SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Presented by :- NITISH SHARMA
Fibre Fineness
Fibre Fineness
• Importance:
• Fineness is one of the most important fibre characteristics.
• The fineness determines how many fibres are present in
the cross-section of a yarn of given thickness. Additional
fibres in the cross-section provide not only additional
strength, but also a better distribution in the yarn.
• Thirty fibres are needed at the minimum in the yarn cross-
section, but there are usually over 100.
.Influences
• Spinning limit
• Yarn strength
• Yarn evenness
• Yarn fullness
• Drape of the fabric product
• Lustre
• Handle
• Productivity of the process.
Why Fiber Fineness is so
important:
It has been known since long that
fiber fineness plays an important
role in determining the quality of
resultant yarn and hence that of the
resultant fabrics. In general fiber
fineness is important due to the
following factors:
1. It affects Stiffness of the Fabric
• As the fiber fineness increases, resistance to bending
decreases.
• It means the fabric made from yarn of finer fiber is
less stiff in feel.
• It also drapes better.
2. It affects Torsional Rigidity of the Yarn
• Torsional rigidity means ability to twist.
• As fiber fineness increases, torsional rigidity of the
yarn reduces proportionally.
• thus fibers can be twisted easily during spinning
operation.
• Also there will be less snarling and kink formation in
the yarn when the fine fibers are used.
3. Reflection of Light
• Finer fibers also determine the luster of the fabric.
• Because there are so many number of fibers per unit
area that they produce a soft sheen.
• This is different from hard glitter produced by the
coarser fibers.
• Also the apparent depth of the shade will be lighter in
case of fabrics made with finer fibers than in case of
coarser fibers.
4. Absorption of Dyes
• The amount of dye absorbed depends upon the
amount of surface area accessible for dye out of a given
volume of fibers. Thus a finer fiber leads to quicker
exhaustion of dyes than coarser fibres.
5. Ease in Spinning Process
• A finer fiber leads to more fibre cohesion because the
numbers of surfaces are more so cohesion due to friction
is higher.
• Also finer fibers lead to less amount of twist because of
the same increased force of friction.
• This means yarns can be spun finer with the same amount
of twist as compared to coarser fibers,
6. Uniformity of Yarn and Hence Uniformity in the
Fabric
• It also leads to fewer breakages in spinning and weaving.
Methods of Measurement
a) Gravimetric method (Cotton):
From comb sorter diagram, fibre tufts are taken and at
spacing of 1 cm tufts sections are sliced out with the help of
razor.
100 fibres are counted and weighed on a sensitive micro-
balance.
Convert into mass/length.
b) Gravimetric method (for wool):
Wool has almost circular cross-section.
After completing a fibre length test the fibres are collected
and thoroughly cleared of oil, allowed to condition and then
weighed on microbalance.
The total fibre length is calculated and knowing the number
of fibres weight/unit length is derived.
Mean Wt/unit length = W / ∑hn
where, h = the class length (cm)
n = number of fibres in each class
W = total wt of all the classes (mg)
dgrav (microns) = √(97190×W / ∑hn)
Assuming wool cross section is circular and density of
wool is 1.31 g/cc
c) By microscope:
• Applicable to the fibres with
circular cross section.
• A suitable random and
representative sample is
conditioned for 24 hrs in
standard testing atmosphere.
• Fibres are cut into suitable
small length and slide is
prepared by carefully mixing
the fibres into mountant.
• The mounting agent should be non-swelling and have a
suitable refractive index (liquid paraffin) [should not be
equal to the fibre].
• The mixture of fibres and mount is spread thinly on the
slide and covered with a cover glass.
• The slide is traversed in zigzag fashion, to cover all the
fibres randomly.
d) By air-flow method:
AIR-FLOW METHOD (MICRONAIRE INSTRUMENT):
 The resistance offered to the flow of air through a plug of
fibres is dependent upon the specific surface area of the
fibres.
 Fineness tester has been evolved on this principle for determining fineness of
cotton.
• The resistance offered to the flow of air through a plug of
fibres is dependent upon the specific surface area of the
fibres.
• Fineness tester has been evolved on this principle for
determining fineness of cotton.
• The specific surface area which determines the flow of air
through a cotton plug, is dependent not only upon the
linear density of the fibres in the sample but also upon
their maturity.
• Hence the micronaire readings have to be treated with
caution particularly when testing samples varying widely
in maturity.
In the micronaire instrument, a weighed quantity of
3.24gram of well opened cotton sample is compressed into a
cylindrical container of fixed dimensions. Compressed air is
forced through the sample, at a definite pressure and the
volume-rate of flow of air is measured by a rotometer type
flow meter. The sample for Micronaire test should be well
opened cleaned and thoroughly mixed (by hand fluffing and
opening method). Out of the various air-flow instruments,
the Micronaire is robust in construction, easy to operate and
presents little difficulty as regards its maintenance
• Suitable for mill practice due to its speed of
measurement
• Air flow at a given pressure difference through a
uniformly distributed mass of fibres is determined by
the total surface area of the fibres (Drag on water by
river bank).
• For a constant mass of fibre ( i.e. the actual volume)
the air flow is inversely proportional to the specific
surface area
By measuring the rate of air flow under controlled
conditions, the specific surface area (s) of fibre can be
determined and consequently the fibre diameter (also the
fibre weight/unit length)
Two types
a) Measurement of air flow at a constant pressure drop.
b) Measurement of pressure drop at a constant air flow.
Thanks you

