4 Cheese 138
9.2.5 Khoa 138
9.2.6 Ice cream 139
Unit 10 : Study of legal standard and specifications of dairy products 146
10.1 Check dairy products available in local market and note down its
specifications 146
10.2 Make chart of legal standard and specification of dairy products given
by Govt. of Nepal 147
10.2.1 Nepalese legal standard of milk and common milk products		
147
Unit 11: Knowing eggs and its nutritive aspects 157
11.1 Process of egg formation, nutritive value of egg 157
11.2 Collection, handling, and storage of egg 160
11.3 Preservation techniques of egg 161
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ I
Unit 12: Utilization of egg as human food 171
12.1 Food processing of eggs 171
12.2 Product diversification of eggs 172
Practical
1. Identify commonly used dairy equipment and milk products in lab 175
1.1 Study of commonly available dairy products in local market 179
2. Perform milking under hygienic condition 182
2.1 Cleaning and sanitation of udder and preparation of animal for
milking 182
2.2 Practice of handmilking in dairy farm 182
2.3 Storage of milk safely at low temperature in dairy farm 183
3. Perform test of COB, Alcohol tests and MBR test 184
3.1 Perform COB test and Alcohol test for checking heat stability of
milk		 184
3.1 1 Clot-on-boiling (C.O.B.) test 184
3.1.2 Alcohol test 186
3.2 Perform the MBR test for assessing the microbiological quality of
milk		 187
4. Estimate fat by Gerber’s method and acidity by titration 192
4.1 Titrate the fat determination method with a milk butyrometer and a
4% acidity rate 192
4.2 Milk acidity % by titration 195
5. Estimate Sp. Gr., SNF and TS percentage of milk 199
5.1 Perform the methods of determination of Sp.gr., SNF, and TS using
Lactometer 199
5.2 Use of standard formula for determination of these tests, Calibration
of Thermometer 201
6. Perform cream separation and assembling 203
6.1 Know the methods of assembling parts and process of cream
separation 203
6.2 Know the methods of assembling parts and process of cream
separation 206
Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ J
6.3 Measure the quantity of cream & skiim milk 206
6.4 Estimation of recovery percent 207
7. Prepare Ghee, Butter and Yoghurt in lab 208
7.1 Prepare flow diagram of methods of Ghee, Butter
& Yoghurt making 208
7.1.1 Ghee making diagram 208
7.1.2 Butter making diagram 209
7.1.3 Yoghurt making 210
7.2 Prepare a good quality ghee 210
Unit 8: Prepare Chhana, Paneer, Churpi, Cheese, Khoa and Ice-cream
in lab. 212
8.1 Prepare flow diagram methods of chhana, paneer, chhurpi, cheese,
khoa and ice cream making 213
Unit 9: Prepare skim milk (SMP) Powder 215
9.1 Prepare flow diagram of SMP preparation 215
Unit 10: Perform milk adulteration tests 216
10.1 Common milk adulteration and their detection techniques 216
10.2 Preform milk adulteration tests, using adulteration kit 219
Unit 11: Visit a dairy plant 221
Practical Viva 223
References 256
n

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-Animal product technology.pdf

  • 1. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ A Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology (Part-I) (Dairy and Eggs) (Based on SEE, Grade XI & Diploma Level New Syllabus 2021) Dr. Jibachha Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.) Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India Master in Homeopathy Medicine (One year online) Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU) Director Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar) Consultant Veterinary Physician Jibachha’s Veterinary Hospital (P) Ltd. Sanepa-2, Jhamsikhel, Lalitpur JibachhaVeterinaryHospitalResearch&TrainingCenter(P.)Ltd. Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan E-mail: vhrtc@yahoo.com, Tel: +977-56-493726 Jibachha Publishing (Veterinary Publisher and Distributors) Bharatpur-4, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com, Tel: +977-56-493726
  • 2. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ B Edited by: Dr. Jibachha Sah, Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah and Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah Copyright @ 10 June, 2023, Jibachha Publishing. All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, store in retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published by Jibachha’s Publishing Bharatpur-4, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal. E-mail: jibachhashah@gmail.com ISBN: 978-9937-727-01-3 Price: Rs. 1150/- Design & Setting: NIK the designer, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal, 9845053391 Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology (Part-I) (Dairy and Eggs) Copyright material
  • 3. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ C ADB - Agricultural Development Bank ADV - Acid Degree Value BHV2 - Bovine herpesvirus 2 BST - Bovine Somatotropin CIP - Cleaning-in-Place CLR - Corrected Lactometer Reading CMT - California Mastitis Test DDC - Dairy Development Corporation DFTQC - Department of Food Technology & Quality Control DHM - Donor Human Milk DV - Daily Value ECM - Extracellular Matrix FAO - Food and Agricultural Organization HTST - High-Temperature Short Time LTLT - Low-Temperature Long Time NMR - Nuclear magnetic resonance SNF - Solid Not Fat UHT - Ultra-high-temperature WHO - World Health Organization ABBREVIATION n