More Related Content

What's hot

Process control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthik
Process control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthikProcess control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthik
Process control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthik
SVKMs, NMIMS, MPSTME, CTF, Shirpur, Dist. Dhule
 
Textile testing
Textile testingTextile testing
Textile testing
Er Rangari
 
Sizing
SizingSizing
Warping
WarpingWarping
Warping
atanu4607
 
Fabric structure and design
Fabric structure and designFabric structure and design
Fabric structure and design
Fuad Ahmed
 
Shuttle less weaving
Shuttle less weavingShuttle less weaving
Shuttle less weaving
Ranita Paul
 
Importance, Effect & Testing of Yarn Evenness
Importance, Effect & Testing of Yarn EvennessImportance, Effect & Testing of Yarn Evenness
Importance, Effect & Testing of Yarn Evenness
Amirul Eahsan
 
DRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS Principle of yarn manufacturing pdf
DRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS     Principle of yarn  manufacturing pdfDRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS     Principle of yarn  manufacturing pdf
DRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS Principle of yarn manufacturing pdf
Vijay Prakash
 
Ring frame
Ring frame Ring frame
Ring frame
Sadia Textile
 
Yarn unevenness and its empact on quality
Yarn unevenness and its empact on qualityYarn unevenness and its empact on quality
Yarn unevenness and its empact on quality
ArNesto WaHid
 
Friction spinning System
Friction spinning System Friction spinning System
Friction spinning System
Abdullah Al Parvez
 
Fabric structure-and-design
Fabric structure-and-designFabric structure-and-design
Fabric structure-and-design
Mohammad furqan
 
Pile fabrics
Pile fabricsPile fabrics
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMSDIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMS
Chirag Bansal
 
Advanced fiber information system
Advanced fiber information systemAdvanced fiber information system
Advanced fiber information system
Nandini 2
 
Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...
Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...
Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...
Md Rakibul Hassan
 
Blowroom
BlowroomBlowroom
Blowroom
Zulker Nayen
 
Quality control
Quality controlQuality control
Quality control
Karcahi university
 
Circular knitting machine
Circular knitting machineCircular knitting machine
Circular knitting machine
Tanvir Ahammed
 
Rotor spinning
Rotor spinningRotor spinning
Rotor spinning
Amit Biswas
 

What's hot (20)