  • 4. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ D “Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I” is edited by Dr. Jibachha Sah (M.V.Sc), Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah (M.V.Sc. Vet. Med) and Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah (B.V.Sc. & A.H.) M.Sc. Scholar with sales of their previous 45 books. This book is designed for SEE, Grade XI, and diploma level CTEVTstudents of veterinary science. The content of this book is based on the CTEVT syllabus on animal production and management. The first section includes all the theory topics: Dairying and Dairying situation in Nepal, Milk and its properties,Anatomy and physiology of mammary gland, Clean milk production, Microbiology of Milk, Buying and collection of milk, Processing of raw milk, Study of separated & fermented milk products e.g., Ghee Butter & Yoghurt in lab., Study of Coagulated & Concentrated milk products e.g., Chhana, Paneer, Chhurpi, Cheese, Khoa, Milk based, Khoa based and Dahi based products & Ice cream in lab. Study of legal standard and specifications of dairy products, Utilization of egg as human food and Knowing eggs and its nutritive aspects. The second part of this book is based on Basics of Animal Product Technology-I practical session including practical knowledge on Identifying commonly used dairy equipment and milk products in lab, Perform milking under hygienic condition,Perform test of COB, Alcohol tests and MBR test, Estimate Sp. Gr., SNF and TS percentage of milk, Perform cream separation and assembling, Prepare Ghee, Butter and Yoghurt in lab, and Perform milk adulteration tests. In the series of our 45 books on veterinary clinical field “Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics ofAnimal Product Technology-I” is purely a syllabus based book which is written with authentic textbook and references. This book is designed especially for the veterinary students of technical education to easy, concise, understandable manner and quick reference. In the time of preparation past examination paper were highly considered, which will enable to grapes excellence score in the examination. The experience gathered by the authors in the course of their long number of years in publishing veterinary books for the students and coordinating animal health courses, was strongly brought to bear on the preparation of this course book; a serious student shall therefore find the book user friendly and easy to read and understand. We strongly believe that “Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I” adequately meet the need of veterinary students and teachers. Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc. (Medicine, AFU) Dr. Jibachha Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H., M.V.Sc. (T.U.) Dr. Jyoti Kumari Sah B.V.Sc. & A.H. (T.U.), M.Sc. (Scholar) PREFACE
  • 5. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ E INDEX Abbreviation Preface Unit 1: Dairying in Nepal 1 1.1 Dairying situation in Nepal 1 1.2 In Nepal, the definitions of dairy, dairy science, and dairy technology, as well as the branches and scope of dairy science 2 1.3 Milk consumption per capita in Nepal and elsewhere 3 Unit 2: Milk and its properties 14 2.1 Definition of milk and schematic representation of milk constituents 14 2.2 Nutritive value of milk in brief 14 2.3 Composition of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, enzymes, vitamins and minerals of milk 16 2.4 Physical and chemical properties of milk 19 2.4.1 Milk Physical Properties 19 1. Colour and optical properties 19 2. The flavor of milk 19 3. Specific gravity and density of milk 20 4. Viscosity 20 5. Milk surface tension 20 6. The freezing point and boiling point of milk 20 7. Acidity and pH 20 8. Heat stability of milk 21 2.4.2 Chemical Properties of Milk 21 1. Water 21
  • 6. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ F 2. Lipid 21 3. Protein 21 4. Carbohydrate 22 5. Magnesium, chloride, phosphate esters, enzymes (20 different enzymes) 22 2.5 Factors affecting the composition of milk 22 1. Genetics 23 2. Interval between milking 24 3. Stage of lactation 24 4. Age 24 5. Feeding regime 24 6. Disease 25 7. Completeness of milking 25 Unit 3: Anatomy and physiology of mammary gland 34 3.1 Anatomical structure of mammary gland 34 3.2 Physiology of letdown of milk from udder 35 3.3 Hormonal control of mammary gland 37 Unit 4: Clean milk production 46 4.1 Definition of clean milk and its importance 46 4.2 Sources of contamination of milk at a dairy farm 50 4.3 Method of hand milking and machine milking 50 1. Full hand method 51 2. Stripping method 52 3. The Knuckling (Fisting) method 52 4. Machine milking 53 4.4 Dairy barn equipment and machine cleaning and sanitation 55 4.5 Flavor defects and their causes and prevention 58 Unit 5: Microbiology of Milk 73 5.1 Microorganisms (bacteria, fungus, molds, viruses etc.) found in milk 73