Process control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthik
Process control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthikProcess control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthik
Process control and yarn quality in spinning woodhead publishing-karthik
 
Textile testing
Textile testingTextile testing
Textile testing
 
Sizing
SizingSizing
Sizing
 
Warping
WarpingWarping
Warping
 
Fabric structure and design
Fabric structure and designFabric structure and design
Fabric structure and design
 
Shuttle less weaving
Shuttle less weavingShuttle less weaving
Shuttle less weaving
 
Importance, Effect & Testing of Yarn Evenness
Importance, Effect & Testing of Yarn EvennessImportance, Effect & Testing of Yarn Evenness
Importance, Effect & Testing of Yarn Evenness
 
DRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS Principle of yarn manufacturing pdf
DRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS     Principle of yarn  manufacturing pdfDRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS     Principle of yarn  manufacturing pdf
DRAFTING IN SPINNING PROCESS Principle of yarn manufacturing pdf
 
Ring frame
Ring frame Ring frame
Ring frame
 
Yarn unevenness and its empact on quality
Yarn unevenness and its empact on qualityYarn unevenness and its empact on quality
Yarn unevenness and its empact on quality
 
Friction spinning System
Friction spinning System Friction spinning System
Friction spinning System
 
Fabric structure-and-design
Fabric structure-and-designFabric structure-and-design
Fabric structure-and-design
 
Pile fabrics
Pile fabricsPile fabrics
Pile fabrics
 
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMSDIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMS
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAFTING SYSTEMS
 
Advanced fiber information system
Advanced fiber information systemAdvanced fiber information system
Advanced fiber information system
 
Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...
Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...
Projectile Loom | Rapier Loom | Multi-Phase Loom | Weaving Technology | Study...
 
Blowroom
BlowroomBlowroom
Blowroom
 
Quality control
Quality controlQuality control
Quality control
 
Circular knitting machine
Circular knitting machineCircular knitting machine
Circular knitting machine
 
Rotor spinning
Rotor spinningRotor spinning
Rotor spinning
 

Similar to Fibrefiness

Linear density_AyBee Marwat
Linear density_AyBee MarwatLinear density_AyBee Marwat
Linear density_AyBee Marwat
Abu Bakkar Marwat
 
Fiber test
Fiber testFiber test
Lec 1.pptx
Lec 1.pptxLec 1.pptx
Lec 1.pptx
SamithaAmaradasa1
 
Quality control in the knitting process
Quality control in the knitting processQuality control in the knitting process
Quality control in the knitting process
drskathirrvelu
 
Fibre strength and fibre fineness
Fibre strength and fibre finenessFibre strength and fibre fineness
Fibre strength and fibre fineness
malar meganathan
 
Characterization of needle-punched.pptx
Characterization of needle-punched.pptxCharacterization of needle-punched.pptx
Characterization of needle-punched.pptx
Nikithaa12
 
Stiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tes
Stiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tesStiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tes
Stiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tes
desaidarshan6161
 
fdocuments.in_fibre-testing.ppt
fdocuments.in_fibre-testing.pptfdocuments.in_fibre-testing.ppt
fdocuments.in_fibre-testing.ppt
SUMONACHAKRABARTI1
 
Fibre to yarn
Fibre to yarnFibre to yarn
Fibre to yarn
Karcahi university
 
25textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp02
25textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp0225textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp02
25textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp02
neelchiru
 
yarn count in friction spinning
yarn count in friction spinningyarn count in friction spinning
yarn count in friction spinning
murugesan venkateswaran
 
yarn classification.ppt
yarn classification.pptyarn classification.ppt
yarn classification.ppt
POOJAKAUNDAL7
 
Yarn properties effecting comfort of the fabric
Yarn properties effecting comfort of the fabricYarn properties effecting comfort of the fabric
Yarn properties effecting comfort of the fabric
hema upadhayay
 
yarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textile
yarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textileyarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textile
yarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textile
dejene1234567
 
Technical Fabrics
Technical FabricsTechnical Fabrics
Technical Fabrics
José Carlos de Castro
 
Abrasion Resistance_new.ppt
Abrasion Resistance_new.pptAbrasion Resistance_new.ppt
Abrasion Resistance_new.ppt
ssuser94922c
 
Presentation on spirality & shrinkage
Presentation on spirality & shrinkagePresentation on spirality & shrinkage
Presentation on spirality & shrinkage
Swapnil Ekramul
 
Weaving
WeavingWeaving
Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...
Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...
Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...
Elias Khalil (ইলিয়াস খলিল)
 
Lecture-Textiles.pptx
Lecture-Textiles.pptxLecture-Textiles.pptx
Lecture-Textiles.pptx
JermaineChambers2
 

Similar to Fibrefiness (20)

Linear density_AyBee Marwat
Linear density_AyBee MarwatLinear density_AyBee Marwat
Linear density_AyBee Marwat
 
Fiber test
Fiber testFiber test
Fiber test
 
Lec 1.pptx
Lec 1.pptxLec 1.pptx
Lec 1.pptx
 
Quality control in the knitting process
Quality control in the knitting processQuality control in the knitting process
Quality control in the knitting process
 
Fibre strength and fibre fineness
Fibre strength and fibre finenessFibre strength and fibre fineness
Fibre strength and fibre fineness
 
Characterization of needle-punched.pptx
Characterization of needle-punched.pptxCharacterization of needle-punched.pptx
Characterization of needle-punched.pptx
 
Stiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tes
Stiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tesStiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tes
Stiffness Drape.pptx in yarn and fabric tes
 
fdocuments.in_fibre-testing.ppt
fdocuments.in_fibre-testing.pptfdocuments.in_fibre-testing.ppt
fdocuments.in_fibre-testing.ppt
 
Fibre to yarn
Fibre to yarnFibre to yarn
Fibre to yarn
 
25textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp02
25textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp0225textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp02
25textiletestingmethods 140116043515-phpapp02
 
yarn count in friction spinning
yarn count in friction spinningyarn count in friction spinning
yarn count in friction spinning
 
yarn classification.ppt
yarn classification.pptyarn classification.ppt
yarn classification.ppt
 
Yarn properties effecting comfort of the fabric
Yarn properties effecting comfort of the fabricYarn properties effecting comfort of the fabric
Yarn properties effecting comfort of the fabric
 
yarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textile
yarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textileyarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textile
yarn manufacturing I.ppt document for textile
 
Technical Fabrics
Technical FabricsTechnical Fabrics
Technical Fabrics
 
Abrasion Resistance_new.ppt
Abrasion Resistance_new.pptAbrasion Resistance_new.ppt
Abrasion Resistance_new.ppt
 
Presentation on spirality & shrinkage
Presentation on spirality & shrinkagePresentation on spirality & shrinkage
Presentation on spirality & shrinkage
 
Weaving
WeavingWeaving
Weaving
 
Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...
Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...
Evaluation of physico mechanical properties of 1×1 interlock cotton knitted f...
 
Lecture-Textiles.pptx
Lecture-Textiles.pptxLecture-Textiles.pptx
Lecture-Textiles.pptx
 

More from Nitish Sharma

Chemical Processing Printing
Chemical Processing  PrintingChemical Processing  Printing
Chemical Processing Printing
Nitish Sharma
 
Effluent testing
Effluent testingEffluent testing
Effluent testing
Nitish Sharma
 
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
Nitish Sharma
 
Chemical Proessing Finishing
Chemical Proessing FinishingChemical Proessing Finishing
Chemical Proessing Finishing
Nitish Sharma
 
Chemical Processing Dyeing
Chemical Processing DyeingChemical Processing Dyeing
Chemical Processing Dyeing
Nitish Sharma
 
Chemical processing pretreatment
Chemical processing pretreatmentChemical processing pretreatment
Chemical processing pretreatment
Nitish Sharma
 