  • 7. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ G 5.2 Deteriorating types of microorganisms found in milk and milk products 76 5.3 Sources of contamination, uses and significance in dairy industry 77 5.4 Characteristics of bacteria 79 Unit 6: Buying and collection of milk 87 6.1 Concept of milk cooperatives and their importance 87 6.2 Purchasing methods of milk on the basis of weight, volume, fat, SNF, TS, two axis test and premium 88 6.3 Buying and collection of milk through milk producers and venders 90 Unit 7 : Processing of raw milk 98 7.1 Receiving, weighing and sampling of milk 98 7.2 Platform and routine tests of milk 101 7.2.1 Platform tests for milk 101 1. Organoleptic tests 101 2. Indicator test 102 3. Sediment test 102 4. Lactometer or density test 103 5. Clot-on-boiling test 105 6. Alcohol test 106 7. Test for Alcohol-Alizarin 106 8. Titratable acidity analysis 107 9. Gerber test to determine fat content in milk 108 10. Resazurin test 111 7.3 Straining and filtration of milk 112 7.4 Milk cooling methods and their importance 113 7.5 Milk pasteurization, milk homogenization & emulsification and their importance 114 7.6 Heating system of milk 116 7.7 Concept of toning and standardization of milk in brief 116 7.8 Milk packaging, distribution and storage of milk at dairy processing unit 119
  • 8. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ H Unit 8: Study of separated & fermented milk products e.g., Ghee Butter & Yoghurt in lab. 127 8.1 Importance of milk product and its nutritive value 127 8.2 Prepare flow diagram of methods of Ghee, Butter and Yoghurt making 127 1. Ghee 127 2. Butter 129 3. Yoghurt making 129 Unit 9: Study of Coagulated & Concentrated milk products e.g., Chhana, Paneer, Chhurpi, Cheese, Khoa, Milk based, Khoa based and Dahi based products & Icecream in lab 135 9.1 Importance of milk product and its nutritive value 135 9.2 Prepare flow diagram of methods of Chhana, Paneer, Chhurpi, Cheese, Khoa & Ice cream making 135 9.2.1 Chhana 135 9.2.2 Paneer 136 9.2.3 Chhurpi 137 9.2.4 Cheese 138 9.2.5 Khoa 138 9.2.6 Ice cream 139 Unit 10 : Study of legal standard and specifications of dairy products 146 10.1 Check dairy products available in local market and note down its specifications 146 10.2 Make chart of legal standard and specification of dairy products given by Govt. of Nepal 147 10.2.1 Nepalese legal standard of milk and common milk products 147 Unit 11: Knowing eggs and its nutritive aspects 157 11.1 Process of egg formation, nutritive value of egg 157 11.2 Collection, handling, and storage of egg 160 11.3 Preservation techniques of egg 161
  • 9. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ I Unit 12: Utilization of egg as human food 171 12.1 Food processing of eggs 171 12.2 Product diversification of eggs 172 Practical 1. Identify commonly used dairy equipment and milk products in lab 175 1.1 Study of commonly available dairy products in local market 179 2. Perform milking under hygienic condition 182 2.1 Cleaning and sanitation of udder and preparation of animal for milking 182 2.2 Practice of handmilking in dairy farm 182 2.3 Storage of milk safely at low temperature in dairy farm 183 3. Perform test of COB, Alcohol tests and MBR test 184 3.1 Perform COB test and Alcohol test for checking heat stability of milk 184 3.1 1 Clot-on-boiling (C.O.B.) test 184 3.1.2 Alcohol test 186 3.2 Perform the MBR test for assessing the microbiological quality of milk 187 4. Estimate fat by Gerber’s method and acidity by titration 192 4.1 Titrate the fat determination method with a milk butyrometer and a 4% acidity rate 192 4.2 Milk acidity % by titration 195 5. Estimate Sp. Gr., SNF and TS percentage of milk 199 5.1 Perform the methods of determination of Sp.gr., SNF, and TS using Lactometer 199 5.2 Use of standard formula for determination of these tests, Calibration of Thermometer 201 6. Perform cream separation and assembling 203 6.1 Know the methods of assembling parts and process of cream separation 203 6.2 Know the methods of assembling parts and process of cream separation 206
  • 10. Jibachha’s Textbook of Basics of Animal Product Technology-I (Dairy and Eggs) ~ J 6.3 Measure the quantity of cream & skiim milk 206 6.4 Estimation of recovery percent 207 7. Prepare Ghee, Butter and Yoghurt in lab 208 7.1 Prepare flow diagram of methods of Ghee, Butter & Yoghurt making 208 7.1.1 Ghee making diagram 208 7.1.2 Butter making diagram 209 7.1.3 Yoghurt making 210 7.2 Prepare a good quality ghee 210 Unit 8: Prepare Chhana, Paneer, Churpi, Cheese, Khoa and Ice-cream in lab. 212 8.1 Prepare flow diagram methods of chhana, paneer, chhurpi, cheese, khoa and ice cream making 213 Unit 9: Prepare skim milk (SMP) Powder 215 9.1 Prepare flow diagram of SMP preparation 215 Unit 10: Perform milk adulteration tests 216 10.1 Common milk adulteration and their detection techniques 216 10.2 Preform milk adulteration tests, using adulteration kit 219 Unit 11: Visit a dairy plant 221 Practical Viva 223 References 256 n