Textile Testing
Textile TestingTextile Testing
Textile Testing
Nitish Sharma
 
FIBER LENGTH
FIBER LENGTHFIBER LENGTH
FIBER LENGTH
Nitish Sharma
 
Secondary motions in LOOM
Secondary motions in LOOMSecondary motions in LOOM
Secondary motions in LOOM
Nitish Sharma
 
FIBER LENGTH TESTING
FIBER LENGTH TESTINGFIBER LENGTH TESTING
FIBER LENGTH TESTING
Nitish Sharma
 
FIBRE Sampling
 FIBRE Sampling FIBRE Sampling
FIBRE Sampling
Nitish Sharma
 

More from Nitish Sharma (11)

Chemical Processing Printing
Chemical Processing  PrintingChemical Processing  Printing
Chemical Processing Printing
 
Effluent testing
Effluent testingEffluent testing
Effluent testing
 
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
Primary, secondary and tertiary treatments in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
 
Chemical Proessing Finishing
Chemical Proessing FinishingChemical Proessing Finishing
Chemical Proessing Finishing
 
Chemical Processing Dyeing
Chemical Processing DyeingChemical Processing Dyeing
Chemical Processing Dyeing
 
Chemical processing pretreatment
Chemical processing pretreatmentChemical processing pretreatment
Chemical processing pretreatment
 
Textile Testing
Textile TestingTextile Testing
Textile Testing
 
FIBER LENGTH
FIBER LENGTHFIBER LENGTH
FIBER LENGTH
 
Secondary motions in LOOM
Secondary motions in LOOMSecondary motions in LOOM
Secondary motions in LOOM
 
FIBER LENGTH TESTING
FIBER LENGTH TESTINGFIBER LENGTH TESTING
FIBER LENGTH TESTING
 
FIBRE Sampling
 FIBRE Sampling FIBRE Sampling
FIBRE Sampling
 

Recently uploaded

BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
eBook.com.bd (প্রয়োজনীয় বাংলা বই)
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
สมใจ จันสุกสี
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
Celine George
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
adhitya5119
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
paigestewart1632
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
siemaillard
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
Jean Carlos Nunes Paixão
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
Dr. Shivangi Singh Parihar
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
Celine George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
 
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdfA Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
A Independência da América Espanhola LAPBOOK.pdf
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold MethodHow to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
How to Build a Module in Odoo 17 Using the Scaffold Method
 

Fibrefiness

  • 1. Presented by :- NITISH SHARMA Fibre Fineness
  • 2. Fibre Fineness • Importance: • Fineness is one of the most important fibre characteristics. • The fineness determines how many fibres are present in the cross-section of a yarn of given thickness. Additional fibres in the cross-section provide not only additional strength, but also a better distribution in the yarn. • Thirty fibres are needed at the minimum in the yarn cross- section, but there are usually over 100.
  • 3. .Influences • Spinning limit • Yarn strength • Yarn evenness • Yarn fullness • Drape of the fabric product • Lustre • Handle • Productivity of the process.
  • 4. Why Fiber Fineness is so important: It has been known since long that fiber fineness plays an important role in determining the quality of resultant yarn and hence that of the resultant fabrics. In general fiber fineness is important due to the following factors:
  • 5. 1. It affects Stiffness of the Fabric • As the fiber fineness increases, resistance to bending decreases. • It means the fabric made from yarn of finer fiber is less stiff in feel. • It also drapes better. 2. It affects Torsional Rigidity of the Yarn • Torsional rigidity means ability to twist. • As fiber fineness increases, torsional rigidity of the yarn reduces proportionally. • thus fibers can be twisted easily during spinning operation. • Also there will be less snarling and kink formation in the yarn when the fine fibers are used.
  • 6. 3. Reflection of Light • Finer fibers also determine the luster of the fabric. • Because there are so many number of fibers per unit area that they produce a soft sheen. • This is different from hard glitter produced by the coarser fibers. • Also the apparent depth of the shade will be lighter in case of fabrics made with finer fibers than in case of coarser fibers. 4. Absorption of Dyes • The amount of dye absorbed depends upon the amount of surface area accessible for dye out of a given volume of fibers. Thus a finer fiber leads to quicker exhaustion of dyes than coarser fibres.
  • 7. 5. Ease in Spinning Process • A finer fiber leads to more fibre cohesion because the numbers of surfaces are more so cohesion due to friction is higher. • Also finer fibers lead to less amount of twist because of the same increased force of friction. • This means yarns can be spun finer with the same amount of twist as compared to coarser fibers, 6. Uniformity of Yarn and Hence Uniformity in the Fabric • It also leads to fewer breakages in spinning and weaving.
  • 8. Methods of Measurement a) Gravimetric method (Cotton): From comb sorter diagram, fibre tufts are taken and at spacing of 1 cm tufts sections are sliced out with the help of razor. 100 fibres are counted and weighed on a sensitive micro- balance. Convert into mass/length.
  • 9. b) Gravimetric method (for wool): Wool has almost circular cross-section. After completing a fibre length test the fibres are collected and thoroughly cleared of oil, allowed to condition and then weighed on microbalance. The total fibre length is calculated and knowing the number of fibres weight/unit length is derived.
  • 10. Mean Wt/unit length = W / ∑hn where, h = the class length (cm) n = number of fibres in each class W = total wt of all the classes (mg) dgrav (microns) = √(97190×W / ∑hn) Assuming wool cross section is circular and density of wool is 1.31 g/cc
  • 11. c) By microscope: • Applicable to the fibres with circular cross section. • A suitable random and representative sample is conditioned for 24 hrs in standard testing atmosphere. • Fibres are cut into suitable small length and slide is prepared by carefully mixing the fibres into mountant.
  • 12. • The mounting agent should be non-swelling and have a suitable refractive index (liquid paraffin) [should not be equal to the fibre]. • The mixture of fibres and mount is spread thinly on the slide and covered with a cover glass. • The slide is traversed in zigzag fashion, to cover all the fibres randomly.
  • 13. d) By air-flow method: AIR-FLOW METHOD (MICRONAIRE INSTRUMENT):  The resistance offered to the flow of air through a plug of fibres is dependent upon the specific surface area of the fibres.  Fineness tester has been evolved on this principle for determining fineness of cotton.
  • 14. • The resistance offered to the flow of air through a plug of fibres is dependent upon the specific surface area of the fibres. • Fineness tester has been evolved on this principle for determining fineness of cotton. • The specific surface area which determines the flow of air through a cotton plug, is dependent not only upon the linear density of the fibres in the sample but also upon their maturity. • Hence the micronaire readings have to be treated with caution particularly when testing samples varying widely in maturity.
  • 15.
  • 16. In the micronaire instrument, a weighed quantity of 3.24gram of well opened cotton sample is compressed into a cylindrical container of fixed dimensions. Compressed air is forced through the sample, at a definite pressure and the volume-rate of flow of air is measured by a rotometer type flow meter. The sample for Micronaire test should be well opened cleaned and thoroughly mixed (by hand fluffing and opening method). Out of the various air-flow instruments, the Micronaire is robust in construction, easy to operate and presents little difficulty as regards its maintenance
  • 17. • Suitable for mill practice due to its speed of measurement • Air flow at a given pressure difference through a uniformly distributed mass of fibres is determined by the total surface area of the fibres (Drag on water by river bank). • For a constant mass of fibre ( i.e. the actual volume) the air flow is inversely proportional to the specific surface area
  • 18. By measuring the rate of air flow under controlled conditions, the specific surface area (s) of fibre can be determined and consequently the fibre diameter (also the fibre weight/unit length) Two types a) Measurement of air flow at a constant pressure drop. b) Measurement of pressure drop at a constant air flow.